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  1. 1. Cryptography BY-NISHANT BANSAL 11112030
  2. 2. Overview  Basic Definitions  History of Cryptography  Cipher Types  Cryptography Methods  Common Types of Attacks
  3. 3. Definitions -  Cryptology  Cryptography  Cryptanalysis  Steganography  Cryptosystem
  4. 4. Cryptography is everywhere  Secure communication: –web traffic: HTTPS –wireless traffic: 802.11i WPA2 (and WEP), GSM, Bluetooth  Encrypting files on disk: EFS, TrueCrypt  Content protection (e.g. DVD, Blu-ray): CSS, AACS  User authentication … and much much more
  5. 5. History of Cryptography  The first known evidence of the use of cryptography (in some form) was found in an inscription carved around 1900 BC, in the main chamber of the tomb of the nobleman Khnumhotep II, in Egypt.  Around 400 B.C., the Spartans used a system of encrypting information by writing a message on a sheet of papyrus.  Around 100 B.C., Julius Caesar was known to use a form of encryption to convey secret messages to his army generals posted in the war front.
  6. 6.  During the 16th century, Vigenere designed a cipher that was supposedly the first cipher which used an encryption key.  At the start of the 19th century when everything became electric, Hebern designed an electro-mechanical contraption which was called the Hebern rotor machine.
  7. 7.  The Engima machine was invented by German engineer Arthur Scherbius at the end of World War I, and was heavily used by the German forces during the Second World War.
  8. 8.  IBM in early 1970s designed a cipher called Lucifer. Lucifer was eventually accepted by NIST and was called DES or the Data Encryption Standard.  In 2000, NIST accepted Rijndael, and named it as AES or the Advanced Encryption Standard.
  9. 9. Ciphers In cryptography, a cipher is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure. An alternative, less common term is encipherment.
  10. 10. Answer: WELCOME
  11. 11. Stream cipher  A Stream Cipher is a secret-key encryption algorithm that encrypts a single bit at a time. With a Stream Cipher, the same plaintext bit or byte will encrypt to a different bit or byte every time it is encrypted.  e.g. : Plain text: Pay 100 Binary of plain text: 010111101 (hypothetical) Key: 100101011 ----- Perform XOR ____________________ Cipher text 110010110 ----- ZTU9^%D  To decrypt make the XOR operation of the cipher text with the key .
  12. 12. Block cipher  Block cipher technique involves encryption of one block of text at a time .Decryption also takes one block of encrypted text at a time. Length of the block is usually 64 or 128 bits. e.g. : Plain text: four and five Four and five Key Key Key wvfa ast wvfa --- cipher text
  13. 13. Public Key Cryptosystem  Public key cryptography is a scheme that uses a Pair of keys for encryption: a Public key, which encrypts data, and a corresponding Private key (secret key) for decryption.
  14. 14. CRYPTOGRAPHY METHODS  Symmetric  Same key for encryption and decryption  Key distribution problem  Asymmetric  Key pairs for encryption and decryption  Public and private keys
  15. 15. Symmetric Algorithm  It is also called as Secret Key Cryptography  Single key used for both encrypt & decrypt  Key must be known to both the parties Encryption Decryption Key Plaintext Ciphertext Original Plaintext Symmetric Cryptosystem
  16. 16. Symmetric Algorithm  Data Encryption Standard (DES): 56 bits key  Advance Encryption Standard (AES): 128, 192 or 256 bits key  International Data Encryption Algorithm(IDEA): 128 bits key
  17. 17. Asymmetric Algorithm  Private keys are used for decrypting.  Public keys are used for encrypting encryption plaintext ciphertext public key decryption ciphertext plaintext private key
  18. 18. Hybrid cryptosystem  A hybrid cryptosystem can be constructed using any two separate cryptosystems:  a key encapsulation scheme, which is a public-key cryptosystem,  a data encapsulation scheme, which is a symmetric-key cryptosystem.
  19. 19. COMMON TYPES OF ATTACKS Brute force  Trying all key values in the keyspace. Chosen Ciphertext  Decrypt known ciphertext to discover key. Dictionary Attack  Find plaintext based on common words. Frequency Analysis  Guess values based on frequency of occurrence.
  20. 20. References  An introduction to cryptography and cryptanalysis -Edward Schaefer,Santa Clara University   cryptography/  Contemporary Cryptography - Rolf Oppliger  Cryptography Theory And Practice - Douglas Stinson  Modern Cryptography Theory and Practice - Wenbo Mao
  21. 21. One must acknowledge with cryptography no amount of violence will ever solve a math problem ― Jacob Appelbaum, Cypherpunks: Freedom and the Future of the Internet