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ALCOHOL
 Molecular Formula : CnH2n+2O
 EX. R-OH
 Alcohols are compounds in which a hydroxyl (-OH) group is attached
to saturated carbon atom.
ALCOHOL The hydroxyl group is the functional group of alcohols.
 Alcohols containing one hydroxyl group are called Monohydric
Alcohols. Alcohols with two, three or more hydroxyl group are known
as Dihydric alcohols, Trihydric alcohols and Polyhydric alcohols
respectively.
ALCOHOL Monohydric Alcohols are classified as primary, secondary
or tertiary depending upon whether the –OH group is
attached to a primary, secondary or a tertiary carbon.
STRUCTURE Let us consider methyl alcohol(CH3OH) for illustrating the orbital make up of
alcohols.
 In methyl alcohol both oxygen and carbon are sp3 hybridised.
 Two of the sp3 orbitals of oxygen are completely filled and cannot take part in
bond formation. The C-O bond in methyl alcohol is formed by overlap of an
sp3 orbital of carbon and an sp3 orbital of oxygen.
 The O-H bond if formed by overlap of an sp3 orbital of oxygen and s orbital of
hydrogen.
STRUCTURE The C-O-H bond angle is 105o. It is less than the
normal tetrahedral angle.
NOMENCLATUREAlcohols are named by three systems:
1. Common System
In this system alcohols(R-OH) are named as Alkyl
Alcohols. The alkyl group attached to the –OH group is
named and ‘alcohol’ is added as a separate word. For
example,
NOMENCLATUREAs we go higher in the series, it becomes necessary to
indicate whether a particular alcohol is primary,
secondary, or tertiary. The prefix secondary is abbreviated
as sec-, The prefix tertiary is abbreviated as tert- or t-. For
example,
NOMENCLATURE2. Carbinol System
In this system alcohols are considered as derivatives of methyl alcohol
which is called Carbinol. The alkyl group attached to the carbon
carrying the –OH group are named in alphabetic order. Then the
suffix – carbinol is added. For example,
NOMENCLATURE3. IUPAC SYSTEM
 In this system alcohols are named as Alkanols. The IUPAC rules are:
 Select the longest continuous carbon chain containing the –OH group.
 Change the name of the alkane corresponding to this chain by dropping the ending –e and adding
the suffix –ol.
 Number the chain so as to give the carbon carrying the –OH group, the lowest possible number. The
position of the –OH group is indicated by this number.
PROPERTIES1. Physical Properties
a) Lower alcohols are colourless, toxic liquids. They have a
characteristic smell.
b) Boiling points of alcohols increase regularly with the
increase in the number of carbon atoms
Name bp oC
Methanol 64.5
Ethanol 78.3
1-Propanol 97.0
1-Butanol 118.0
PROPERTIESc) Among isomeric alcohols, as branching increase the boiling
points decreases. For example,
PROPERTIESd) Boiling points of alcohols are much higher than those of the corresponding
alkanes.
The O-H bond of alcohols is highly polar because oxygen is
electronegative. The oxygen carries a partial negative charge (d-). The
hydrogen carries a partial positive charge (d+). The polarity of the O-H
bond gives rise to forces of attraction between a partially positive
hydrogen in one alcohol molecule and partially negative oxygen in
another alcohol molecule. These forces of attraction are referred to as
Hydrogen Bonding. The reason that alcohols have higher boiling points
is that a great deal of energy is required to overcome these attraction
forces.
Alkanes, which have no –OH group, do not undergo hydrogen bonding.
Therefore, their boiling points are low.
PROPERTIESe) Lower alcohols (C1 to C3) are completely soluble in
water. As we go higher in the series, the water solubility
falls rapidly.
PROPERTIES2. Chemical Properties
Alcohols are reactive compounds. They are attacked by polar or ionic
reagents. This is because
i) The C-O and O-H bonds of alcohols are polar since oxygen is highly
electronegative.
ii) The oxygen atom of alcohol is an electron-rich centre because it has
two unshared pairs of electrons.
METHOD OF PREPARATION
 Total 6 Methods
 1. Hydrolysis of Alkyl Halides
 2. Hydrolysis of Alkenes
 3. Addition of Grignard Reagents to Aldehydes and Ketones
 4. Fermentation of Carbohydrates
 5. Hydroboration-Oxidation of Alkenes
 6. Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones
METHOD OF PREPARATIONHydrolysis of Alkyl Halides
 Alkyl halides react with aqueous sodium hydroxide to form alcohols.
