COPPER AS AN ELEMENT
Periodic symbol: Cu.
Melting point: 1083˚C.
Thermal expansion: 0.0168mm/m/˚C (20-100˚).
Tensile strength: 210 - 240 N/mm2
PROPERTIES OF COPPER
Copper is a reddish coloured metallic metal
and is ductile.
Copper is easily transformed mechanically or
Light in weight
Low thermal movement
Copper is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about 50 parts per million
(ppm),where it occurs as native copper or in minerals such as the copper
sulfides chalcopyrite and chalcocite, copper carbonates azurite and malachite and
the copper(I) oxide mineral cuprite.
Most copper is mined or extracted as
copper sulfides from large open pit
mines in porphyry copper deposits that
contain 0.4 to 1.0% copper.
EXTRACTION OF COPPER
Copper is extracted from Copper sulphide via heat. This is the most traditional method of
extraction. This method of thermal decomposition uses a lot of energy and releases toxic
sulphur dioxide into the air. Pure copper is extracted via electrolysis.
Copper (II) sulphide copper + sulphur dioxideHeat
CuS(s) Cu(s) + SO2(g)
EXTRACTION OF COPPER
HISTORY OF COPPER
Copper is one of the oldest metals of mankind. It’s history traces back over 10,000 years.
The Bronze age was named after the well known copper alloy.
Copper was the first metal to be mined and crafted by man. It was used for tools, weapons, art
objects and ornaments.
Copper was used as early as : 7000BC to
make weapons ,5000BC to make jewellery
and ornaments due to it’s colour.
THE NARA BUDDHA,JAPAN USE OF COPPER IN MAKING TOOLS
COPPER PLATE REPRODUCTIONS
STATUE OF LIBERTY HILDERSHEIM CATHEDRAL,1280
PROUCTION OF COPPER
MADE FROM CONCENTRATES
AND PRECIPITATe EG
MADE FROM SCRAP
MATERIALS EG. OLD SCRAP
S.NO PURE COPPER ALLOYED COPPER
1. Used for sheet and strip applications in roofing, exterior
cladding, and flashing, intricate ornamental work
Copper alloys, such as brass and
bronze, are also used in residential
and commercial building
2. major use for high-yield copper is in flashing products, where
malleability and strength are both important
Variations in color stem primarily
from differences in the alloy
ALLOYS OF COPPER
S.NO COMPONENTS ALLOY USES
1. COPPER+ZINC BRASS BULLETS,PLUMBING,HANDLES
2. COPPER+TIN BRONZE LEAD FREE SOLDERS
3. COPPER+NICKEL CUPRONICKEL USED FOR OUTER CLADDING AND COINS
4. COPPER+ALUMINIUM CUPROALUMINIUM HAVE A GOLDEN COLOR USED FOR
5. GOLD/SILVER COPPER JEWELRY INDUSTRY AND CONSTITUENTS
OF CARAT SILVER AND GOLD
DEVELOPMENT OF A PATINA COLOURS OF ALLOYED COPPER
USES OF COPPER USES OF COPPER
COPPER SHEET/ STRIP
ESTIMATED COPPER CONSUMPTION IN INDIA
USE OF COPPER IN A BUILDING – EXAMPLE TAKEN OF A HOUSE
AS A ROD IN
COPPER IN BUILDING
USE OF COPPER IN ARCHITECTURE
COPPER HAS BEEN USED AS A COMPONENT IN CERAMIC
GLAZESAND STAINED GLASS.
DUE TO THE WATERPROOF NATURE OF COPPER, IT HAS
BEEN USED AS THE ROOFING MATERIAL.
ALSO USED IN MARINE CONSTRUCTION
High above the roof, copper spikes are connected to a very thick copper cable which leads to
a large metal plate underneath the ground. The electric current is dispersed throughout the
ground harmlessly, instead of destroying the main structure.
PRE PATINATED COPPER
Source: copper roofing design by copper development association
momentum place, 62 storey office building,dallas,texas
Architect: John Burgee Architects, New York
Roofing contractor: Armetco systems Inc. , Irving,tx
Use of intersecting barrel vaults
SIGNIFICANT ROOF DESIGN
Features over 26,000 sq.ft of
curvilinear copper roof surface
chosen to provide
The desired and to confront the
challenge of handling enormous
volumes of water over time.
The copper cladding intersecting
barrel vaults each has a radius of over
Copper flashings and copings
Usage-wherever a wall intersects a roof
Description- Such a system usually consists of copper counterflashing and base flashing in
conjunction with roof composition flashing or coping. The counterflashing diverts water to
the base flashing, which, in turn, diverts it to the composition flashing.
