- 1. UNIT I Prepared by Dr. R. Arthy, AP/IT Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology (Autonomous), Madurai. CS8792 - CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY
- 2. Agenda ⚫ Security trends ⚫ Legal, Ethical and Professional Aspects of Security ⚫ Need for Security at Multiple levels, Security Policies ⚫ Security attacks, services and mechanism ⚫ OSI security architecture ⚫ Model of network security
- 4. Introduction ⚫ In 1994, the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) issued a report entitled "Security in the Internet Architecture" (RFC 1636). ⚫ Observations - Internet needs more and better security, and it identified key areas for security mechanisms ⚫ Requirements ⚫ Need to secure the network infrastructure from unauthorized monitoring and control of network traffic ⚫ Need to secure end-user-to-end-user traffic using authentication and encryption mechanisms
- 5. ⚫ Reported by the Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) Coordination Center (CERT/CC). ⚫ Internet-related vulnerabilities
- 7. Legal, Ethical, and Professional Issues in Information Security
- 8. Law and Ethics in Information Security ⚫ Laws ⚫ Rules that mandate or prohibit certain behavior ⚫ Drawn from ethics ⚫ Ethics ⚫ Define socially acceptable behaviors ⚫ Key difference ⚫ Laws carry the authority of a governing body ⚫ Ethics do not carry the authority of a governing body ⚫ Based on cultural mores ⚫ Fixed moral attitudes or customs ⚫ Some ethics standards are universal
- 9. Organizational Liability and the Need for Counsel ⚫ Liability ⚫ Legal obligation of organization ⚫ Extends beyond criminal or contract law ⚫ Include legal obligation to restitution ⚫ Employee acting with or without the authorization performs and illegal or unethical act that causes some degree of harm ⚫ Employer can be held financially liable ⚫ Due care ⚫ Organization makes sure that every employee knows what is acceptable or unacceptable ⚫ Knows the consequences of illegal or unethical actions
- 10. Organizational Liability and the Need for Counsel ⚫ Due diligence ⚫ Requires ⚫ Make a valid effort to protect others ⚫ Maintains the effort ⚫ Jurisdiction ⚫ Court’s right to hear a case if a wrong is committed ⚫ Term – long arm ⚫ Extends across the country or around the world
- 11. Policy Versus law ⚫ Policies ⚫ Guidelines that describe acceptable and unacceptable employee behaviors ⚫ Functions as organizational laws ⚫ Has penalties, judicial practices, and sanctions ⚫ Difference between policy and law ⚫ Ignorance of policy is acceptable ⚫ Ignorance of law is unacceptable ⚫ Keys for a policy to be enforceable ⚫ Dissemination ⚫ Review ⚫ Comprehension ⚫ Compliance ⚫ Uniform enforcement
- 12. Types of Law ⚫ Civil – govern a nation or state ⚫ Criminal – addresses activities and conduct harmful to public ⚫ Private – encompasses family, commercial, labor, and regulates the relationship between individuals and organizations ⚫ Public – regulates the structure and administration of government agencies and their relationships with citizens, employees, and other governments
- 13. International Laws and Legal Bodies ⚫ Organizations do business on the Internet – they do business globally ⚫ Professionals must be sensitive to the laws and ethical values of many different cultures, societies, and countries ⚫ Few international laws relating to privacy and informational security ⚫ International laws are limited in their enforceablity
- 14. Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime ⚫ International task force ⚫ Designed to oversee range of security functions ⚫ Designed to standardized technology laws across international borders ⚫ Attempts to improve the effectiveness of international investigations into breaches of technology law ⚫ Concern raised by those concerned with freedom of speech and civil liberties ⚫ Overall goal ⚫ Simplify the acquisition of information for law enforcement agencies in certain types of international crimes
- 15. Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights ⚫ Created by the World Trade Organization ⚫ Introduced intellectual property rules into the multilateral trade system ⚫ First significant international effort to protect intellectual property rights
- 16. Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights ⚫ Covers five issues ⚫ How basic principles of the trading system and other international intellectual property agreements should be applied ⚫ How to give adequate protection to intellectual property rights ⚫ How countries should enforce those rights adequately in their own territories ⚫ How to settle disputes on intellectual property between members of the WTO ⚫ Special transitional arrangements during the period when the new system is being introduced
- 17. Digital Millennium Copyright Act ⚫ American contribution to WTO ⚫ Plan to reduce the impact of copyright, trademark, and privacy infringement ⚫ United Kingdom has implemented a version ⚫ Database Right
- 18. Major IT Professional Organizations ⚫ Association of Computing Machinery ⚫ “World’s first educational and scientific computing society” ⚫ Strongly promotes education ⚫ Provides discounts for student members ⚫ International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium, Inc. (ISC)2 ⚫ Nonprofit organization ⚫ Focuses on the development and implementation of information security certifications and credentials ⚫ Manages a body of knowledge on information security ⚫ Administers and evaluated examinations for information security certifications
- 19. Major IT Professional Organizations ⚫ Information Systems Audit and Control Association ⚫ Focuses on auditing, control, and security ⚫ Membership includes technical and managerial professionals ⚫ Does not focus exclusively on information security ⚫ Has many information security components ⚫ Information Systems Security Associations (ISSA) ⚫ Nonprofit society of information security professionals ⚫ Mission – bring together qualified information security practioners ⚫ Information exchange ⚫ Education development ⚫ Focus – “promoting management practices that will ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of organizational information resources”
- 20. Major IT Professional Organizations ⚫ Systems Administration, Networking, and Security Institute (SANS) ⚫ Professional research and education cooperative ⚫ Current membership > 156,000 ⚫ Security professionals ⚫ Auditors ⚫ System administrators ⚫ Network administrators ⚫ Offers set of certifications
- 21. Federal Agencies ⚫ Department of Homeland Security ⚫ Five directorates or divisions ⚫ Mission – protecting the people as well as the physical and informational assets of the United States ⚫ Directorate of Information and Infrastructure ⚫ Creates and enhances resources used to discover and responds to attacks on national information systems and critical infrastructure ⚫ Directorate of Science and Technology ⚫ Research and development activities in support of homeland defense ⚫ Examination of vulnerabilities ⚫ Sponsors emerging best practices
- 22. Federal Agencies ⚫ National InfraGard Program ⚫ Each FBI office establishes a chapter ⚫ Collaborates with public and private organizations and academia ⚫ Serves members in 4 ways ⚫ Maintains an intrusion alert network using encrypted e-mail ⚫ Maintains a secure Web site for communication about suspicious activity or intrusions ⚫ Sponsors local chapter activities ⚫ Operates a help desk for questions ⚫ Contribution – free exchange of information to and from the private sector in the areas of threats and attacks on information resources
- 23. Federal Agencies ⚫ National Security Agency (NSA) “the nation’s cryptologic organization. It coordinates, directs, and performs highly specialized activities to protect U.S. information systems and produce foreign intelligence information… It is also one of the most important centers of foreign language analysis and research within the Government.” ⚫ U. S. Secret Service ⚫ Located in Department of the Treasury ⚫ Charged with the detection and arrest of any person committing a United States federal offense relating to computer fraud and false identification crimes.