METHOD OF PREPARATIONHydrolysis of Alkenes
 Alkenes react with sulphuric acid to produce alkyl hydrogen
sulphates (Markovnikov rule is followed). Alkyl hydrogen sulphates
on hydrolysis give alcohols. For example,
METHOD OF PREPARATION The overall result of the above reactions appears to be Markovnikov
addition of H2O(Hydration) to a double bond.
METHOD OF PREPARATION The overall result of the above reactions appears to be Markovnikov
addition of H2O(Hydration) to a double bond.
METHOD OF PREPARATIONHydroboration-Oxidation of Alkenes
 Alkenes react with diborane, B2H6 to form trialkylboranes. Diborane adds as
borane BH3.
 Trialkylboranes are used for making primary alcohols by reaction with
alkaline aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide.
METHOD OF PREPARATION The overall result of the above reactions appears to be anti-Markovnikov
addition of H2O to a double bond.
METHOD OF PREPARATIONHydrolysis of Esters
Alcohols may be prepared by base or acid-catalyst hydrolysis of esters.
METHOD OF PREPARATIONReduction of Aldehydes and Ketones
 Aldehydes and ketones can be reduced with H2/Ni or lithium aluminium
hydride to form the corresponding alcohols. Aldehydes give primary
alcohols. Ketones give secondary alcohols.
METHOD OF PREPARATIONAddition of Grignard Reagents to Aldehydes and Ketones
 Grignard reagents react with aldehydes or ketones to form an addition
compound which on hydrolysis with dilute acid gives the corresponding
alcohols.
METHOD OF PREPARATIONFermentation of Carbohydrates
 Some alcohols can be prepared by fermentation of starches and sugars
under the influence of suitable microorganisms. For example,
REACTIONSReaction with Active Metals
 Alcohols react with sodium or potassium to form alkoxides with the
liberation of hydrogen gas.
REACTIONSReaction with Phosphorus Halides
 Alcohols react with phosphorus pentahalides (PX5) and phosphorus
trihalides (PX3) to form alkyl halides.
REACTIONSReaction with Thionyl Chloride
 Alcohols react with thionyl chloride (SOCl2) to form alkyl chloride.
REACTIONSReaction with Hydrogen Halides
 Alcohols react with hydrogen halides (HX) to form the corresponding alkyl
halides.
REACTIONSReaction with Nitric acid
 Alcohols react with nitric acid to form alkyl nitrates. For example,
REACTIONSReaction with Sulphuric acid
 The reaction of alcohols with sulphuric acid is very sensitive to reaction
conditions. For example,
I) When ethyl alcohol is treated with concentrated sulphuric acid at room
temperature, ethyl hydrogen sulphate is produced.
REACTIONSII) Dehydration of Alcohols to Alkenes
 When ethyl alcohol is treated with concentrated sulphuric acid at 170oC, ethylene is formed.
Notice that only one alcohol molecule is involved in the reaction.
 The ease of dehydration of alcohols follows the order 3o>2o>1o which is also the order of stability
of the carbonium ions.
 Dehydration of secondary and tertiary alcohols containing four or more carbon atoms gives a
mixture of two alkenes. For example,
REACTIONS The alkene produced in greater abundance is indicated by Saytzeff Rule. It
states that the alkene formed preferentially is the one containing the higher
number of alkyl groups. Therefore, in the above example, 2-butene is the
major product.
REACTIONSIII) Dehydration of Alcohols to Ethers
 When excess of ethyl alcohol is treated with concentrated sulphuric acid at 140oC, diethyl
ether is formed. Notice that two alcohol molecules are involved in the reaction.
 Dehydration of alcohols to ethers or alkenes can also be brought about by passing the
vapours of the alcohol over heated alumina catalyst. For example,
REACTIONSReaction with Carboxylic acids
 Alcohols react with carboxylic acids to form esters. Concentrated sulphuric acid is used as a
catalyst. The reaction is reversible and can be shifted in the forward direction by removing
water as soon as it is formed. The reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid to
form an ester is called Esterification.
REACTIONSReaction with Acid Halides and Acid anhydrides
 Alcohols react with acid halides and acid anhydrides to form esters.
REACTIONSReduction
 Alcohols undergo reduction with concentrated hydroiodic acid and red
phosphorus to produce alkanes.
REACTIONSOxidation
 Alcohols can be oxidized. The nature of the product depends on the type of
alcohol and the conditions of the reaction. Most widely used oxidizing agents
are KMnO4 + H2SO4 or Na2Cr2O7 + H2SO4.
 Oxidation of alcohols can be used to distinguish between primary, secondary,
and tertiary alcohols.
