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Bricks

Good brick earth is composed of 20-30% alumina, 50-60% silica, and small amounts of lime, iron oxide, and magnesia. Alumina provides plasticity while silica prevents cracking. Lime and iron oxide impart color. Bricks are classified as sun-dried or burnt in kilns. Kiln-burnt bricks are further divided based on quality, with first class being highest quality with uniform shape and ringing sound. Good bricks must pass tests for water absorption, crushing strength, hardness, size, and soundness.

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Bricks
Composition of good brick earth
Following are the constituents of good brick earth.
1. Alumina ( 20 to 30 %)
2. Silica (50 to 60 %)
3. Lime
4. Oxide of iron ( 5 to 6 %)
5. Magnesia
1. Alumina
 A good brickearth should contain 20 to 30
percent of alumina.
 This constituent imparts plasticity to earth
so that it can be molded.
 If alumina is present in excess, raw bricks
shrink and warp during drying and burning.
2. Silica
 A good brick earth should contain about 50
to 60 percent
 Presence of silica prevents cracks, shrinking
and warping of raw bricks.
 Durability of bricks depends on the proper
proportion of silica in brick earth.
3. Lime
 A small quantity of lime is desirable in finely
powdered state to prevents shrinkage of raw
bricks.
4. Oxide of iron
 A small quantity of oxide of Iron to the extent
of 5 to 6 percent is desirable in good brick to
imparts red colour to bricks.
 Excess of oxide of iron makes the bricks dark
blue or blackish.

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Bricks

  • 2. Composition of good brick earth Following are the constituents of good brick earth. 1. Alumina ( 20 to 30 %) 2. Silica (50 to 60 %) 3. Lime 4. Oxide of iron ( 5 to 6 %) 5. Magnesia
  • 3. 1. Alumina  A good brickearth should contain 20 to 30 percent of alumina.  This constituent imparts plasticity to earth so that it can be molded.  If alumina is present in excess, raw bricks shrink and warp during drying and burning.
  • 4. 2. Silica  A good brick earth should contain about 50 to 60 percent  Presence of silica prevents cracks, shrinking and warping of raw bricks.  Durability of bricks depends on the proper proportion of silica in brick earth.
  • 5. 3. Lime  A small quantity of lime is desirable in finely powdered state to prevents shrinkage of raw bricks.
  • 6. 4. Oxide of iron  A small quantity of oxide of Iron to the extent of 5 to 6 percent is desirable in good brick to imparts red colour to bricks.  Excess of oxide of iron makes the bricks dark blue or blackish.
  • 7. 5.Magnesia  A small quantity of magnesia in brick earth imparts yellow tint to bricks, and decreases shrinkage.  But excess of magnesia decreases shrink leads to the decay of bricks.
  • 8. The ingredients like, lime, iron pyrites, alkalis, pebbles, organic matter should not present in good brick earth.
  • 9. Classification of bricks  Bricks can broadly be divided into two categories. I. Unburned or sundried bricks II. Burnt bricks
  • 10. I. Unburned or sundried bricks  UN burn or sun dried with the help of heat received from sun after the process of molding.  These bricks can only be used in the constructions of temporary and cheap structures.  Such bricks should not be used at places exposed to heavy rains.
  • 11. II. Burnt bricks i. First Class bricks ii. Second class bricks iii. Third class bricks iv. Fourth class bricks
  • 12. i. First Class bricks  These bricks are table molded and of standard shape.  The surface and edges of the bricks are sharp, square, smooth and straight.  The comply all the qualities of good bricks and used for superior work of permanent nature.
  • 13. ii. Second class bricks  These bricks are ground moulded and they are burnt in kilns.  The surface of bricks is some what rough and shape is also slightly irregular.  These bricks are commonly used at places where brick work is to be provided with a coat of plaster.
  • 14. iii. Third class bricks  These bricks are ground moulded and they burnt in clamps.  These bricks are not hard and they have rough surfaces with irregular and distorted edges.  These bricks give dull sound when struck together.  They are used for unimportant and temporary structures and at places where rainfall is not heavy.
  • 15. iv. Fourth class bricks  These are over burnt bricks with irregular shape and dark colour.  These bricks are used as aggregate for concrete in foundation, floors, roads, etc.
  • 16. Qualities of Good Brick (i) Bricks should be table moulded, well burnt in kilns, copper coloured, free from cracks and with sharp and square edges. (ii) Bricks should be uniform shape and should be of standard size. (iii) Bricks should give clear ringing sound when struck each other. (iv) Bricks when broken should show a bright homogeneous and compact structure free from voids.
  • 17. (vi) Bricks should be sufficiently hard no impression, should be left on brick surface, when it is scratched with finger nail. (vii) Bricks should be low thermal conductivity and they should be sound proof. (viii) Bricks should not break when dropped flat on hard ground from a height of about one meter. (ix) Bricks, when soaked in water for 24hours, should not show deposits of white salts when allowed to dry in shade. (x) No brick should have crushing strength below 55kg/cm2
  • 18. (x) Bricks should not absorb water more than 20 percent by weight for first class bricks and 22 percent by weight for second class bricks, when soaked in coldwater for a period of 24 hours.
  • 19. Tests for bricks  A brick is generally subjected to following tests to find out its suitability of the construction work. 1. Absorption 2. Crushing strength or compression strength 3. Hardness 4. Shape and size 5. Soundness
  • 20. 1.Absorption  Water absorption i. The bricks to be tested should be dried at temperature of 105 C to 115 C. ii. Take weight of dried brick W1 iii. Immerse completely dried brick in clean water for 24 hours at room temperature. iv. Remove the bricks and wipe out and weight immediately.
  • 21. Water absorption in % by weight = A good brick should not absorb more than 20% of water by weight, when placed in water for 24 hours..
  • 22. 2.Crushing strength  Crushing or compressive strength of brick is found out by placing it in compression testing machine. It is pressed till it breaks.  Minimum crushing strength of brick is 35kg/cm2 and for superior bricks, it may vary from 70 to 140 kg/csm2.
  • 23. 3.Hardness  Good bricks should be hard and should not be scratched by fingernail.
  • 24. 4.Shape and size  A good brick should have a uniform rectangular shape with even surfaces and sharp corners. It should be free from cracks. It should have a uniform brick-red colour.
  • 25. 5.Soundness  Should give a metallic sound when two brick are struck to each other