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MICROPROCESSOR
MICROPROCESSOR
� The microprocessor is the brain of the Central Processing Unit
(CPU).
� Microprocessor is an engine which can compute various operations
fabricated on a single chip.
� The internal architecture of microprocessor determines what
operations can be performed and how it can be performed.
EVOLUTION OF MICROPROCESSOR
� The first microprocessor introduced in 1971 was a 4-bit
microprocessor with 4m5KB memory.
� It has set of 45 instructions and was named Intel 4004.
� Intel’s 8080 was introduced during the year 1974 and it can
perform 8 bit operations.
� In 1976, Intel introduced 8085 and 8086 processors.
� 8080 processors have two Enable/Disable Instructions.
� 8086 processor is a 16 bit processor.
CONT..
� Current microprocessors can access 64 GB memory.
� Depending on width of data microprocessors can process, they are
of these categories−
� 8-bit
� 16-bit
� 32-bit
� 64-bit
TYPES OF MICROPROCESSOR
� CISC-Complex Instruction Set
� RISC-Reduced Instruction Set
� ASIC- Application Specific Integrated Circuit
� Superscalar Processors
� DSP-Digital Signal
COMPLEX INSTRUCTION SET MICROPROCESSORS
� The short term of Complex Instruction Set Microprocessors is
CISM
� It performs the different tasks like downloading, uploading,
recalling data into the memory card
� It also does complex mathematical calculations in a single
command.
� Some different CISC processors are following.
� IBM 370/168
� VAX 11/780
� Intel 80486
REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET MICROPROCESSOR
� In the RISC processor, there are simple instructions.
� It consists the number of registers and less number of transistors.
� To access the memory location the LOAD & STORE instructions
are used.
� This processor has one cycle execution time
� In this way these processors completes more commands at a faster
rate.
THE APPLICATION SPECIFIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
� These processors are used for automotive emissions control or
personal digital assistant’s computer.
� ASIC is a kind of integrated circuit that is specially built for a
specific application or purpose.
� It can also be made smaller and use less electricity.
Disadvantage
� More expensive to design and manufacture, particularly if only a
few units are needed.
SUPERSCALAR MICROPROCESSORS
� Superscalar processor facsimiles the hardware on the processor to
perform various tasks at a time.
� These processors can be used for ALUs or multipliers.
� They have different operational units
DIGITAL SIGNAL MULTIPROCESSORS
� These processors are used to encode and decode the videos or to
convert the D/A (digital to analog) & A/D (analog to digital).
� They need a microprocessor that is excellent in mathematical
calculations.
� The chips of this processor are employed in RADAR, home
theaters, SONAR, audio gears, TV set top boxes and Mobile
phones
8085 Microprocessor 8086 Microprocessor
•It is an 8-bit microprocessor
•It has 16-bit address bus
•In this, the memory can access
up to 64kb
•The 8085 processor does not
consist of pipeline architecture
•In this processor, the I/O
address is 28 = 256 I/O’s
•The cost of this processor is low
•This is a 16-bit microprocessor
•8086 has 20-bit address bus
•Where in the process the
memory is up to 1 MB
•While in the 8086 processors
consist of pipeline architecture
•In the 8086 processors, the I/O
address is about 216 = 65536
I/O’s
•The cost of this processor is
high
BEST MICROPROCESSORS
� Best CPU: AMD Ryzen 9 3900X
� Best high-end CPU: Intel Core i9-9900K
� Best mid-range CPU: AMD Ryzen 5 2600X
� Best entry-level CPU: AMD Ryzen 3 2200G
� Best gaming CPU: AMD Ryzen 5 3600X
� Best VR CPU: AMD Ryzen 7 1800X
� Best video editing CPU: AMD Ryzen 7 3700X
� Best performance processor: Intel Core i9-9980XE
� Best budget CPU: Intel Pentium G4560
� Best HTPC CPU: AMD Ryzen 5 2400G
AMD RYZEN 9 3900X
� Ryzen 9 3900X is a 64-bit dodeca-core high-end performance.
