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Introduction
     about
Microcontroller
       Eng :/ Sayed Mahmoud AbdEl Rahman
What is the Microcontroller ?
A microcontroller is an integrated chip that is often part
of an embedded system. The microcontroller includes
a CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O ports, and timers like a standard
computer, but because they are designed to execute only
a single specific task to control a single system,
they are much smaller and simplified so that they
can include all the functions required on a single chip.
Microcontroller v/s Microprocessor
Microprocessors are used to execute big and generic applications,
while a microcontroller will only be used to execute a single task
within one application. Some of the benefits of microcontrollers
include the following:

Cost: The cost of the part. Microcontrollers are usually very cheap,
sometimes even less than $1 each.

Speed: The frequency (speed) of the system clock, often stated in
megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz). Microcontrollers are typically
slow, less than 20MHz.

Power: The power dissipation of a system, measured in Watts.
Microcontrollers are almost always "low-power."
Bits: This usually means the number of bits that can be processed
at one time by each instruction (e.g. 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, etc...).
Microcontrollers are almost always 8-bit or maybe 16-bit devices.

Memory: Most processors have some amount of storage on the device
for data and program instructions. In computing systems, memory is
often hierarchical, so on-chip memory can serve different purposes.
Microcontrollers typically have a limited amount of memory, less
than 1MByte total.

All-in-one: A microcontroller usually Includes of a CPU, ROM,
RAM and I/O ports, built within it to execute a single and dedicated
task. On the other hand, a microprocessor generally does not have a
RAM, ROM or IO pins and generally uses its pins as a bus to interface
to peripherals such as RAM, ROM, serial ports, digital and analog IO.
How does Microcontroller work ?
Microcontroller has an input device in order to get the input and an
output device (such as LED or LCD Display) to exhibit the final
process. Let us look into the illustration of how a microcontroller
works in a Television.

The Television has a remote control as an Input device and the TV
screen as the output device. The signal sent from the remote control is
captured by the microcontroller. The microcontroller controls the
channel selection, the amplifier system and picture tube adjustments
such as hue, brightness, contrast etc.
General architecture of a Microcontroller
The architecture of a microcontroller depends on the application it is
built for. For example, some designs include usage of more than one
RAM, ROM and I/O functionality integrated into the package.
The architecture of a typical microcontroller is complex and may include
the following:

1. A CPU, ranging from simple 4-bit to complex 64-bit processers.
2. Peripherals such as timers, event counters and watchdog.
3. RAM (volatile memory) for data storage. The data is stored in the form of
registers, and the general-purpose registers store information that interacts
with the arithmetic logical unit (ALU).
4. ROM, EPROM, EEPROM or flash memory for program and operating
parameter storage.
5. Programming capabilities (Assembly, c, c++, Basic and Pascal) .
6. Serial input/output such as serial ports.
7. A clock generator for resonator, quartz timing crystal or RC circuit.
8. Analog-to-digital convertors.
9. Serial ports.
10. Data bus to carry information.
Applications
Microcontrollers are used in products that are controlled automatically.
The various products that make use of microcontrollers in our everyday
life are given below:

1. Home: Television, DVD player, Telephone, Fax machine, Cellular
phones, Security systems, Camera, Sewing machine, Musical
Instrument, Exercising machine, Video games, Computer,
Microwave oven.

2. Office: Computers, Printers, Telephones, Fax machine, Security
systems.
My Application on Microcontroller
Air Condition Control:
Hardware:
1-tansator (Temp Sensor).
2-Button.
3-Led.
4-LCD Display.
5-Microcontroller (PIC16F877A 8-bit).
6-Crystal 4MHz.
7-Capactor 0.1µF – 22PF – 3.3µF.
8-Resistance 10kΩ - 330 Ω.
Circuit Design by Eagle program
Layout Circuit
Software (Code by MikroC program):
Thanks

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Introduction in microcontroller

  • 1. Introduction about Microcontroller Eng :/ Sayed Mahmoud AbdEl Rahman
  • 2. What is the Microcontroller ? A microcontroller is an integrated chip that is often part of an embedded system. The microcontroller includes a CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O ports, and timers like a standard computer, but because they are designed to execute only a single specific task to control a single system, they are much smaller and simplified so that they can include all the functions required on a single chip.
  • 3. Microcontroller v/s Microprocessor Microprocessors are used to execute big and generic applications, while a microcontroller will only be used to execute a single task within one application. Some of the benefits of microcontrollers include the following: Cost: The cost of the part. Microcontrollers are usually very cheap, sometimes even less than $1 each. Speed: The frequency (speed) of the system clock, often stated in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz). Microcontrollers are typically slow, less than 20MHz. Power: The power dissipation of a system, measured in Watts. Microcontrollers are almost always "low-power."
  • 4. Bits: This usually means the number of bits that can be processed at one time by each instruction (e.g. 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit, etc...). Microcontrollers are almost always 8-bit or maybe 16-bit devices. Memory: Most processors have some amount of storage on the device for data and program instructions. In computing systems, memory is often hierarchical, so on-chip memory can serve different purposes. Microcontrollers typically have a limited amount of memory, less than 1MByte total. All-in-one: A microcontroller usually Includes of a CPU, ROM, RAM and I/O ports, built within it to execute a single and dedicated task. On the other hand, a microprocessor generally does not have a RAM, ROM or IO pins and generally uses its pins as a bus to interface to peripherals such as RAM, ROM, serial ports, digital and analog IO.
  • 5.
  • 6. How does Microcontroller work ? Microcontroller has an input device in order to get the input and an output device (such as LED or LCD Display) to exhibit the final process. Let us look into the illustration of how a microcontroller works in a Television. The Television has a remote control as an Input device and the TV screen as the output device. The signal sent from the remote control is captured by the microcontroller. The microcontroller controls the channel selection, the amplifier system and picture tube adjustments such as hue, brightness, contrast etc.
  • 7. General architecture of a Microcontroller The architecture of a microcontroller depends on the application it is built for. For example, some designs include usage of more than one RAM, ROM and I/O functionality integrated into the package.
  • 8. The architecture of a typical microcontroller is complex and may include the following: 1. A CPU, ranging from simple 4-bit to complex 64-bit processers. 2. Peripherals such as timers, event counters and watchdog. 3. RAM (volatile memory) for data storage. The data is stored in the form of registers, and the general-purpose registers store information that interacts with the arithmetic logical unit (ALU). 4. ROM, EPROM, EEPROM or flash memory for program and operating parameter storage. 5. Programming capabilities (Assembly, c, c++, Basic and Pascal) . 6. Serial input/output such as serial ports. 7. A clock generator for resonator, quartz timing crystal or RC circuit. 8. Analog-to-digital convertors. 9. Serial ports. 10. Data bus to carry information.
  • 9. Applications Microcontrollers are used in products that are controlled automatically. The various products that make use of microcontrollers in our everyday life are given below: 1. Home: Television, DVD player, Telephone, Fax machine, Cellular phones, Security systems, Camera, Sewing machine, Musical Instrument, Exercising machine, Video games, Computer, Microwave oven. 2. Office: Computers, Printers, Telephones, Fax machine, Security systems.
  • 10. My Application on Microcontroller Air Condition Control: Hardware: 1-tansator (Temp Sensor). 2-Button. 3-Led. 4-LCD Display. 5-Microcontroller (PIC16F877A 8-bit). 6-Crystal 4MHz. 7-Capactor 0.1µF – 22PF – 3.3µF. 8-Resistance 10kΩ - 330 Ω.
  • 11. Circuit Design by Eagle program
  • 13. Software (Code by MikroC program):
  • 14.