? Do you remember what an attribute is? = most superficial association with subject: brand, product, person etc. Other association levels are Benefit and value. As follows: Attribute (Most superficial associations with subject.) : fast, strong | Benefits (What does this mean for me?) : makes me look successful | Values (What makes life worth living.) : status xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 12/27/12 xxxxxxxxxxxxx
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Art & Copy: content of a concrete communication product such as advertisement/ website/ brochure etc. & content of campaign All content of all communication products through the years is Symbolism & Communication.
Nike Town = department store with only Nike (and Converse) products: promoting brand experience. Visual identity is not only graphic (2D) ; also interiors, architecture and products present the brand in a visual manner (3D). Brands try to make you experience something and associate this experience with the brand. They do this by spending your time: 4D. Employees spend a lot of time on the brand: they work for it 8 hours a day. Therefore it can be relevant to analyse interiors of shops, offices etc. Also: what people wear. Other senders – such as pressure groups – can disseminate a counter message. Example about Nike Sweatshops => Nike had to improve its BEHAVIOR: abolish sweatshops.
? Do you see a communication model in this Id Im model? = S—[x] R Sender – Receiver / Stimulus - Response ? So, what is ‘wrong’ about this Id Im model? = see next slide. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 12/27/12 xxxxxxxxxxxxx
So: Im is not just a response to a stimulus (Id). Especially 1 & 2 are relevant (it is debatable whether 3 & 4 are true; culture etc. could be seen as part of behavior). (behavior has more impact on longer term, but on shorter term? & who is interested in Nikes corporate culture when buying shoes?) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 12/27/12 xxxxxxxxxxxxx
Project: communication is sending; inside-out & top-down. ?Which of the 2 would you prefer? Why? ? What are pro ’s & cont’s of both? = centralistic masculine approach – versus more democratic feminine holistic approach. = fast & clear + very good or very bad – versus slow, safe, not wrong, not very good. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 12/27/12 xxxxxxxxxxxxx
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? Do you remember what an attribute is? We discussed this in Block A. = most superficial association with subject: brand, product, person etc. Other association levels are Benefit and value. As follows: Attribute (Most superficial associations with subject.) : fast, strong | Benefits (What does this mean for me?) : makes me look potent | Values (What makes life worth living.) : status ----------------- Continuity, centrality & uniqueness : see previous slide, Albert & Whetten 1985 -------------- Implicit & explicit: Explicit is what you can see immediately: “just do it”. Implicit: message behind it: action is good / don ’t think but act. Signals: sent message. ? How can you find implicit signals? = Semiotic analysis & Content analysis (explained later) xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 12/27/12 xxxxxxxxxxxxx
Picture = image, in this case: “dream”. ------------------- Behaviors: in broad sense: including communication & symbols. In your assignment you will only analyze communication & symbols, not behavior. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 12/27/12 xxxxxxxxxxxxx
Consistently: The same starting points should be sent.
Formal: ? In Block A we discussed the difference between formal & informal communication. What is the difference? = There is always informal communication. People have always communicated, also before there were organizations and before there were media. Communication & Media professionals are paid for improving Formal communication: conscious & deliberate communication by the organization. Formal communication comes on top of informal communication. Formal & informal communication influence each other. --------- Framework: isolated signals & messages mean nothing, they have to be associated with a context. For example: you could find the mission statement of the organization & analyze which values are expressed. These values are the framework. Next step is to analyze the signals & messages and conclude if they express the same values and to what extend. If they express different values there is a GAP between mission (desired Identity) & projected identity Advice: project an identity that is closer to the desired identity OR change the desired identity. If some values are stressed more than others => Advice: projected all values more equally OR skip some values. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 12/27/12 xxxxxxxxxxxxx
Management: ?Is this an example of outside-in or inside-out thinking? Why? = Inside –out: management wants to send this to the outside world (and to their employees). ? How could we make an inside-out framework? = Ask target audience what attributes/ benefits/ values they associate with this organization. OR what attributes/ benefits/ values they would like to see from this organization. ------ Content analysis is very similar to semiotic analysis. But more formal. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 12/27/12 xxxxxxxxxxxxx
Assignment• Analyze the Corporate Identity Mix 1) of your organization. Conclude what starting points and personality are expressed & find inconsistencies.• Explain why you conclude this.) The website is the most important tool in the Corporate Identity Mix;1 analyze at least the website. Find ‘communication’ and ‘symbols’ by analyzing verbal and visual communication – that is: make a semiotic analysis as learned in a previous block – and conclude what starting points and personality are expressed. Also analyze how the organization behaves as a whole: does it focus on shareholders’ value, CSR, etc., what starting points and personality does this behavior express?
Identity (Riel 2001 p67)• “Identity” consists of the collection of attributes that members use to describe an organization.• For these attributes to be accepted internally and externally, an organization must have in place an identity mix that is appropriate to its target audiences.
Cor por ate Identity Mix (Riel2007 p68)All self-expressions of a company can beclassified into one of the following threeforms:1. Communication: • Verbal messaging • Most tactical tool managers can use to convey identity1. Behavior: • Initiatives organization supports & behaviors it enacts. • Being “innovative”/ “social responsible” is more difficult than saying so.1.Symbolism: Personality • Visual & audible symbols The manifestation of the • Logos, signs, sounds, taglines. company’s self-perception (Birkigt & Stadler 1988, in Riel 2007 p68)
Birkigt & StadlerCopy & Art • Birkigt & Stadler were advertisement consultants. • Advertisement is mainly performed by Art & Copy.
artCopy or tagline:It makes your house lookbigger.Publication Year: 1964Appr Ad Size 10 x 13.5 inchcopy
Birkigt & StadlerCopy & Art • Birkigt & Stadler were advertisement consultants. • Advertisement is mainly performed by Art & Copy. • On corporate level these are Symbolism & Communication • They found out that advertisement can’t make right what management did wrong. Therefore they introduced Behavior.