 Primary alcohols are first oxidized to aldehydes and then to acids
REACTIONS Secondary alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding ketones
 Tertiary alcohols are stable to oxidation under normal conditions.
REACTIONSReaction with the Hot Copper; Dehydrogenation
 Different types of alcohols give different products when their vapours are
passed over copper gauze at 300oC.
 Primary alcohols lose hydrogen and give an aldehyde.
 Secondary alcohols lose hydrogen and yield a ketone
HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN
1o, 2o, AND 3o ALCOHOLS ? The following tests are used to distinguish between primary, secondary, and
tertiary alcohols.
Lucas Test
 In this test, alcohols are treated with a solution of HCl and Zinc Chloride to
form alkyl halides. Zinc chloride serves as a catalyst.
 The three types of alcohols undergo this reaction at different rates. Tertiary
alcohols react with Lucas reagent very rapidly. Secondary alcohols react
somewhat slower. Primary alcohols react with Lucas reagent even more slowly.
HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN
1o, 2o, AND 3o ALCOHOLS ? In practice, the Lucas test is carried out as follows: An alcohol is mixed, at
room temperature, with concentrated HCl and ZnCl2. The alkyl chloride,
which is formed, is insoluble in the medium. It causes the solution to become
cloudy before it separates as distinct layer.
 With Tertiary alcohols cloudiness appears immediately.
 With Secondary alcohols cloudiness appears in 5 minutes.
 With Primary alcohols the solution remains clear. This is because primary
alcohols do not react with Lucas reagent at room temperature. High
temperatures are needed.
HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN
1o, 2o, AND 3o ALCOHOLS ?Dichromate Test
 This test is based on the fact that different types of alcohols give different
products on oxidation. The alcohol is treated at room temperature with
sodium dichromate in sulphuric acid (orange solution). Identification of the
products gives us information regarding the type of the alcohol.
 Primary alcohols gives a carboxylic acid containing the same number of
carbons. There will be a change in colour of the solution from orange to green.
 Secondary alcohols give a ketone containing the same number of carbons.
There will be change in colour of the solution from orange to green.
 Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. Solution will remain
orange.

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Oc alcohol

  • 1. Prepared By :- Bhautik Mehta Last year student(2020-2021) Easy Pharmacy.
  • 2. ALCOHOL  Molecular Formula : CnH2n+2O  EX. R-OH  Alcohols are compounds in which a hydroxyl (-OH) group is attached to saturated carbon atom.
  • 3. ALCOHOL The hydroxyl group is the functional group of alcohols.  Alcohols containing one hydroxyl group are called Monohydric Alcohols. Alcohols with two, three or more hydroxyl group are known as Dihydric alcohols, Trihydric alcohols and Polyhydric alcohols respectively.
  • 4. ALCOHOL Monohydric Alcohols are classified as primary, secondary or tertiary depending upon whether the –OH group is attached to a primary, secondary or a tertiary carbon.
  • 5. STRUCTURE Let us consider methyl alcohol(CH3OH) for illustrating the orbital make up of alcohols.  In methyl alcohol both oxygen and carbon are sp3 hybridised.  Two of the sp3 orbitals of oxygen are completely filled and cannot take part in bond formation. The C-O bond in methyl alcohol is formed by overlap of an sp3 orbital of carbon and an sp3 orbital of oxygen.  The O-H bond if formed by overlap of an sp3 orbital of oxygen and s orbital of hydrogen.
  • 6. STRUCTURE The C-O-H bond angle is 105o. It is less than the normal tetrahedral angle.
  • 7. NOMENCLATUREAlcohols are named by three systems: 1. Common System In this system alcohols(R-OH) are named as Alkyl Alcohols. The alkyl group attached to the –OH group is named and ‘alcohol’ is added as a separate word. For example,
  • 8. NOMENCLATUREAs we go higher in the series, it becomes necessary to indicate whether a particular alcohol is primary, secondary, or tertiary. The prefix secondary is abbreviated as sec-, The prefix tertiary is abbreviated as tert- or t-. For example,
  • 9. NOMENCLATURE2. Carbinol System In this system alcohols are considered as derivatives of methyl alcohol which is called Carbinol. The alkyl group attached to the carbon carrying the –OH group are named in alphabetic order. Then the suffix – carbinol is added. For example,
  • 10. NOMENCLATURE3. IUPAC SYSTEM  In this system alcohols are named as Alkanols. The IUPAC rules are:  Select the longest continuous carbon chain containing the –OH group.  Change the name of the alkane corresponding to this chain by dropping the ending –e and adding the suffix –ol.  Number the chain so as to give the carbon carrying the –OH group, the lowest possible number. The position of the –OH group is indicated by this number.
