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MYCOPLASMA.pptx

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MYCOPLASMA.pptx

  1. 1. MYCOPLASMA PREPARED BY: II BSBIOLOGY RINA CAGUIOA MARIELLE CALIMLIM REYCHEL ANN FLORES MAUREEN GARAY DEYRIC TANGALIN WILBERT TENORIO
  2. 2. General Characteristics  A genus of aerobic to facultative anaerobic bacteria. (family Mycoplasmataceae)  containing gram-negative cells.  They are unicellular, smallest, non-motile and prokaryotic organisms forming fried egg shaped colonies  They are pleomorphic i.e., able to change their shape depending upon culture media.  They may be rod like, ring like, globoid or filamentous. The filaments are of uniform diameter (100-300 nm) and vary in length from 3 nm to 150 nm.  Some mycoplasma predominantly assume spherical shape (300-800 nm in diameter).  They are ultra-filterable i.e., they can pass through bacteria-proof filters.  They do not possess rigid cell wall.  The cells are delimited by soft tripple layered lipo-proteinaceous membrane. It is unit membrane about 10 nm thick.
  3. 3. General Characteristics  Within the cytoplasm ribosomes are found scattered in the peripheral zone. These are 14 nm in diameter and resemble with bacteria in sedimentation characteristic of both the nucleoprotein and nucleic acid.  The ribosomes are 72S type.  Within the cytoplasm fine fibrillar DNA is present. It is double stranded helix.  Mycoplasma generally grow more slowly than bacteria.  They require sterol for their nutrition.  They are usually resistant to antibiotics like penicillin, cephaloridine, vencomycin etc. which action cell wall.  They are sensitive to tetracycline.  They are also killed by temperature of 40-55°C in fifteen minutes.  They do not produce spores.  Like other prokaryotes, they usually divide by binary fission.
  4. 4. CULTURAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS  Generally, mycoplasmas are facultative anaerobes, except for Mycoplasma pneumoniae which is a strict aerobe.  Optimum temperature: 35 - 37°  All mycoplasma except Acholeplasma requires cholesterol or sterol and nucleic acid precursors for growth  Grow on enrichment media with 20% human or horse serum  Cannot synthesize the component of all membrane by themselves
  5. 5. Morphology  Lack a cell wall.  Highly pleomorphic- meaning they don't have true/fixed shape, size or arrangement. Their shape depends on the environment they are living in.  Size: approximately 0.1 to 0.5 micrometers in diameter.  Require sterols for growth and for membrane systhesis.  Cells are surrounded by a triple layered lipo-proteinaceous unit membrane which is 10 nm thick. These surface antigens have a potent modulin activity and are preferential targets of the host immune response.
  6. 6. Pathogenic Mycoplasmas Some species of mycoplasma are non-infectious an out 200 species of mycoplasma there is just only more than 5 of them can cause infectious diseases. The number of these pathogenic species in humans is estimated to be fewer than a hundred.
  7. 7. Examples of Mycoplasma  Mycoplasma pneumoniae  Mycoplasma hominis  Mycoplasma genitalium  Ureaplasma urealyticum  Ureaplasma parvum
  8. 8. Mycoplasma pneumonia CHARACTERISTICS They are the smallest organism capable of living and reproducing on its own. the absence of a peptidoglycan cell wall and resulting resistance to many antibacterial agents. DISEASES primary atypical pneumonia, tracheobronchitis, and upper respiratory tract disease. SYMPTOMS • your chest pain • sweating • having a sore throat and Head ache. Under microscope On media
  9. 9. Mycoplasma pneumonia Characteristics These bacteria live in the urinary tract and genitals of about half of all women and fewer men. one of the smallest bacteria capable of self-replication, and lacks the genes coding for the cell wall. M. hominis is an intracellular gram negative pleomorphic bacterium, 0.2 to 0.3 µm in diameter. Diseases postpartum fever, cesarean section wound infection, pelvic inflammatory disease, and pyelonephritis Symptoms it's discarge in vagina • a pain during urination • vaginal itching Under microscope On media
  10. 10. Mycoplasma genitalium CHARACTERISTICS You get this if you have sex with someone who's infected. Is a type of bacteria that can cause an STD. is one of the smallest prokaryote capable of replication, lacks a cell wall and has a characteristic pear/flask shape with a terminal tip organelle M. genitalium has several virulence factors that are responsible for its pathogenicity. DISEASE nongonococcal urethritis Symptoms • Vaginal itching. •Burning with Under microscope
  11. 11. Ureaplasma urealyticum Characteristics a bacterium that is found in the urogenital tracts of humans. It stains gram negative, but that is because it lacks a cell wall. Ureaplasma can spread during sex Ureaplasma is a very small bacterium that both men and women can catch and transmit to each other. Ureaplasma infection is a little known but common STI. DISEASE nongonococcal urethritis SYMPTOMS • it hurts when you pee • You're belly pain • it is pain, odor or discharge from the vagina. Under microscope On media
  12. 12. Ureaplasma parvum CHARACTERISTICS was formerly known as Ureaplasma urealyticum biovar 1. has been identified as being a commensal in the uterus as part of the microbiome in healthy women of reproductive age. Disease STI or STD Brain Ventriculitis Symptoms • Discharge from urethra • its sweeling at the opening of urethra Under microscope Under microscope
  13. 13. Metabolism Mycoplasma pneumoniae can metabolize a range of carbohydrates that feed into glycolysis ending in pyruvate, which is catabolized by several enzymes. Mycoplasma hominis can grow on glucose agar medium giving fried egg colonies within 24 to 48 hours. It’s energy metabolism is dependent on arginine degradation while other mycoplasmas don’t have this characteristics. Mycoplasma genitalium genitalium is deficient in many genes coding for components of many biosynthetic pathways, including energy metabolism. M. genitalium depend mostly on glycolysis for the production of ATP, which is less efficient than oxidative phosphorylation.
  14. 14. Metabolism Ureaplasma urealyticum We examined the effect of 31 carbohydrates on the growth of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis. Arbutin and its breakdown product, hydroquinone, inhibited growth of both species; the other substrates did not alter the extent of growth. Volatile and nonvolatile end products of carbohydrate metabolism were not detected by gas chromatography. Ureaplasma parvum parvum metabolism is very streamlined when compared to Plasmodium. The absence of mitochondria genes suggests that this parasite relies on glycolysis as the source of energy production. C. parvum is capable of taking up and catabolizing monosugars such as glucose and fructose.
  15. 15. Uses of Mycoplasma Positive uses of Mycoplasma Scientist used the same mycoplasma to develop disabling diseases like MS, Crohn’s colitis, Lyme disease. Negative uses of Mycoplasma Pathogenic mycoplasma was biologically modified and use as a weapon. The pathogenic Mycoplasma used to be very innocuous, but biological warfare research conducted between 1942 and the present time has resulted in the creation of more deadly and infectious forms of Mycoplasma. Researchers extracted this mycoplasma from the Brucella bacterium and actually reduced the disease to a crystalline form. They “weaponised” it and tested it on an unsuspecting public in North America
  16. 16. Mycoplasma mobile- Morphology, Multiplication and gliding Motility Rosengarten, Renate; Kirchhoff, Helga: Mycoplasma mobile - Morphology, Multiplication and Gliding Motility. IWF. 1986. https://doi.org/10.3203/IWF/C-1670eng

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