� x86 desktop microprocessor introduced by AMD in mid-2019.
� Fabricated on TSMC's 7 nm process based on the Zen 2
microarchitecture.
� This processor operates at 3.8 GHz with a TDP
of 105 W.
� Boost frequency of up to 4.6 GHz.
� The 3900X supports up to 128 GiB of dual-channel
DDR4-3200 memory.
INTEL CORE I9-9900K
� Introduced by Intel in late 2018.
� This processor, which is based on the Coffee Lake
microarchitecture, is manufactured on Intel's 3rd
generation enhanced 14nm++ process.
� The i9-9900K operates at a 3.6 GHz with a TDP of 95 W and a
Turbo Boost frequency of up to 5 GHz.
� This chip supports up to 128 GiB of dual-channel DDR4-2666
memory.
� It incorporates Intel's UHD Graphics 630 IGP operating at 350
MHz with a burst frequency of 1.2 GHz.
ADVANTAGES OF MICROPROCESSORS
� The processing speed is high
� Intelligence has been brought to systems
� Flexible.
� Compact size.
� Easy maintenance
� Complex mathematics
DISADVANTAGES OF MICROPROCESSORS
� The microprocessor has a limitation on the size of data.
� Most of the microprocessor does not support floating point
operations.
� The main disadvantage is it’s over heating physically.
� It should not contact with the other external devices.
� The microprocessor is does not have any internal peripheral like
ROM, RAM and other I/O devices.
THE APPLICATIONS OF THE MICROPROCESSORS
� Controllers in home appliances.
� Wireless communication equipments.
� Office publication and automation.
� Consumer electronic goods.
� Calculators.
� Accounting system.
� Video games.
� Industrial controllers.
� Data acquisition systems.
REFERENCES
� www.geeksforgeeks.org
� www.efxkits.co.uk
� www.brighthubengineering.com
� www.digitaltrends.com
THANK YOU

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Microprocessor

  • 2. MICROPROCESSOR � The microprocessor is the brain of the Central Processing Unit (CPU). � Microprocessor is an engine which can compute various operations fabricated on a single chip. � The internal architecture of microprocessor determines what operations can be performed and how it can be performed.
  • 3. EVOLUTION OF MICROPROCESSOR � The first microprocessor introduced in 1971 was a 4-bit microprocessor with 4m5KB memory. � It has set of 45 instructions and was named Intel 4004. � Intel’s 8080 was introduced during the year 1974 and it can perform 8 bit operations. � In 1976, Intel introduced 8085 and 8086 processors. � 8080 processors have two Enable/Disable Instructions. � 8086 processor is a 16 bit processor.
  • 4. CONT.. � Current microprocessors can access 64 GB memory. � Depending on width of data microprocessors can process, they are of these categories− � 8-bit � 16-bit � 32-bit � 64-bit
  • 5.
  • 6. TYPES OF MICROPROCESSOR � CISC-Complex Instruction Set � RISC-Reduced Instruction Set � ASIC- Application Specific Integrated Circuit � Superscalar Processors � DSP-Digital Signal
  • 7. COMPLEX INSTRUCTION SET MICROPROCESSORS � The short term of Complex Instruction Set Microprocessors is CISM � It performs the different tasks like downloading, uploading, recalling data into the memory card � It also does complex mathematical calculations in a single command. � Some different CISC processors are following. � IBM 370/168 � VAX 11/780 � Intel 80486
  • 8. REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET MICROPROCESSOR � In the RISC processor, there are simple instructions. � It consists the number of registers and less number of transistors. � To access the memory location the LOAD & STORE instructions are used. � This processor has one cycle execution time � In this way these processors completes more commands at a faster rate.
