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    1. 1. SEMINAR ON TIMBER AS A BUILDING MATERIAL BEING PRESENTING BY NABAM BUDH,UMESH PATEL AND VIKAS WALASE
    2. 2. INTRODUCTION WHY TIMBER AS A BUILDING MATERIAL? ENVIRONMENTALY SUPERIOR BUILDING MATERIAL
    3. 3. CLASSIFICATION OF TIMBER <ul><li>GROWTH OF TREES </li></ul><ul><li>DURABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>STRENGTH </li></ul><ul><li>REFRACTIVENESS </li></ul><ul><li>CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO IS 399 </li></ul><ul><li>- ZONES </li></ul><ul><li>- USES - AVAILABILITY </li></ul><ul><li> - COMPARATIVE STRENGTH </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS “A”, CLASS “B”, CLASS “C” </li></ul>
    4. 4. DEFECTS <ul><li>CAUSES OF DEFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>DEFECTS IN TREE DURING IT’S GROWTH </li></ul><ul><li>DEFECTS IN TREE AFTER FELLING </li></ul><ul><li>DEFECTS IN TREE DURING SEASONING </li></ul><ul><li>DECAY AND DISEASES IN TREE </li></ul><ul><li>IS SPECIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>1) PROHIBITED DEFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>2) PERMISSIBLE DEFECTS </li></ul>DEFECTS IN TREE
    5. 5. DEFECTS AND DECAY IN TIMBER <ul><li>CENTRE HEART/HEART SHAKES </li></ul><ul><li>BOW </li></ul><ul><li>TWISTED GRAIN </li></ul><ul><li>KNOTS </li></ul><ul><li>WANE </li></ul><ul><li>SLOPE OF GRAIN </li></ul><ul><li>FOXINESS </li></ul><ul><li>CUPPING </li></ul>
    6. 6. HEART SHAKES
    7. 7. BOW
    8. 8. TWISTED GRAIN
    9. 9. KNOTS
    10. 10. WANE
    11. 11. SLOPE OF GRAIN
    12. 12. CUPPING DEFECTS
    13. 13. USES OF TIMBER AS A BUILDING MATERIAL <ul><li>BEAMS </li></ul><ul><li>TRUSSES </li></ul><ul><li>RAFTERS </li></ul><ul><li>JOISTS IN FLOORS </li></ul><ul><li>DOORS FRAME AND SHUTTERS </li></ul><ul><li>WINDOWS FRAME AND SHUTTERS </li></ul><ul><li>STAIR CASES </li></ul><ul><li>POLES </li></ul><ul><li>PILES </li></ul><ul><li>COLUMNS </li></ul>
    14. 14. SEASONING Removal of moisture from timber so as to be in equilibrium with moisture in surrounding atmospheric conditions, where timber is likely to be used, is called as seasoning.
    15. 15. OBJECTIVES OF SEASONING <ul><li>Seasoning improves following properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working qualities including polishing, painting, and gluing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance to attack of insects, fungus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proper seasoning reduces tendency to split, shrink and warp. </li></ul><ul><li>Seasoning reduces weight of timber and is easy to handle. </li></ul><ul><li>Timber becomes fit to receive preservative treatment </li></ul>
    16. 16. PREPARING TIMBER FOR SEASONING <ul><li>Girdling </li></ul><ul><li>Coating with thick layers of moisture proof substance such as coal tar, bituminous paint, </li></ul><ul><li>paraffin wax. </li></ul><ul><li>Water seasoning </li></ul>
    17. 17. METHODS OF SEASONING <ul><li>SEASONING OF TIMBER </li></ul><ul><li>Air Seasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Kiln seasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Other methods of seasoning- Chemical Seasoning </li></ul>
    18. 18. WOOD PRODUCTS OF TIMBER <ul><li>Veneers </li></ul><ul><li>Plywood </li></ul><ul><li>Particle board </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber boards </li></ul><ul><li>Batten boards : Block boards and laminated boards </li></ul>
    19. 19. A CASE STUDY <ul><li>I. TIMBER AS ENVIRONMENTALLY SUPERIOR MATERIAL. </li></ul><ul><li>II.USES OF TIMBER AS ACOUSTICAL TREATMENT MATERIAL </li></ul><ul><li>III. RESISTANCE TO ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, THERMAL INSULATION </li></ul><ul><li>IV. SPECIAL USE OF TIMBER IN THE DANCE FLOOR. </li></ul><ul><li>V. AESTHETICAL APPEARANCE OF TIMBER STRUCTURES. </li></ul>