Gutters and strip section
GUTTER ATTACHED TO ROOF DETAIL AT C
DETAIL AT A
DETAIL AT B
DETAIL - D
COPPER USED IN INTERIORS
FOOD COURT IN A MALL,
AMSTERDAM, MADE OF COPPER
Source: library, book: exteriors by Ashleigh Barack
2. FOOD COURT
3. INTERIOR WALL CLADDING
SERVICES - APPLICATIONS
1. Underground water services
2. Water distribution systems
3. Chilled water mains
4. Drainage and vent systems
6. Fuel Oil, L.P. and Natural Gas Services
7. Nonflammable Medical Gas Systems
8. Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems
9. Ground Source Heat Pump Systems
10. Fire Sprinkler Systems
11. Compressed Air
12. Copper Pipes
13. Copper wire - power generation, power transmission, power distribution,
telecommunications , etc.
S.NO. TYPE CHARACTERISTICS REMARKS
1. K SIZE 3/8" to 12"
more than 5,000 lbs. per sq. inch
APPLICATION used in underground installations and for almost all general heating and plumbing
2. L SIZE 3/4"
INSTALLATION is used chiefly for medium-pressure interior plumbing, and for steam and hot-water
4,000 pounds per square inch.
APPLICATION It should not be used outdoors in underground connections.
3. M SIZE 2 1/2" to 12“
INSTALLATION used where water conditions are normal for low-pressure plumbing
3,000 pounds per square
APPLICATION in a place where piping will not be subjected to considerable pressure and a lighter
tubing is necessary
TYPE L TYPE M
USES OF COPPER PIPES
S.NO TUBE TYPE COLOR
1. TYPE K GREEN
2. TYPE L BLUE
3. TYPE M RED
4. DWV YELLOW
5. ACR BLUE
6. OXY/MED GREEN(K)
ADVANTAGES OF COPPER PIPES
Copper is economical.
Copper is lightweight.
Copper is formable (can be easily bent).
Copper is easy to join.
Copper is safe (Don’t burn )
Copper is long-lasting (Excellent resistant corrosion)
Copper is 100% recyclable.
YERINGTON COPPER MINE (UNITED STATES)
COPPER PRODUCTION IN WORLD
SECTION OF COPPER FITTINGS
S.NO CHARACTERISTICS CAST IRON COPPER BRASS
1. Working life Short Longest Longer
2. Hygiene Bad Best Good
3. Weight Heavy Lighter Light
4. Installation Difficult Easy Easy
5. Cutting Difficult Easier Easy
6. Bending Low Highest High
7. Corrosive resistance Bad Best Good
8. Pressure Resistance Best Good Good
9. Leak proof Bad Best Good
10. Transport cost Highest High Low
11. Durability Good Best Better
12. Linear expansion High Low Moderate
VISUAL CASE STUDY – YALE PHYSIATRIC INSTITUTE,A THREE BUILDING
RESIDENTIAL BUILDING, NEW HEAVEN,NEW ENGLAND
Architect: Frank O Gehry And Associates, Santa Maria
MADE UP OF COPPER SHEET
COPPER PAINT WITH P
COPPER PAINT ON EMBOSSED WALLPAPER
CASE STUDY – DS DOORS,FARIDABAD
COPPER PIPES- IN SERVICES COPPER TAB
SELECT CITY WALK MALL,SAKET
LIVE CASE STUDY
COPPER WASH BASIN
WELDING OF COPPER
6" X 6" / .001" (10 Sheets)
6" X 6" / .001 (20 sheets)
6" X 12" / .001" (10 sheets)
6" X 4'/.001" 1 Roll
6" X 8'/.001" 1 Roll
6" X 10'/.001" 1 Roll
6" X 20'/ .001" 1 Roll
6" X 1089'/ Bulk Copper Roll
12" X 12"/ 1 Mil (.001") (5
12" X 4'/ 1 Mil (.001") 1 Roll
12" X 8'/ 1 Mil (.001") 1 Roll
12" X 10'/ 1 Mil (.001") 1
12" X 20'/ 1 Mil (.001") 1 Roll
12" X 543'/ 1 Mil Bulk Copper Roll
18" X 4'/ 1 mil (.001") 1 Roll
Rate – 430/kg Birla
Copper – Ashleigh Bareham
Architectural applications- John Ashard
Role of copper, brass and bronze in architecture and design by Wayne seale
Copper roofing design by copper development association
ASTM B601 Heat Treating Temper Codes for Coppers and Copper Alloys
ASTM Specification Codes for Coppers and Copper Alloys
Federal Specification Codes for Coppers and Copper Alloys