- 25. Services, Mechanisms, Attacks ⚫ need systematic way to define requirements ⚫ consider three aspects of information security: ⚫ security attack ⚫ security mechanism ⚫ security service ⚫ consider in reverse order
- 26. Security Service ⚫ is something that enhances the security of the data processing systems and the information transfers of an organization ⚫ intended to counter security attacks ⚫ make use of one or more security mechanisms to provide the service ⚫ replicate functions normally associated with physical documents ⚫ eg. have signatures, dates; need protection from disclosure, tampering, or destruction; be notarized or witnessed; be recorded or licensed
- 27. Security Mechanism ⚫ a mechanism that is designed to detect, prevent, or recover from a security attack ⚫ no single mechanism that will support all functions required ⚫ however one particular element underlies many of the security mechanisms in use: cryptographic techniques ⚫ hence our focus on this area
- 28. Security Attack ⚫ any action that compromises the security of information owned by an organization ⚫ information security is about how to prevent attacks, or failing that, to detect attacks on information-based systems ⚫ have a wide range of attacks ⚫ can focus of generic types of attacks ⚫ note: often threat & attack mean same
- 29. OSI Security Architecture ⚫ ITU-T X.800 Security Architecture for OSI ⚫ defines a systematic way of defining and providing security requirements ⚫ for us it provides a useful, if abstract, overview of concepts we will study
- 30. Security Services ⚫ X.800 defines it as: a service provided by a protocol layer of communicating open systems, which ensures adequate security of the systems or of data transfers ⚫ RFC 2828 defines it as: a processing or communication service provided by a system to give a specific kind of protection to system resources ⚫ X.800 defines it in 5 major categories
- 31. Security Services (X.800) ⚫ Authentication - assurance that the communicating entity is the one claimed ⚫ Peer entity and Data origin authentication ⚫ Access Control - prevention of the unauthorized use of a resource ⚫ Data Confidentiality –protection of data from unauthorized disclosure ⚫ Connection, Connectionless, Selective Field and Traffic flow ⚫ Data Integrity - assurance that data received is as sent by an authorized entity ⚫ Connection integrity with recovery, Connection integrity without recovery, Connectionless integrity, Selective field connection integrity, Selective field connectionless integrity ⚫ Non-Repudiation - protection against denial by one of the parties in a communication ⚫ Origin and destination
- 32. Security Mechanisms (X.800) ⚫ specific security mechanisms: ⚫ encipherment, digital signatures, access controls, data integrity, authentication exchange, traffic padding, routing control, notarization ⚫ pervasive security mechanisms: ⚫ trusted functionality, security labels, event detection, security audit trails, security recovery
- 33. Relation between Security Services and Mechanisms
- 34. [contd…]
- 36. Classify Security Attacks as ⚫ passive attacks - eavesdropping on, or monitoring of, transmissions to: ⚫ obtain message contents, or ⚫ monitor traffic flows ⚫ active attacks – modification of data stream to: ⚫ masquerade of one entity as some other ⚫ replay previous messages ⚫ modify messages in transit ⚫ denial of service
- 37. Model for Network Security
- 38. Model for Network Security ⚫ using this model requires us to: ⚫ design a suitable algorithm for the security transformation ⚫ generate the secret information (keys) used by the algorithm ⚫ develop methods to distribute and share the secret information ⚫ specify a protocol enabling the principals to use the transformation and secret information for a security service
- 39. Model for Network Access Security
- 41. Algorithms Substitution Caesar Cipher Shift Cipher Playfair Cipher Vigenere Cipher Auto Key Cipher One Time Pad Hill Cipher Affine Cipher Transposition Rail Fence Row Columnar Transposition
- 42. Algorithms Substitution Caesar Cipher Shift Cipher Playfair Cipher Vigenere Cipher Auto Key Cipher One Time Pad Hill Cipher Affine Cipher Transposition Rail Fence Row Columnar Transposition
- 43. Brute Force Attack in Shift Cipher Step 1: Hacking
- 44. [contd…] Step 2: Try with possible keys Example UNQC FQFUHI BUQAUT QJ QXQ.SEC 1 UNQC FQFUHI BUQAUT QJ QXQ.SEC 2 TMPB EPETGH ATPZTS PI PWP.RDB 3 SLOA DODSFG ZSOYSR OH OVO.QCA 4 RKNZ CNCREF YRNXRQ NG NUN.PBZ 5 QJMY BMBQDE XQMWQP MF MTM.OAY 6 PILX ALAPCD WPLVPO LE LSL.NZX 7 OHKW ZKZOBC VOKUON KD KRK.MYW 8 NGJV YJYNAB UNJTNM JC JQJ.LXV 9 MFIU XIXMZA TMISML IB IPI.KWU 10 LEHT WHWLYZ SLHRLK HA HOH.JVT 11 KDGS VGVKXY RKGQKJ GZ GNG.IUS 12 JCFR UFUJWX QJFPJI FY FMF.HTR 13 IBEQ TETIVW PIEOIH EX ELE.GSQ 14 HADP SDSHUV OHDNHG DW DKD.FRP 15 GZCO RCRGTU NGCMGF CV CJC.EQO 16 FYBN QBQFST MFBLFE BU BIB.DPN 17 EXAM PAPERS LEAKED AT AHA.COM 18 DWZL OZODQR KDZJDC ZS ZGZ.BNL 19 CVYK NYNCPQ JCYICB YR YFY.AMK 20 BUXJ MXMBOP IBXHBA XQ XEX.ZLJ 21 ATWI LWLANO HAWGAZ WP WDW.YKI 22 ZSVH KVKZMN GZVFZY VO VCV.XJH 23 YRUG JUJYLM FYUEYX UN UBU.WIG 24 XQTF ITIXKL EXTDXW TM TAT.VHF 25 WPSE HSHWJK DWSCWV SL SZS.UGE
- 45. Algorithms Substitution Caesar Cipher Shift Cipher Playfair Cipher Vigenere Cipher Auto Key Cipher One Time Pad Hill Cipher Affine Cipher Transposition Rail Fence Row Columnar Transposition
- 46. Advantage It is significantly harder to break since the frequency analysis technique used to break simple substitution ciphers is difficult but still can be used on (25*25) = 625 digraphs rather than 25 monographs which is difficult. Frequency analysis thus requires more cipher text to crack the encryption.