  • 11. PROPERTIES1. Physical Properties a) Lower alcohols are colourless, toxic liquids. They have a characteristic smell. b) Boiling points of alcohols increase regularly with the increase in the number of carbon atoms Name bp oC Methanol 64.5 Ethanol 78.3 1-Propanol 97.0 1-Butanol 118.0
  • 12. PROPERTIESc) Among isomeric alcohols, as branching increase the boiling points decreases. For example,
  • 13. PROPERTIESd) Boiling points of alcohols are much higher than those of the corresponding alkanes. The O-H bond of alcohols is highly polar because oxygen is electronegative. The oxygen carries a partial negative charge (d-). The hydrogen carries a partial positive charge (d+). The polarity of the O-H bond gives rise to forces of attraction between a partially positive hydrogen in one alcohol molecule and partially negative oxygen in another alcohol molecule. These forces of attraction are referred to as Hydrogen Bonding. The reason that alcohols have higher boiling points is that a great deal of energy is required to overcome these attraction forces. Alkanes, which have no –OH group, do not undergo hydrogen bonding. Therefore, their boiling points are low.
  • 14. PROPERTIESe) Lower alcohols (C1 to C3) are completely soluble in water. As we go higher in the series, the water solubility falls rapidly.
  • 15. PROPERTIES2. Chemical Properties Alcohols are reactive compounds. They are attacked by polar or ionic reagents. This is because i) The C-O and O-H bonds of alcohols are polar since oxygen is highly electronegative. ii) The oxygen atom of alcohol is an electron-rich centre because it has two unshared pairs of electrons.
  • 16. METHOD OF PREPARATION  Total 6 Methods  1. Hydrolysis of Alkyl Halides  2. Hydrolysis of Alkenes  3. Addition of Grignard Reagents to Aldehydes and Ketones  4. Fermentation of Carbohydrates  5. Hydroboration-Oxidation of Alkenes  6. Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones
  • 17. METHOD OF PREPARATIONHydrolysis of Alkyl Halides  Alkyl halides react with aqueous sodium hydroxide to form alcohols.
  • 18. METHOD OF PREPARATIONHydrolysis of Alkenes  Alkenes react with sulphuric acid to produce alkyl hydrogen sulphates (Markovnikov rule is followed). Alkyl hydrogen sulphates on hydrolysis give alcohols. For example,
  • 19. METHOD OF PREPARATION The overall result of the above reactions appears to be Markovnikov addition of H2O(Hydration) to a double bond.
  • 20. METHOD OF PREPARATION The overall result of the above reactions appears to be Markovnikov addition of H2O(Hydration) to a double bond.
  • 21. METHOD OF PREPARATIONHydroboration-Oxidation of Alkenes  Alkenes react with diborane, B2H6 to form trialkylboranes. Diborane adds as borane BH3.  Trialkylboranes are used for making primary alcohols by reaction with alkaline aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide.
  • 22. METHOD OF PREPARATION The overall result of the above reactions appears to be anti-Markovnikov addition of H2O to a double bond.
  • 23. METHOD OF PREPARATIONHydrolysis of Esters Alcohols may be prepared by base or acid-catalyst hydrolysis of esters.
  • 24. METHOD OF PREPARATIONReduction of Aldehydes and Ketones  Aldehydes and ketones can be reduced with H2/Ni or lithium aluminium hydride to form the corresponding alcohols. Aldehydes give primary alcohols. Ketones give secondary alcohols.
  • 25. METHOD OF PREPARATIONAddition of Grignard Reagents to Aldehydes and Ketones  Grignard reagents react with aldehydes or ketones to form an addition compound which on hydrolysis with dilute acid gives the corresponding alcohols.
  • 26. METHOD OF PREPARATIONFermentation of Carbohydrates  Some alcohols can be prepared by fermentation of starches and sugars under the influence of suitable microorganisms. For example,
  • 27. REACTIONSReaction with Active Metals  Alcohols react with sodium or potassium to form alkoxides with the liberation of hydrogen gas.
  • 28. REACTIONSReaction with Phosphorus Halides  Alcohols react with phosphorus pentahalides (PX5) and phosphorus trihalides (PX3) to form alkyl halides.
  • 29. REACTIONSReaction with Thionyl Chloride  Alcohols react with thionyl chloride (SOCl2) to form alkyl chloride.