    20. 20. TIMBER AS ENVIROMMENTALLY SUPERIOR BUILDING MATERIAL <ul><li>EMBODIED ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>EMISSION AND STORAGE OF CARBON </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT TRANSITION CO-EFFICIENT </li></ul>
    21. 21. EMBODIED ENERGY:- TABLE 0.1 — FLOORS (INCLUDING FLOORING, FRAMING, FOOTING ETC .) Timber suspended, timber sub-floor enclosure 740 MJ/m2 Timber suspended, brick sub-floor wall 1050 MJ/m2 Concrete slab on ground 1235 MJ/m2 TABLE 0.2 — WALLS (INCLUDING FRAMING, INTERNAL LINING, INSULATION ETC.) Weather board, timber frame 410 MJ/m2 Brick veneer, timber frame 1060 MJ/m2 Double brick 1975 MJ/m2 TABLE 0.3 — WINDOWS (INCLUDING 3MM GLASS Timber frame 880 MJ/m2 Aluminum frame 1595 MJ/m2 TABLE 0.4 — ROOFS (INCLUDING PLASTERBOARD CEILING,INSULATION, GUTTERS) Concrete tile, timber frame 755 MJ/m2 Concrete tile, steel frame 870 MJ/m2 Metal cladding, timber frame 1080 MJ/m2 Clay tile, timber frame 1465 MJ/m2
    22. 22. TABLE 0.5 MATERIAL CARBON RELEASED(KG/M3) CARBON STORED(KG/M3) SAWN TIMBER 15 250 STEEL 5320 0 CONCRETE 120 0 ALUMINIUM 22000 0
    23. 23. HEAT TRANSITION CO-EFFICIENT TIMBER FRAME 34 250 KWH BRICK HOUSE 41 100 KWH
    24. 24. TABLE 1.1 — ZERO THERMAL UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE TIMBER FRAME BRICK GWP 94 852 114 980 AP 212 256 EP 18 22 POCP 5 7
    25. 25. TABLE 1.2 — WITH THERMAL UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE TIMBER FRAME BRICK GWP 79248 108 400 AP 177 242 EP 15 21 POCP 5 6
    26. 26. Timber as an Environmentally Superior Building Material Comparison of three-story buildings <ul><li>These tables display the difference between building two three-story buildings, both constructed over and area of 9 750m2, with different materials. The buildings were; </li></ul><ul><li>• Building 1, made from 1 000t wood + 60t steel; and </li></ul><ul><li>• Building 2, made from steel only. </li></ul><ul><li>TABLE 2.1 — NO THERMAL UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE </li></ul><ul><li>Building 1 Building 2 </li></ul><ul><li>GWP 1.1m 3.4m </li></ul><ul><li>AP 2 445 7613 </li></ul><ul><li>EP 208 648 </li></ul><ul><li>POCP 63 </li></ul>
    27. 27. TABLE 2.2 WITH THERMAL UTILISATION OF WOOD WASTE <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building 1 Building 2 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>GWP - 1.5m 3.4m </li></ul><ul><li>AP - 3 264 7 613 </li></ul><ul><li>EP – 278 648 </li></ul><ul><li>POCP - 84 196 </li></ul>
    28. 28. BAMBOO AND CANE AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OFTIMBER <ul><li>BAMBOO AS PLYWOOD </li></ul><ul><li>BAMBOO AS VEENERS </li></ul><ul><li>BAMBOO AS PARTICLE BOARDS </li></ul><ul><li>BAMBOO AS BATTENS BOARDS </li></ul><ul><li>BAMBOO AS POST etc. </li></ul>
    29. 29. BAMBOO AN ENDOGENOUS TREE
    30. 30. BAMBOO A BUILDING MATERIAL
    31. 31. BAMBOO AS FLOORING MATERIAL
    32. 32. TIMBER STRUCTURES
    33. 33. TIMBER FLOOR, CEILING,WALL AND FURNITURES.
    34. 35. TIMBER AS A STRUCTURAL MEMBER
    35. 36. CONCLUSION <ul><li>EMBODIED ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>FOREST UTILIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>THE GENERATION OF BY PRODUCTS </li></ul><ul><li>DISPOSAL OF WASTE </li></ul><ul><li>RESOURCE DEPLETION </li></ul><ul><li>GLOBAL WARMING </li></ul><ul><li>SYNTHESIS OF COMPOUNDS RESPONSIBLE FOR ACID RAIN </li></ul>
    36. 37. “ THANKING YOU FOR ANTICIPATION & CHOOSING TIMBER AS A BUILDING MATERIAL”.

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