- 47. Disadvantage An interesting weakness is the fact that a digraph in the ciphertext (AB) and it’s reverse (BA) will have corresponding plaintexts like UR and RU. That can easily be exploited with the aid of frequency analysis, if the language of the plaintext is known. Another disadvantage is that playfair cipher is a symmetric cipher thus same key is used for both encryption and decryption.
- 48. Algorithms Substitution Caesar Cipher Shift Cipher Playfair Cipher Vigenere Cipher Auto Key Cipher One Time Pad Hill Cipher Affine Cipher Transposition Rail Fence Row Columnar Transposition
- 49. Introduction The encryption of the original text is done using the Vigenère square or Vigenère table. The Vigenère table uses a 26×26 matrix with A to Z as the row heading and column heading The Vigenère cipher is an example of a polyalphabetic substitution cipher. A polyalphabetic substitution cipher is similar to a monoalphabetic substitution except that the cipher alphabet is changed periodically while enciphering the message.
- 50. Vigenère Cipher Encryption The plaintext(P) and key(K) are added modulo 26. Ci = (Pi + Ki) mod 26 Decryption Pi = (Ci - Ki + 26) mod 26
- 51. Vigenère table
- 52. Example - Encryption Plain Text – a simple example Key – crypto a s i m p l e e x a m p l e c r y p t o c r y p t o c r C J G B I Z G V V P F D N V Plain Text (P) Key (K) Cipher Text (C)
- 53. [contd…] Plain Text – a simple example Key – crypto a s i m p l e e x a m p l e c r y p t o c r y p t o c r 0 18 8 12 15 11 4 4 23 0 12 15 11 4 2 17 24 15 19 14 2 17 24 15 19 14 2 17 2 9 6 1 8 25 6 21 21 15 5 3 13 21 C J G B I Z G V V P F D N V Plain Text (P) Cipher Text (C) Plain Text (Pi) Key (Ki) Cipher Text (Ci) Key (K)
- 54. Decryption Reverse of encryption
- 55. Example Cipher Text – CJGBIZGVVPFDNV Key – crypto C J G B I Z G V V P F D N V c r y p t o c r y p t o c r a s i m p l e e x a m p l e Plain Text (P) Key (K) Cipher Text (C)
- 56. [contd…] Cipher Text – CJGBIZGVVPFDNV Key – crypto C J G B I Z G V V P F D N V c r y p t o c r y p t o c r 2 9 6 1 8 25 6 21 21 15 5 3 13 21 2 17 24 15 19 14 2 17 24 15 19 14 2 17 0 18 8 12 15 11 4 4 23 0 12 15 11 4 a s i m p l e e x a m p l e Plain Text (P) Cipher Text (C) Plain Text (Pi) Key (Ki) Cipher Text (Ci) Key (K)
- 57. Algorithms Substitution Caesar Cipher Shift Cipher Playfair Cipher Vigenere Cipher Auto Key Cipher One Time Pad Hill Cipher Affine Cipher Transposition Rail Fence Row Columnar Transposition
- 58. Introduction Autokey Cipher is a polyalphabetic substitution cipher. It is closely related to the Vigenere cipher but uses a different method of generating the key.
- 59. Auto Key Cipher Encryption The plaintext(P) and key(K) are added modulo 26. Ci = (Pi + Ki) mod 26 Decryption Pi = (Ci - Ki + 26) mod 26
- 60. Example - Encryption Plain Text – a simple example Key – crypto a s i m p l e e x a m p l e c r y p t o a s i m p l e e C J G B I Z E W F M B A P I Plain Text (P) Key (K) Cipher Text (C)
- 61. [contd…] Plain Text – a simple example Key – crypto a s i m p l e e x a m p l e c r y p t o a s i m p l e e 0 18 8 12 15 11 4 4 23 0 12 15 11 4 2 17 24 15 19 14 0 18 8 12 15 11 4 4 2 9 6 1 8 25 4 22 5 12 1 0 15 8 C J G B I Z E W F M B A P I Plain Text (P) Cipher Text (C) Plain Text (Pi) Key (Ki) Cipher Text (Ci) Key (K)
- 62. Decryption Reverse of encryption
- 63. Example Cipher Text – CJGBIZEWFMBAPI Key – crypto C J G B I Z E W F M B A P I c r y p t o a s i m p l e e a s i m p l e e x a m p l e Plain Text (P) Key (K) Cipher Text (C)
- 64. [contd…] Cipher Text – CJGBIZEWFMBAPI Key – crypto C J G B I Z E W F M B A P I c r y p t o a s i m p l e e 2 9 6 1 8 25 4 22 5 12 1 0 15 8 2 17 24 15 19 14 0 18 8 12 15 11 4 4 0 18 8 12 15 11 4 4 23 0 12 15 11 4 a s i m p l e e x a m p l e Plain Text (P) Cipher Text (C) Plain Text (Pi) Key (Ki) Cipher Text (Ci) Key (K)
- 65. Algorithms Substitution Caesar Cipher Shift Cipher Playfair Cipher Vigenere Cipher Auto Key Cipher One Time Pad Hill Cipher Affine Cipher Transposition Rail Fence Row Columnar Transposition
- 66. Introduction One-time pad cipher is a type of Vignere cipher which includes the following features − It is an unbreakable cipher. The key is exactly same as the length of message which is encrypted. The key is made up of random symbols. As the name suggests, key is used one time only and never used again for any other message to be encrypted.
