MICROPROCESSOR Fabrication of ALU unit & control unit in a single IC package is known as microprocessor and is known as the brain of computer. Tells your computer what to do when to do something and also it decides which task is more important and prioritizes them as the computer’s need. Performs all arithmetical and logical operations and controls I/O functions. It includes :- Control unit ALU I/O unit Register unit Memory unit
SYSTEM BUS Data part –use d to transport data Address part -used to locate the destination to transmit data.REGISTER The ALU is the heart of the CPU performs all data processing functionality and to assist the ALU there is an internal temporary storage exist which hold the data before and after processing and is known as register.
MANUFACTURING PROCESS A CPU is a silicon chip embedded on ceramic plate. The silicon chip a purified silicon doped with a metal oxide(cupper, aluminum) This doping process creates millions of transistors and signal pathway in the die.PACKAGING PGA SEC LGA
CACHE The cache is the first block of RAM which interact between the main memory and CPU using cache controller chip. This memory helps processor to fetch instructions in quick routine and is very faster than RAM.MULTITASKING Is the process or executing more than one application at a time under a supporting OS such as windows 2000/xp.
MULTIPROCESSING Means a system more than one CPU which can greatly increase system performance. Asymmetric symmetric.PREREQUISITE The motherboard must be capable of handling multiple processor. The processor must be compatible with a multiprocessing system. The operating system must support multiprocessing.THROTTLING When heat generation is more than dissipation and the thermal sensor in the CPU detects an unacceptable level of heat throttling allows the CPU to reduce performance to create a balancing temperature in the system.
FSB The FSB connects the computers processor to the system memory (RAM) and other components on the motherboardCLOCK SPEED Clock speed is the rate at which a processor can complete a processing cycle. It is typically measured in megahertz or gigahertz. One megahertz is equal to one million cycles per second, while one gigahertz equals one billion cycles per secondOVERCLOCKING Increase the clock speed, improving performance. Generally performed by hobbyist and game enthusiasts. OEMs generally try to prevent over clocking by disabling custom settings in the CMOS setup program.
SUPERSCALAR DESIGN Superscalar architecture refers to the use of multiple execution units, to allow the processing of more than one instruction at a time Providing multiple instruction with multiple channelsHYPERTHREADING Hyper-Threading enables different parts of the CPU to work on different tasks concurrently. In this way, a CPU with Hyper-Threading appears to be more than one CPU Operating Systems which support Hyper-Threading include Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, Microsoft Windows 2000, Microsoft XP Professional, and most Unix variantsDUAL CORE In the case of dual core processor, the entire chip has two independent computer processors that can work together to increase total computer performance.
MATH-CO-PROCESSOR Is an optional processor used to allow a computer to perform mathematical calculations more efficiently or fasterly.PROCESSOR (INTEL) PROCESSOR BIT YEAR INTEL 4004 4 BIT 1971 INTEL 8085 8 BIT 1977-1980 INTEL 8086 8 BIT 1977-1980 INTEL 80186 16 BIT 1981-1982 INTEL 80286 INTEL 80286 32 BIT 1983 INTEL 80386 32 BIT 1987-1991
INTEL 80486 32 BIT 1987-1991INTEL PENTIUM 1994PENTIUM PRO 64 BIT 1995PENTIUM II 1996PENTIUM MMX 1996PENTIUM III/CELERON 1998PENTIM IV 64 BIT 2000INTEL CORE 64 BIT 2005