S. No. Description Mud wall construction and works of architect such as Hassan Fathy 1 Application of brick in construction, Brick laying tools, equipment and Material calculation, material and labour rates, Brick terms, Cut bricks, special shape bricks. 2 Principle of brick bonding. Works of architect such as Laurie Baker. Stretcher Bond, Flemish Bond and English Bond 3 Brick facade and brick jali, works of architect such as Laurie Baker, Mario Botta, Total Environment, Brick Piers 4 Brick arches, Vaults and domes, works of architect such as LI Kahn, Auroville. 5 MTE Timber Sections, joinery and the way its functions (End, Angle, Lap, Dovetail) 6 Door and window joinery detail (Mortise and Tenon, Tongue and Groove, Lipping, Beading etc). 7 Construction detail in flush door. Types of timber and their application, material and labour rates. 8 Draft a Ledge- batten- braced door. Plywood and its application. 9 Finishes in timber-polish-laminate, veneer. Casement window with Wooden panel. 10
A building must satisfy severalgeneral requirements. It mustbe:• safe in respect of structure, fireand health• economical in initial cost andoperating cost -aestheticallypleasing,• inoffensive to the senses andan aid in sensory tasks. Dutch branch of the World Wildlife Fund
roof ceiling floor Internal walls Exterior wallwindowsstructur foundation e
Bricks have built much of our modern world, but how often do we consider the origins of these common building blocks?Brick production – involving a coal-fired kiln – causes a staggering amount of pollution. In fact, the 1.23 trillion bricks manufactured every year produce more pollution than all of the world’s airplanes combined. What can be done to reduce harmful emissionswhile maintaining the usefulness of the ultra-useful brick? According to one architect,the answer is to grow bricks rather than baking them.
Bio-Engineered Bricks Grown from Urine, Bacteria & SandThe method for making Better Bricks is rather simple, but the chemical processthat takes place is less so. Using a simple form, sand is packed into a brickshape and doused with bacteria and the urea solution. After leaving the brick toharden for a week at room temperature, you have a building block that requiredonly simple, renewable materials to build. When building a wall or other structurewith the Better Bricks, the same binding method is used to hold them together,making mortar unnecessary. Eventually – when the formula is just right – Dosiersays she can even program 3D printers to build the bricks layer by layer to herexact specifications, even in funky shapes.
Like many new green technologies, however, there are some slight snags.The process currently takes roughly three times longer to make bricks thanthe conventional method, which will mean that the entire building processwould be significantly slowed down. But even more troubling is the fact thatthe process releases massive amounts of ammonia, which is eventuallyconverted to nitrates and can poison groundwater. Dosier’s answer to thisproblem is to look more closely at developing a closed-loop system wherethe waste products are recycled to be used in the manufacturing processrather than released into the environment.