- 67. Why is it Unbreakable? The key is unbreakable owing to the following features The key is as long as the given message. The key is truly random and specially auto-generated. Each key should be used once and destroyed by both sender and receiver. There should be two copies of key: one with the sender and other with the receiver.
- 68. Algorithms Substitution Caesar Cipher Shift Cipher Playfair Cipher Vigenere Cipher Auto Key Cipher One Time Pad Hill Cipher Affine Cipher Transposition Rail Fence Row Columnar Transposition
- 69. Introduction In a transposition cipher, the order of the alphabets is re-arranged to obtain the cipher-text. A simple form of Rail Fence Plain Text – defend the east wall Key - 2
- 70. Encryption In the rail fence cipher, the plain-text is written downwards and diagonally on successive rails of an imaginary fence. When we reach the bottom rail, we traverse upwards moving diagonally, after reaching the top rail, the direction is changed again. Thus the alphabets of the message are written in a zig-zag manner. After each alphabet has been written, the individual rows are combined to obtain the cipher-text.
- 71. Example Plain Text – defend the east wall Key – 3 Cipher Text - DNETLEEDHESWLXFTAAX
- 72. Decryption Size of the Matrix = key * length(cipher text) Once we’ve got the matrix we can figure-out the spots where texts should be placed (using the same way of moving diagonally up and down alternatively ). Then, we fill the cipher-text row wise. After filling it, we traverse the matrix in zig-zag manner to obtain the original text.
- 73. Example Cipher Text – DNETLEEDHESWLXFTAAX Key – 3 Size of the matrix = key * length(cipher text) = 3 * 19 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * D N E T L * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
- 74. [contd…] D N E T L E E D H E S W L X * * * * * D N E T L E E D H E S W L X F T A A X Plain Text – defend the east wall
- 75. Algorithms Substitution Caesar Cipher Shift Cipher Playfair Cipher Vigenere Cipher Auto Key Cipher One Time Pad Hill Cipher Affine Cipher Transposition Rail Fence Row Columnar Transposition
- 76. Introduction The Columnar Transposition Cipher is a form of transposition cipher just like Rail Fence Cipher. Columnar Transposition involves writing the plaintext out in rows, and then reading the ciphertext off in columns one by one. Plain Text - "a simple transposition" Cipher Text "ALNISESTITPIMROOPASN"
- 77. Encryption The message is written out in rows of a fixed length, and then read out again column by column, and the columns are chosen in some scrambled order. Width of the rows and the permutation of the columns are usually defined by a keyword. For example, the word HACK is of length 4 (so the rows are of length 4), and the permutation is defined by the alphabetical order of the letters in the keyword. In this case, the order would be “3 1 2 4”. Any spare spaces are filled with nulls or left blank or placed by a character (Example: _). Finally, the message is read off in columns, in the order specified by the keyword.
- 78. Example Plain Text - "The tomato is a plant in the nightshade family“ Keyword - tomato Cipher Text - "TINESAXEOAHTFXHT LTHEYMAIIAIXTA PNGDLOSTNHMX".
- 79. Decryption To decipher it, the recipient has to work out the column lengths by dividing the message length by the key length. Then, write the message out in columns again, then re- order the columns by reforming the key word.
- 80. Example Cipher Text - "TINESAXEOAHTFXHTLTHEYMAIIAIXTA PNGDLOSTNHMX". Keyword - tomato Number of rows = length(cipher text)/length(keyword) = 42 / 6 = 7
- 81. [contd…] T O M A T O 5 3 2 1 6 4 T O M A T O 5 3 2 1 6 4 T I N E S A X
- 82. [contd…] T O M A T O 5 3 2 1 6 4 E T O I A N H E T S F A X X T O M A T O 5 3 2 1 6 4 H E T T O I L A N T H E H T S E F A Y X X
- 83. [contd…] T O M A T O 5 3 2 1 6 4 H E T M T O I A L A N I T H E I H T S A E F A I Y X X X T O M A T O 5 3 2 1 6 4 T H E T M A T O I A P L A N I N T H E I G H T S A D E F A I L Y X X X
- 84. [contd…] T O M A T O 5 3 2 1 6 4 T H E T O M A T O I S A P L A N T I N T H E N I G H T S H A D E F A M I L Y X X X X Plain Text - "The tomato is a plant in the nightshade family“
- 86. Algorithms Substitution Caesar Cipher Shift Cipher Playfair Cipher Vigenere Cipher Auto Key Cipher One Time Pad Hill Cipher Affine Cipher Transposition Rail Fence Row Columnar Transposition
- 87. Introduction In a transposition cipher, the order of the alphabets is re-arranged to obtain the cipher-text. A simple form of Rail Fence Plain Text – defend the east wall Key - 2
- 88. Encryption In the rail fence cipher, the plain-text is written downwards and diagonally on successive rails of an imaginary fence. When we reach the bottom rail, we traverse upwards moving diagonally, after reaching the top rail, the direction is changed again. Thus the alphabets of the message are written in a zig-zag manner. After each alphabet has been written, the individual rows are combined to obtain the cipher-text.
