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# String matching algorithms

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String matching algorithms in easy way

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### String matching algorithms

1. 1. Presented By:- Ashika Pokiya(12TI083) Guide by:- Nehal Patel STRING MATCHING ALGORITHMS
2. 2. WHAT IS STRING MATCHING • In computer science, string searching algorithms, sometimes called string matching algorithms, that try to find a place where one or several string (also called pattern) are found within a larger string or text.
3. 3. EXAMPLE STRING MATCHING PROBLEM A B C A B A A C A B A B A A TEXT PATTER N SHIFT=3
4. 4. STRING MATCHING ALGORITHMS There are many types of String Matching Algorithms like:- 1) The Naive string-matching algorithm 2) The Rabin-Krap algorithm 3) String matching with finite automata 4) The Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm But we discuss about 2 types of string matching algorithms. 1) The Naive string-matching algorithm 2) The Rabin-Krap algorithm
5. 5. THE NAIVE ALGORITHM The naive algorithm finds all valid shifts using a loop that checks the condition P[1….m]=T[s+1…. s+m] for each of the n- m+1 possible values of s.(P=pattern , T=text/string , s=shift) NAIVE-STRING-MATCHER(T,P) 1) n = T.length 2) m = P.length 3) for s=0 to n-m 4) if P[1…m]==T[s+1….s+m] 5) printf” Pattern occurs with shift ” s
6. 6. EXAMPLE  SUPPOSE, T=1011101110 P=111 FIND ALL VALID SHIFT…… 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0T=Tex t 1 1 1P=Patter n S= 0
7. 7. 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 S= 1
8. 8. 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 S=2 So, S=2 is a valid shift…
9. 9. 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 S=3
10. 10. 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 S=4
11. 11. 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 S=5
12. 12. 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 S=6 So, S=6 is a valid shift…
13. 13. 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 S=7
14. 14. THE RABIN-KARP ALGORITHM  Rabin and Karp proposed a string matching algorithm that performs well in practice and that also generalizes to other algorithms for related problems, such as two-dimentional pattern matching.
15. 15. ALGORITHM RABIN-KARP-MATCHER(T,P,d,q) 1) n = T.length 2) m = P.length 3) h = d^(m-1) mod q 4) p = 0 5) t = 0 6) for i =1 to m //pre-processing 7) p = (dp + P[i]) mod q 8) t = (d t + T[i]) mod q 9) for s = 0 to n – m //matching 10) if p == t 11) if P[1…m] == T[s+1…. s+m] 12) printf “ Pattern occurs with shift ” s 13) if s< n-m 14) t+1 = (d(t- T[s+1]h)+ T[s+m+1]) mod q
16. 16. EXAMPLE Pattern P=26, how many spurious hits does the Rabin Karp matcher in the text T=3 1 4 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5… • T = 3 1 4 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5 P = 2 6 Here T.length=11 so Q=11 and P mod Q = 26 mod 11 = 4 Now find the exact match of P mod Q…
17. 17. 3 1 4 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5 3 1 4 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5 3 1 mod 1 1 = 9 not equal to 4 1 4 mod 1 1 = 3 not equal to 4 4 1 mod 1 1 = 8 not equal to 4 3 1 4 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5 S=1 S=0 S=2
18. 18. 3 1 4 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5 3 1 4 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5 3 1 4 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5 1 5 mod 1 1 = 4 equal to 4 SPURIOUS HIT 5 9 mod 1 1 = 4 equal to 4 SPURIOUS HIT 9 2 mod 1 1 = 4 equal to 4 SPURIOUS HIT S=3 S=4 S=5
19. 19. 3 1 4 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5 3 1 4 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5 3 1 4 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5 2 6 mod 1 1 = 4 EXACT MATCH 6 5 mod 1 1 = 10 not equal to 4 5 3 mod 1 1 = 9 not equal to 4 S=7 S=6 S=8
20. 20. 3 1 4 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5 3 5 mod 1 1 = 2 not equal to 4 S=9 Pattern occurs with shift 6
21. 21. COMPARISSION  The Naive String Matching algorithm slides the pattern one by one. After each slide, it one by one checks characters at the current shift and if all characters match then prints the match.  Like the Naive Algorithm, Rabin-Karp algorithm also slides the pattern one by one. But unlike the Naive algorithm, Rabin Karp algorithm matches the hash value of the pattern with the hash value of current substring of text, and if the hash values match then only it starts matching individual characters.
22. 22. THANK YOU…