  • 9. THE APPLICATION SPECIFIC INTEGRATED CIRCUIT � These processors are used for automotive emissions control or personal digital assistant’s computer. � ASIC is a kind of integrated circuit that is specially built for a specific application or purpose. � It can also be made smaller and use less electricity. Disadvantage � More expensive to design and manufacture, particularly if only a few units are needed.
  • 10. SUPERSCALAR MICROPROCESSORS � Superscalar processor facsimiles the hardware on the processor to perform various tasks at a time. � These processors can be used for ALUs or multipliers. � They have different operational units
  • 11. DIGITAL SIGNAL MULTIPROCESSORS � These processors are used to encode and decode the videos or to convert the D/A (digital to analog) & A/D (analog to digital). � They need a microprocessor that is excellent in mathematical calculations. � The chips of this processor are employed in RADAR, home theaters, SONAR, audio gears, TV set top boxes and Mobile phones
  • 12. 8085 Microprocessor 8086 Microprocessor •It is an 8-bit microprocessor •It has 16-bit address bus •In this, the memory can access up to 64kb •The 8085 processor does not consist of pipeline architecture •In this processor, the I/O address is 28 = 256 I/O’s •The cost of this processor is low •This is a 16-bit microprocessor •8086 has 20-bit address bus •Where in the process the memory is up to 1 MB •While in the 8086 processors consist of pipeline architecture •In the 8086 processors, the I/O address is about 216 = 65536 I/O’s •The cost of this processor is high
  • 13. BEST MICROPROCESSORS � Best CPU: AMD Ryzen 9 3900X � Best high-end CPU: Intel Core i9-9900K � Best mid-range CPU: AMD Ryzen 5 2600X � Best entry-level CPU: AMD Ryzen 3 2200G � Best gaming CPU: AMD Ryzen 5 3600X � Best VR CPU: AMD Ryzen 7 1800X � Best video editing CPU: AMD Ryzen 7 3700X � Best performance processor: Intel Core i9-9980XE � Best budget CPU: Intel Pentium G4560 � Best HTPC CPU: AMD Ryzen 5 2400G
  • 14. AMD RYZEN 9 3900X � Ryzen 9 3900X is a 64-bit dodeca-core high-end performance. � x86 desktop microprocessor introduced by AMD in mid-2019. � Fabricated on TSMC's 7 nm process based on the Zen 2 microarchitecture. � This processor operates at 3.8 GHz with a TDP of 105 W. � Boost frequency of up to 4.6 GHz. � The 3900X supports up to 128 GiB of dual-channel DDR4-3200 memory.
  • 15. INTEL CORE I9-9900K � Introduced by Intel in late 2018. � This processor, which is based on the Coffee Lake microarchitecture, is manufactured on Intel's 3rd generation enhanced 14nm++ process. � The i9-9900K operates at a 3.6 GHz with a TDP of 95 W and a Turbo Boost frequency of up to 5 GHz. � This chip supports up to 128 GiB of dual-channel DDR4-2666 memory. � It incorporates Intel's UHD Graphics 630 IGP operating at 350 MHz with a burst frequency of 1.2 GHz.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. ADVANTAGES OF MICROPROCESSORS � The processing speed is high � Intelligence has been brought to systems � Flexible. � Compact size. � Easy maintenance � Complex mathematics
  • 21. DISADVANTAGES OF MICROPROCESSORS � The microprocessor has a limitation on the size of data. � Most of the microprocessor does not support floating point operations. � The main disadvantage is it’s over heating physically. � It should not contact with the other external devices. � The microprocessor is does not have any internal peripheral like ROM, RAM and other I/O devices.
  • 22. THE APPLICATIONS OF THE MICROPROCESSORS � Controllers in home appliances. � Wireless communication equipments. � Office publication and automation. � Consumer electronic goods. � Calculators. � Accounting system. � Video games. � Industrial controllers. � Data acquisition systems.
  • 23.
  • 24. REFERENCES � www.geeksforgeeks.org � www.efxkits.co.uk � www.brighthubengineering.com � www.digitaltrends.com