- 89. Example Plain Text – defend the east wall Key – 3 Cipher Text - DNETLEEDHESWLXFTAAX
- 90. Decryption Size of the Matrix = key * length(cipher text) Once we’ve got the matrix we can figure-out the spots where texts should be placed (using the same way of moving diagonally up and down alternatively ). Then, we fill the cipher-text row wise. After filling it, we traverse the matrix in zig-zag manner to obtain the original text.
- 91. Example Cipher Text – DNETLEEDHESWLXFTAAX Key – 3 Size of the matrix = key * length(cipher text) = 3 * 19 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * D N E T L * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
- 92. [contd…] D N E T L E E D H E S W L X * * * * * D N E T L E E D H E S W L X F T A A X Plain Text – defend the east wall
- 93. Algorithms Substitution Caesar Cipher Shift Cipher Playfair Cipher Vigenere Cipher Auto Key Cipher One Time Pad Hill Cipher Affine Cipher Transposition Rail Fence Row Columnar Transposition
- 94. Introduction The Columnar Transposition Cipher is a form of transposition cipher just like Rail Fence Cipher. Columnar Transposition involves writing the plaintext out in rows, and then reading the ciphertext off in columns one by one. Plain Text - "a simple transposition" Cipher Text "ALNISESTITPIMROOPASN"
- 95. Encryption The message is written out in rows of a fixed length, and then read out again column by column, and the columns are chosen in some scrambled order. Width of the rows and the permutation of the columns are usually defined by a keyword. For example, the word HACK is of length 4 (so the rows are of length 4), and the permutation is defined by the alphabetical order of the letters in the keyword. In this case, the order would be “3 1 2 4”. Any spare spaces are filled with nulls or left blank or placed by a character (Example: _). Finally, the message is read off in columns, in the order specified by the keyword.
- 96. Example Plain Text - "The tomato is a plant in the nightshade family“ Keyword - tomato Cipher Text - "TINESAXEOAHTFXHT LTHEYMAIIAIXTA PNGDLOSTNHMX".
- 97. Decryption To decipher it, the recipient has to work out the column lengths by dividing the message length by the key length. Then, write the message out in columns again, then re- order the columns by reforming the key word.
- 98. Example Cipher Text - "TINESAXEOAHTFXHTLTHEYMAIIAIXTA PNGDLOSTNHMX". Keyword - tomato Number of rows = length(cipher text)/length(keyword) = 42 / 6 = 7
- 99. [contd…] T O M A T O 5 3 2 1 6 4 T O M A T O 5 3 2 1 6 4 T I N E S A X
- 100. [contd…] T O M A T O 5 3 2 1 6 4 E T O I A N H E T S F A X X T O M A T O 5 3 2 1 6 4 H E T T O I L A N T H E H T S E F A Y X X
- 101. [contd…] T O M A T O 5 3 2 1 6 4 H E T M T O I A L A N I T H E I H T S A E F A I Y X X X T O M A T O 5 3 2 1 6 4 T H E T M A T O I A P L A N I N T H E I G H T S A D E F A I L Y X X X
- 102. [contd…] T O M A T O 5 3 2 1 6 4 T H E T O M A T O I S A P L A N T I N T H E N I G H T S H A D E F A M I L Y X X X X Plain Text - "The tomato is a plant in the nightshade family“
- 103. Algorithms Substitution Caesar Cipher Shift Cipher Playfair Cipher Vigenere Cipher Auto Key Cipher One Time Pad Hill Cipher Affine Cipher Transposition Rail Fence Row Columnar Transposition
- 104. Affine Cipher The Affine Cipher is another example of a Monoalphabetic Substitution cipher. Encryption C = (aP + b) mod 26 where a and b are the key for the cipher. Decryption P = a-1(C - b) mod 26 a x a-1 = 1 mod 26
- 105. Example - Encryption Plain text c o o l 2 14 14 11 5P + 8 18 78 78 63 (5P + 8)mod 26 18 0 0 11 Cipher text S A A L Plain Text – cool a = 5 b = 8
- 106. Example - Decryption Cipher text S A A L 18 0 0 11 C – 8 10 -8 -8 3 21(C – 8) 210 -168 -168 63 21(C – 8) mod 26 2 14 14 11 Plain text c o o l Cipher Text – SAAL a = 5 b = 8 To find a-1 a x a-1 = 1 mod 26 5 x a-1 = 1 mod 26 5 x 21 = 1 mod 26
- 107. Tryout Encipher “affine” if the encipherment function is E(x) = (5x + 8) MOD 26. Decipher HPCCXAQ if the encipherment function is E(x) = (5x + 8) MOD 26.
- 108. CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY PLAYFAIR CIPHER 06.08.2020
- 109. INTRODUCTION Playfair cipher was the first practical digraph substitution cipher. The scheme was invented in 1854 by Charles Wheatstone but was named after Lord Playfair who promoted the use of the cipher. It was used in World War I and II. Encryption Steps: Step 1: Key Generation Step 2: Encryption Process
- 110. STEP 1: KEY GENERATION Key Size: 5 X 5 Key representation: matrix I and J occupies same place. Example: Key – “MONARCHY”
- 111. STEP 2: ENCRYPTION PROCESS Pair the given plain text. If the pair contains same letter then insert least frequently occurring letter and repair it. Rule 1: If both the letters are in the same column: Take the letter below each one (going back to the top if at the bottom). Example Diagraph: "me" Encrypted Text: cl Encryption: m c e l
- 112. [CONTD… Rule 2: If both the letters are in the same row: Take the letter to the right of each one (going back to the leftmost if at the rightmost position). Example: Diagraph: "st" Encrypted Text: tl Encryption: s t t l
- 113. [CONTD…] Step 3: If neither of the above rules is true: Form a rectangle with the two letters and take the letters on the horizontal opposite corner of the rectangle. Example: Diagraph: "nt" Encrypted Text: rq Encryption: n r t q
- 114. DECRYPTION PROCESS Reverse of Encryption process
- 115. ADVANTAGE It is significantly harder to break since the frequency analysis technique used to break simple substitution ciphers is difficult but still can be used on (25*25) = 625 digraphs rather than 25 monographs which is difficult. Frequency analysis thus requires more cipher text to crack the encryption.
