The Pigpen cipher (sometimes called the Masonic cipher or Freemason's cipher) is a simple substitution cipher exchanging letters for symbols based on a grid (or the "pigpen") surrounding it.
History of Cryptography
Common Types of Attacks
Cryptography is everywhere
–web traffic: HTTPS
–wireless traffic: 802.11i WPA2 (and WEP), GSM, Bluetooth
Encrypting files on disk: EFS, TrueCrypt
Content protection (e.g. DVD, Blu-ray): CSS, AACS
… and much much more
History of Cryptography
The first known evidence of the use of cryptography (in some form)
was found in an inscription carved around 1900 BC, in the main
chamber of the tomb of the nobleman Khnumhotep II, in Egypt.
Around 400 B.C., the Spartans used a system of encrypting
information by writing a message on a sheet of papyrus.
Around 100 B.C., Julius Caesar was known to use a form
of encryption to convey secret messages to his army generals
posted in the war front.
During the 16th century, Vigenere designed a cipher that was
supposedly the first cipher which used an encryption key.
At the start of the 19th century when everything became
electric, Hebern designed an electro-mechanical contraption
which was called the Hebern rotor machine.
The Engima machine was invented by German engineer Arthur
Scherbius at the end of World War I, and was heavily used by the
German forces during the Second World War.
IBM in early 1970s designed a cipher called Lucifer. Lucifer was
eventually accepted by NIST and was called DES or the Data
In 2000, NIST accepted Rijndael, and named it as AES or the
Advanced Encryption Standard.
In cryptography, a cipher is an algorithm for performing encryption or
decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a
procedure. An alternative, less common term is encipherment.
A Stream Cipher is a secret-key encryption algorithm that encrypts a
single bit at a time. With a Stream Cipher, the same plaintext bit or byte
will encrypt to a different bit or byte every time it is encrypted.
Plain text: Pay 100
Binary of plain text: 010111101 (hypothetical)
Key: 100101011 ----- Perform XOR
Cipher text 110010110 ----- ZTU9^%D
To decrypt make the XOR operation of the cipher text with the key .
Block cipher technique involves encryption of one block of text at a
time .Decryption also takes one block of encrypted text at a time.
Length of the block is usually 64 or 128 bits.
Plain text: four and five
Four and five
Key Key Key
wvfa ast wvfa --- cipher text
Public Key Cryptosystem
Public key cryptography is a scheme that uses a Pair of keys for
encryption: a Public key, which encrypts data, and a corresponding
Private key (secret key) for decryption.
Same key for encryption and decryption
Key distribution problem
Key pairs for encryption and decryption
Public and private keys
It is also called as Secret Key Cryptography
Single key used for both encrypt & decrypt
Key must be known to both the parties
Data Encryption Standard (DES):
56 bits key
Advance Encryption Standard (AES):
128, 192 or 256 bits key
International Data Encryption Algorithm(IDEA):
128 bits key
Private keys are used for decrypting.
Public keys are used for encrypting
A hybrid cryptosystem can be constructed using any two separate cryptosystems:
a key encapsulation scheme, which is a public-key cryptosystem,
a data encapsulation scheme, which is a symmetric-key cryptosystem.
COMMON TYPES OF ATTACKS
Trying all key values in the keyspace.
Decrypt known ciphertext to discover key.
Find plaintext based on common words.
Guess values based on frequency of occurrence.
An introduction to cryptography and cryptanalysis
-Edward Schaefer,Santa Clara University
Contemporary Cryptography - Rolf Oppliger
Cryptography Theory And Practice - Douglas Stinson
Modern Cryptography Theory and Practice - Wenbo Mao
One must acknowledge with cryptography no
amount of violence will ever solve a math problem
― Jacob Appelbaum, Cypherpunks: Freedom and the Future of the Internet