  • 30. REACTIONSReaction with Hydrogen Halides  Alcohols react with hydrogen halides (HX) to form the corresponding alkyl halides.
  • 31. REACTIONSReaction with Nitric acid  Alcohols react with nitric acid to form alkyl nitrates. For example,
  • 32. REACTIONSReaction with Sulphuric acid  The reaction of alcohols with sulphuric acid is very sensitive to reaction conditions. For example, I) When ethyl alcohol is treated with concentrated sulphuric acid at room temperature, ethyl hydrogen sulphate is produced.
  • 33. REACTIONSII) Dehydration of Alcohols to Alkenes  When ethyl alcohol is treated with concentrated sulphuric acid at 170oC, ethylene is formed. Notice that only one alcohol molecule is involved in the reaction.  The ease of dehydration of alcohols follows the order 3o>2o>1o which is also the order of stability of the carbonium ions.  Dehydration of secondary and tertiary alcohols containing four or more carbon atoms gives a mixture of two alkenes. For example,
  • 34. REACTIONS The alkene produced in greater abundance is indicated by Saytzeff Rule. It states that the alkene formed preferentially is the one containing the higher number of alkyl groups. Therefore, in the above example, 2-butene is the major product.
  • 35. REACTIONSIII) Dehydration of Alcohols to Ethers  When excess of ethyl alcohol is treated with concentrated sulphuric acid at 140oC, diethyl ether is formed. Notice that two alcohol molecules are involved in the reaction.  Dehydration of alcohols to ethers or alkenes can also be brought about by passing the vapours of the alcohol over heated alumina catalyst. For example,
  • 36. REACTIONSReaction with Carboxylic acids  Alcohols react with carboxylic acids to form esters. Concentrated sulphuric acid is used as a catalyst. The reaction is reversible and can be shifted in the forward direction by removing water as soon as it is formed. The reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid to form an ester is called Esterification.
  • 37. REACTIONSReaction with Acid Halides and Acid anhydrides  Alcohols react with acid halides and acid anhydrides to form esters.
  • 38. REACTIONSReduction  Alcohols undergo reduction with concentrated hydroiodic acid and red phosphorus to produce alkanes.
  • 39. REACTIONSOxidation  Alcohols can be oxidized. The nature of the product depends on the type of alcohol and the conditions of the reaction. Most widely used oxidizing agents are KMnO4 + H2SO4 or Na2Cr2O7 + H2SO4.  Oxidation of alcohols can be used to distinguish between primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols.  Primary alcohols are first oxidized to aldehydes and then to acids
  • 40. REACTIONS Secondary alcohols are oxidized to the corresponding ketones  Tertiary alcohols are stable to oxidation under normal conditions.
  • 41. REACTIONSReaction with the Hot Copper; Dehydrogenation  Different types of alcohols give different products when their vapours are passed over copper gauze at 300oC.  Primary alcohols lose hydrogen and give an aldehyde.  Secondary alcohols lose hydrogen and yield a ketone
  • 42. HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN 1o, 2o, AND 3o ALCOHOLS ? The following tests are used to distinguish between primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols. Lucas Test  In this test, alcohols are treated with a solution of HCl and Zinc Chloride to form alkyl halides. Zinc chloride serves as a catalyst.  The three types of alcohols undergo this reaction at different rates. Tertiary alcohols react with Lucas reagent very rapidly. Secondary alcohols react somewhat slower. Primary alcohols react with Lucas reagent even more slowly.
  • 43. HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN 1o, 2o, AND 3o ALCOHOLS ? In practice, the Lucas test is carried out as follows: An alcohol is mixed, at room temperature, with concentrated HCl and ZnCl2. The alkyl chloride, which is formed, is insoluble in the medium. It causes the solution to become cloudy before it separates as distinct layer.  With Tertiary alcohols cloudiness appears immediately.  With Secondary alcohols cloudiness appears in 5 minutes.  With Primary alcohols the solution remains clear. This is because primary alcohols do not react with Lucas reagent at room temperature. High temperatures are needed.
  • 44. HOW TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN 1o, 2o, AND 3o ALCOHOLS ?Dichromate Test  This test is based on the fact that different types of alcohols give different products on oxidation. The alcohol is treated at room temperature with sodium dichromate in sulphuric acid (orange solution). Identification of the products gives us information regarding the type of the alcohol.  Primary alcohols gives a carboxylic acid containing the same number of carbons. There will be a change in colour of the solution from orange to green.  Secondary alcohols give a ketone containing the same number of carbons. There will be change in colour of the solution from orange to green.  Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. Solution will remain orange.