- 116. DISADVANTAGE An interesting weakness is the fact that a digraph in the ciphertext (AB) and it’s reverse (BA) will have corresponding plaintexts like UR and RU. That can easily be exploited with the aid of frequency analysis, if the language of the plaintext is known. Another disadvantage is that playfair cipher is a symmetric cipher thus same key is used for both encryption and decryption.
- 117. TRY OUT Use Playfair cipher to encrypt the Plain Text – “cryptography” using Key – “secret”. Find the plain text give cipher text as “GQRMCGTKXEWVPNLX” with the key as “world”.
- 118. CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY HILL CIPHER
- 119. INTRODUCTION The Hill Cipher was invented by Lester S. Hill in 1929. It is a polygraphic substitution cipher. The Hill Cipher uses an area of mathematics called Linear Algebra. in particular requires the user to have an elementary understanding of matrices. It also make use of Modulo Arithmetic Inputs : String of English letters, A,B,…,Z. An nn matrix K, with entries drawn from 0,1,…,25. (The matrix K serves as the secret key. ) Divide the input string into blocks of size n.
- 120. FORMULA Encryption C = PK mod 26 Decryption P = K-1C mod 26
- 121. ENCRYPTION – 2 X 2 Let us consider the plaintext as – xyzsdfgh Let us consider the key as – Encryption Steps: 1. Grouping – Size of the group is 2 since the key matrix size is 2 {xy, zs, df, gh} 2. Perform encryption using the encryption formula. Hence,
- 122. ENCRYPTION – 3 X 3 Let us consider the plaintext as – xyzsdfghs Let us consider the key as – Encryption Steps: 1. Grouping – Size of the group is 3 since the key matrix size is 3 {xyz, sdf, ghs} 2. Perform encryption using the encryption formula. Hence,
- 123. DECRYPTION – 2 X 2 Let us consider the key as – Steps to find K-1: 1. Find the Multiplicative Inverse of the Determinant 2. Find the Adjugate Matrix 3. Multiply the Multiplicative Inverse of the Determinant by the Adjugate Matrix
- 124. DECRYPTION – 3 X 3 Let us consider the key as – Steps to find K-1: 1. Find the Multiplicative Inverse of the Determinant
- 125. DECRYPTION – 3 X 3 2. Find the Adjugate Matrix 3. Multiply the Multiplicative Inverse of the Determinant by the Adjugate Matrix
- 126. CRYPTOGRAPHYAND NETWORK SECURITY Foundations of Modern Cryptography 11.09.2020
- 127. INTRODUCTION Modern cryptography is the cornerstone of computer and communications security. Its foundation is based on various concepts of mathematics such as number theory, computational- complexity theory, and probability theory.
- 128. CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN CRYPTOGRAPHY Classic Cryptography Modern Cryptography It manipulates traditional characters, i.e., letters and digits directly. It operates on binary bit sequences. It is mainly based on ‗security through obscurity‘. The techniques employed for coding were kept secret and only the parties involved in communication knew about them. It relies on publicly known mathematical algorithms for coding the information. Secrecy is obtained through a secrete key which is used as the seed for the algorithms. The computational difficulty of algorithms, absence of secret key, etc., make it impossible for an attacker to obtain the original information even if he knows the algorithm used for coding. It requires the entire cryptosystem for communicating confidentially. Modern cryptography requires parties interested in secure communication to possess the secret key only.
- 130. PRIVACY Alice wants to send a message to Bob without an adversary Eve figuring out the message.
- 131. INTEGRITY AND AUTHENTICITY Bob wants to make sure that the message that he received from Alice is indeed sent by her and not modified during transit.
- 132. PERFECT WORLD There is a super-strong pipe between Alice and Bob. Both privacy and authenticity goals are met.
- 133. REAL WORLD The channel between Alice and Bob is public. Assume that Alice and Bob share some secret K. Alice encodes her message M using a public encryption algorithm E and K. We write C = EK(M). Bob decrypts Alice‘s message using a public decryption algorithm D and K. We write M = DK(C).
- 134. SHANNON‘S ONE TIME PAD EK(M) = K (XOR) M and DK(C) = K (XOR) C Example: 101 (XOR) 111 = 010 101 (XOR) 010 = 111 Is this protocol secure? Yes. The adversary can only guess each bit with probability ½. Problem: The key is as long as the message.
- 135. PSEUDORANDOMNESS Suppose there was a generator that stretches random bits. Idea: Choose a short key K randomly. Obtain K’=G(K). Use K’ as key for the one time pad. Issue: Such a generator is not possible! Any such generator produces a longer string but the string is not random.
- 136. [CONTD…] What if there is a generator that produces strings that ―appear to be random‖. The bits are pseudorandom. General idea: The bits are not really random but they are as good as random so we‘ll just use them for our purpose. Approach for proving security: Carefully define pseudorandomness (―appears to be random‖). Argue that if there is an adversary that breaks the protocol (our one time pad), then the bit string produced by G is not really pseudorandom.