Influence of Identity Mix onCorporate Image Similar to: S –[x] R
Why is Birkigt & Stadler’sId Im model deficient?1. Model suggests that 3. Model does not Image is just a reflection distinguish between static of Identity; actually image (culture etc.) and dynamic is also influenced by identity elements contextual conditions. (communication &2. Model ignores that image symbolism). is not an end in itself, but 4. Model suggests that a means to achieve communication & improved legitimacy and symbolism have the same effectiveness for the impact as behavior, but organization. influence of static elements is greater. (Riel 2007 p69)
Selecting identity = Finding the message.elements (Riel 2007 p69)• What senior executives want to project (Birkigt ‘86)or• What members of organization want and do, and how they see the organization. Conclude if outcomes match the following criteria:1. Centrality: What characteristics are widely shared among members throughout the organization?2. Continuity: What characteristics of the organization are most used by members to link the past to its present and future?3. Uniqueness: What characteristics appear most unique to members to differentiate the organization from similar organizations? (Albert & Whetten 1985)
Applied on your assignment• Interview & observe senior executives or members of organization.• Analyze art & copy (with semiotic analysis).• Conclude if outcomes match the following criteria: 1. Centrality: What characteristics are widely shared among members throughout the organization? 2. Continuity: What characteristics of the organization are most used by members to link the past to its present and future? 3. Uniqueness: What characteristics appear most unique to members to differentiate the organization from similar organizations?
Essence of simplesemiotic analysisThree steps (Geursen 1997 p102-103)1.Analyze verbal signs What you see2.Analyze visual signs3.Analyze symbolic message Interpretation
Four types of Identity (1)(Balmer & Wilson 2002 in Riel 2007 p70)• Perceived Identity: collection of attributes that are seen as typical for the “continuity, centrality and uniqueness” of the organization in the eyes of its members. = Internal image• Projected Identity: self presentations of the organization’s attributes manifested in the implicit & explicit signals which the organization broadcasts to internal & external audiences through communications & symbols. Projected Identity is what you will analyze for your assignment!
Projected & Perceived Identity Perceived Identity implicit & explicit signalscommunications & symbols. Sent message Received message S / encoded / decoded
Four types of Identity (2)(Balmer & Wilson 2002 in Riel 2007 p70)• Desired Identity: (a.k.a. “ideal” identity): The idealized picture that top managers hold of what the organization could evolve into under their leadership.• Applied Identity: The signals that an organization broadcasts both consciously and unconsciously through behaviors and initiatives at all levels within the organization.
Three things thatHeineken made a greatbrand:1. Consistency2. Consistency3. Consistency- Freddy Heineken
Measuring ProjectedIdentity• Projected Identity is relevant for your assignment.• Projected identity develops via – print, – visual, – video, – web communications (Fombrun 1996 in Riel 2007 p89)
Measuring Projected Identity requires (Fombrun 1996 in Riel 2007 p89): Informal communication: grapevine, bathroom graffiti, email1. A compilation of all the formal slurs, private blogs, tweets, etc. communications and messaging used by an organization, including •Its online presentations, •corporate advertisements, •its financial statements, •sponsorships, •its social reports, •press releases, and •newsletters, •executives speeches. •brochures, True, but for your assignment it is enough to analyze the site.2. A framework from which to induce the meanings expressed in those communications. Example: values, expressed in Mission and/ or by management, etc..
Framework used forContent AnalysisExamples of framework to which signals can be referred:• Values/ starting points expressed in Mission Statement.• Values/ starting points expressed by management (during research: interview etc.).• Fombrun & Van Riel’s Five Key Dimensions (2004 in Riel 2007 p90): 1. Distinctiveness 2. Consistency Five Key Dimensions include 3. Visibility criteria for Identity Elements (Albert & Whetten 1985) 4. Transparency 1. Centrality: 5. Authenticity 2. Continuity: 3. Uniqueness
7 Core dimensions of Corporate Personality Profile (Lux 1968 in Riel 2007 p84)1. Needs: basic motivations for organizations actions. Examples: growth, security, healthy working atmosphere.2. Competencies: special skills & competitive advantages of the company.3. Attitude: philosophical & political background of the company.4. Constitution: physical, structural and legal space in which the company operates. Encompassing: facilities, buildings, locations, structures, core business.5. Temperament: how company operate/ fails to operate. Describes company’s strength, intensity, speed, emotional tone.6. Origin: relationship between present personality & past personality. Which attributes have company shaped in the past.7. Interest: concrete objectives of the company; what the company wants to do in the future.Assignment: Define the Corporate Personality of your organization bydescribing these 7 dimensions. Explain WHY you conclude that this are itsNeeds, Competences, etc. Find one or two photo’s of people who express the
Further reading• Riel, Cees van & Charles Fombrun (2007) Essentials of Corporate Communication, Routledge London – New York • Riel Ch 3 Creating Identity and Identification (28 p’s) • Riel Ch 4 Measuring Corporate Identity (25 p’s) • Riel Ch 5 Communicating with the Corporate Brand (24 p’s)