- 137. ATTACKS Ciphertext only Known plaintext Chosen plaintext Chosen ciphertext
- 138. PERFECT SECRECY - BASIC CONCEPTS Let P, K and C be sets of plaintexts, keys and cryptotexts. Let pK(k) be the probability that the key k is chosen from K and let a priory probability that plaintext w is chosen is pp(w). If for a key , then for the probability PC(y) that c is the cryptotext that is transmitted it holds For the conditional probability pc(c|w) that c is the cryptotext if w is the plaintext it holds Using Bayes' conditional probability formula p(y)p(x|y) = p(x)p(y|x) we get for probability pP(w|c) that w is the plaintext if c is the cryptotext the expression P | K, w w e k C k k . | k C c k k P K C c d p k p c p . | | c d w k K C k k p w c p . | | K C c k K P K c k d w k K P c d p k p k p w P P p
- 139. PERFECT SECRECY - BASIC RESULTS Definition A cryptosystem has perfect secrecy if (That is, the a posteriori probability that the plaintext is w,given that the cryptotext is c is obtained, is the same as a priori probability that the plaintext is w.) Example CAESAR cryptosystem has perfect secrecy if any of the26 keys is used with the same probability to encode any symbol of the plaintext. C. and P all for | c w w p c w p P P
- 140. PERFECT SECRECY - BASIC RESULTS An analysis of perfect secrecy: The condition pP(w|c) = pP(w) is for all wP and cC equivalent to the condition pC(c|w) = pC(c). Let us now assume that pC(c) > 0 for all cC. Fix wP. For each cC we have pC(c|w) = pC(c) > 0. Hence, for each c€C there must exists at least one key k such that ek(w) = c. Consequently, |K| >= |C| >= |P|. In a special case |K| = |C| = |P|. the following nice characterization of the perfect secrecy can be obtained: Theorem A cryptosystem in which |P| = |K| = |C| provides perfect secrecy if and only if every key is used with the same probability and for every wP and every c€C there is a unique key k such that ek(w) = c.
- 142. PRODUCT CRYPTOSYSTEMS A cryptosystem S = (P, K, C, e, d) with the sets of plaintexts P, keys K and cryptotexts C and encryption (decryption) algorithms e (d) is called endomorphic if P = C. If S1 = (P, K1, P, e(1), d (1)) and S2 = (P, K2, P, e (2), d (2)) are endomorphic cryptosystems, then the product cryptosystem is S1 S2 = (P, K1 K2, P, e, d), where encryption is performed by the procedure e( k1, k2 )(w) = ek2(ek1(w)) and decryption by the procedure d( k1, k2 )(c) = dk1(dk2(c)). Example (Multiplicative cryptosystem): Encryption: ea(w) = aw mod p; decryption: da(c) = a-1c mod 26. If M denote the multiplicative cryptosystem, then clearly CAESAR × M is actually the AFFINE cryptosystem. Exercise Show that also M CAESAR is actually the AFFINE cryptosystem. Two cryptosystems S1 and S2 are called commutative if S1 S2 = S2 S1. A cryptosystem S is called idempotent if S S = S.
- 143. EXERCISES IV For the following pairs plaintext-cryptotext determine which cryptosystem was used: - COMPUTER - HOWEWVER THE REST UNDERESTIMATES ZANINESS YOUR JUDICIOUS WISDOM - SAUNAAND LIFE – RMEMHCZZTCEZTZKKDA A spy group received info about the arrival of a new member. Thesecret police succeeded in learning the message and knew that it wasencrypted using the HILL cryptosystem with a matrix of degree 2. It also learned that the code ``10 3 11 21 19 5'' stands for the name ofthe spy and ``24 19 16 19 5 21'', for the city, TANGER, the spy should come from. What is the name of the spy? Decrypt the following cryptotexts. (Not all plaintexts are in English.) - WFLEUKZFEKZFEJFWTFDGLKZEX - DANVHEYD SEHHGKIIAJ VQN GNULPKCNWLDEA - DHAJAHDGAJDI AIAJ AIAJDJEH DHAJAHDGAJDI AIDJ AIBIAJDJDHAJAHDGAJDI AIAJ DIDGCIBIDH DHAJAHDGAJDI AIAJ DICIDJDH - KLJPMYHUKV LZALALEAV LZ TBF MHJPS Find the largest possible word in Czech language such that its nontrivial encoding by CAESAR is again a meaningful Czech word. Find the longest possible meaningful word in a European language such that some of its non- trivial encoding by CAESAR is again ameaningful word in a European language (For example: e3(COLD) = FROG).
- 144. EXERCISES IV Decrypt the following cryptotext obtained by encryption with an AFFINE cryptosystem: KQEREJEBCPPCJCRKIEACUZBKRVPKRBCIBQCARBJCVFCUPKRIOFKPACUZQEPBKR XPEIIEABDKPBCPFCDCCAFIEABDKPBCPFEQPKAZBKRHAIBKAPCCIBURCCDKDCCJ CIDFUIXPAFFERBICZDFKABICBBENEFCUPJCVKABPCYDCCDPKBCOCPERKIVKSCPI CBRKIJPKAI Suppose we are told that the plaintext ―FRIDAY'' yields the cryptotext ―PQCFKU'' with a HALL cryptosystem. Determine the encryption matrix. Suppose we are told that the plaintext ―BREATHTAKING‖' yieldsthe cryptotext ―RUPOTENTOSUP'' with a HILL cryptosystem. Determine the encryption matrix. Decrypt the following cryptotext, obtained using the AUTOKLAVE cryptotext (using exhaustive search ?) MALVVMAFBHBUQPTSOXALTGVWWRG Design interesting cryptograms in (at least) one of the languages: Czech, French, Spanish, Chines? Show that each permutation cryptosystem is a special case of the HILL cryptosystem. How many 2 × 2 matrices are there that are invertible over Zp, where p is a prime. Invent your own interesting and quite secure cryptosystem.
- 146. CIA Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability Confidentiality: prevent unauthorized reading of information Integrity: prevent unauthorized writing of information Availability: data is available in a timely manner when needed Availability is a ―new‖ security concern Due to denial of service (DoS) threats Intro 29
- 147. CRYPTO Cryptology The art and science of making and breaking ―secret codes‖ Cryptography making ―secret codes‖ Cryptanalysis breaking ―secret codes‖ Crypto all of the above (and more) Intro 30
- 148. HOW TO SPEAK CRYPTO A cipher or cryptosystem is used to encrypt the plaintext The result of encryption is ciphertext We decrypt ciphertext to recover plaintext A key is used to configure a cryptosystem A symmetric key cryptosystem uses the same key to encrypt as to decrypt A public key cryptosystem uses a public key to encrypt and a private key to decrypt Private key can be used to sign and public key used to verify signature (more on this later…) Intro 31
- 149. CRYPTO Underlying assumption The system is completely known to Trudy Only the key is secret Also known as Kerckhoffs Principle Crypto algorithms are not secret Why do we make this assumption? Experience has shown that secret algorithms are often weak when exposed Secret algorithms never remain secret Better to find weaknesses beforehand Intro 32
- 150. CRYPTO AS A BLACK BOX Note Pi is ith ―unit‖ of plaintext And Ci is corresponding ciphertext ―Unit‖ may be bit, letter, block of bits, etc. Intro 33 plaintext key key ciphertext encrypt decrypt Pi Pi Ci plaintext
- 151. WHO KNOWS WHAT? Trudy knows the ciphertext Trudy knows the cipher and how it works Trudy might know a little more Trudy does not know the key Intro 34 plaintext key key ciphertext encrypt decrypt Pi Pi Ci plaintext Alice Bob Trudy
- 152. TAXONOMY OF CRYPTOGRAPHY Symmetric Key Same key for encryption as for decryption Stream ciphers and block ciphers Public Key Two keys, one for encryption (public), and one for decryption (private) Digital signatures nothing comparable in symmetric key crypto Hash algorithms Intro 35
- 153. CRYPTANALYSIS This course focused on cryptanalysis Trudy wants to recover key or plaintext Trudy is not bound by any rules For example, Trudy might attack the implementation, not the algorithm itself She might use ―side channel‖ info, etc. Intro 36
- 154. EXHAUSTIVE KEY SEARCH How can Trudy attack a cipher? She can simply try all possible keys and test each to see if it is correct Exhaustive key search To prevent an exhaustive key search, a cryptosystem must have a large keyspace Must be too many keys for Trudy to try them all in any reasonable amount of time Intro 37
- 155. BEYOND EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH A large keyspace is necessary for security But a large keyspace is not sufficient Shortcut attacks might exist We‘ll see many examples of shortcut attacks In cryptography we can (almost) never prove that no shortcut attack exists This makes cryptography interesting… Intro 38
- 156. TAXONOMY OF CRYPTANALYSIS Ciphertext only — always an option Known plaintext — possible in many cases Chosen plaintext ―Lunchtime attack‖ Protocols might encrypt chosen text Adaptively chosen plaintext Related key Forward search (public key crypto only) ―Rubber hose‖, bribery, etc., etc., etc. Intro 39
- 157. DEFINITION OF SECURE A cryptosystem is secure if the best know attack is to try all possible keys Cryptosystem is insecure if any shortcut attack is known By this definition, an insecure system might be harder to break than a secure system! Intro 40
- 158. DEFINITION OF SECURE Why do we define secure this way? The size of the keyspace is the ―advertised‖ level of security If an attack requires less work, then false advertising A cipher must be secure (by our definition) and have a ―large‖ keyspace Too big for an exhaustive key search Intro 41
- 159. THEORETICAL CRYPTANALYSIS Suppose that a cipher has a 100 bit key Then keyspace is of size 2100 On average, for exhaustive search Trudy tests 2100/2 = 299 keys Suppose Trudy can test 230 keys/second Then she can find the key in about 37.4 trillion years Intro 42
- 160. THEORETICAL CRYPTANALYSIS Suppose that a cipher has a 100 bit key Then keyspace is of size 2100 Suppose there is a shortcut attack with ―work‖ equal to testing about 280 keys If Trudy can test 230 per second Then she finds key in 36 million years Better than 37 trillion, but not practical Intro 43
- 161. APPLIED CRYPTANALYSIS In this class, we focus on attacks that produce plaintext Not interested in attacks that just show a theoretical weakness in a cipher We call this applied cryptanalysis Why applied cryptanalysis? Because it‘s a lot more fun… And it‘s a good place to start Intro 44
- 162. APPLIED CRYPTANALYSIS: OVERVIEW Classic (pen and paper) ciphers Transposition, substitution, etc. Same principles appear in later sections World War II ciphers Enigma, Purple, Sigaba Stream ciphers Shift registers, correlation attack, ORYX, RC4, PKZIP Intro 45
- 163. APPLIED CRYPTANALYSIS: OVERVIEW Block ciphers Hellman‘s TMTO, CMEA, Akelarre, FEAL Hash functions Nostradamus attack, MD4, MD5 Public key crypto Knapsack, Diffie-Hellman, Arithmetica, RSA, Rabin, NTRU, ElGamal Factoring, discrete log, timing, glitching Intro 46
- 164. WHY STUDY CRYPTOGRAPHY? Information security is a big topic Crypto, Access control, Protocols, Software Real world info security problems abound Cryptography is the part of information security that works best Using crypto correctly is important The more we make other parts of security behave like crypto, the better Intro 47
- 165. WHY STUDY CRYPTANALYSIS? Study of cryptanalysis gives insight into all aspects of crypto Gain insight into attacker‘s mindset ―black hat‖ vs ―white hat‖ mentality Cryptanalysis is more fun than cryptography Cryptographers are boring Cryptanalysts are cool But cryptanalysis is hard Intro 48
- 166. QUESTION 1 Caesar wants to arrange a secret meeting with Antony, either at the Tiber (the river) or at the Coliseum (the arena). He sends the cipher text EVIRE. However, Antony does not know the key, so he tries all possibilities. Where will he meet Caesar?
- 167. QUESTION 2 M F H I/J K U N O P Q Z V W X Y E L A R G D S T B C Using this Playfair matrix Encrypt the message: ―Must see you over Cadogan West, Coming at once‖
- 168. QUESTION 3 Decipher the message, YIFZMA using the Hill cipher with the inverse key. 3 2 13 9
- 169. QUESTION 4 Encrypt the message ―PAY‖ using hill cipher with the following key matrix and show the decryption to get original plain text. 17 17 5 21 18 21 2 2 19