University of Arkansas
Tutoring to Promote Better Writing
and Avoid Plagiarism
Plagiarism & Collusion
Plagiarism- “is the intentional or accidental uncredited use of source material created by
others” (“Chicago Manual”)
For the U of A, plagiarism:
“occurs both when the words of another (in print, electronic, or any other medium) are
reproduced without acknowledgement and when the ideas or arguments of another are paraphrased
in such a way as to lead the reader to believe that they originated with the writer. It is not sufficient
to provide a citation if the words of another have been reproduced – this also requires quotation
marks” (“Sanction Rubric”).
Plagiarism is included in the university’s policy on academic dishonesty which is:
“any act by which a student gains or attempts to gain an academic advantage for
him/herself or another by misrepresenting his/her or another’s work or by interfering with the
independent completion, submission, or evaluation of academic work” (“Academic Integrity”)
Collusion-“a secret agreement or cooperation especially for an illegal or deceitful purpose”
• Copying and pasting
• No quotation marks or in-text
• Poor use of citations
• Poor paraphrasing
• Turning in another student’s work
• Using ideas (e.g. symbols, themes,
etc.) from an online source (e.g.
Cliffs Notes, Wikipedia, Spark
Doing the work for the student
(e.g. writing, creating charts, etc.)
What You Need to Tell Your
Safe Assign and/or his or her professor will catch the assignment if it has been
If you have collaborate on an assignment (collusion—you’ve proofread the
student’s paper) and the professor takes issue with that, you will both be
reviewed by the department’s Academic Integrity Monitor and/or the
university’s Academic Integrity Board.
The U of A holds the individual student responsible and expects
each student to be knowledge about and familiar with all of the
policies on academic honesty. For the university, there are no
excuses for not knowing what is expected of you in regards to
completing your work in an ethical, honest way.
Procedures and Consequences
If a student is caught plagiarizing, the professor submits the assignment in
question with a report to the department’s or college’s Academic Integrity
The AIM conducts the initial review of the assignment and meets with the
After reviewing the assignment and meeting with the student, if the AIM finds
an infraction of the academic honest policy, the student is usually assigned a
zero for the assignment, but can also be suspended or expelled.
Sanctions can be contested, but will be brought before the All-University
Academic Integrity Board (AUAIB).
The Athletic department and the NCAA adhere to the policies and rulings of
the university, so if there is an infraction, consequences will not stop with the
Integrity Board. Both the tutor and the student athlete will be under review.
How You Can Avoid Collusion and Help
Your Student Avoid Plagiarizing
During the Pre-Drafting Stage:
Make sure the student has done the reading/class work needed to complete the
Go through the assignment sheet with the student to make sure the student
knows exactly what his or her professor’s expectations and instructions are.
Ask them to do/work with them on an outline for the paper whether or not it
is required for the assignment.
During the Drafting Stage:
Send the student to work in the computer lab or a study room to actually compose
Require that the student print out copies of his or her draft to bring to the
appointment so you can talk about his or her work. Doing this will eliminate the
Once the paper is drafted:
Review the paper for quotation marks and in-text citations (MLA/APA style).
Check the vocabulary of the paper (plagiarism and paraphrasing). Does it sound
like your student?
Ask direct questions about the content.
If you suspect an assignment has been plagiarized, talk to one of the advisors.
Remember that ultimately it is the student’s responsibility to not plagiarize and to
know when they are.
How to Have a Successful Tutoring
Appointment that Involves Writing
Make sure the student has read the assignment.
Make sure that you and the student are familiar with the professor’s instructions and
Help the student brainstorm and outline.
Encourage the student to work on the paper in segments (one paragraph at a time).
Read through drafts of the paragraphs to be sure the instructions for the assignment
are being met.
Think in global or big picture terms. Focus on the content of the discussion.
Has the student answered the who, what, when, where, why, and how
questions of the subject. If not, elaboration is needed.
Has the student adhered to the professor’s instructions? (i.e. If the assignment
is for an argumentative essay, is there an argument?)
Check the thesis statement. Does it fit the assignment? If not, it might need to
revised. If it is missing entirely, the student needs to add one.
Check for the organization and flow of the paper. Have transitions been used?
Ask the student to print or bring one or two copies of their draft.
Think about reading the paper out loud to the student.
“Academic Integrity at the University of Arkansas.” University of Arkansas. Univ.of Arkansas,
n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2013.
“Chicago Manual of Style 16th
Edition.” The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2010.
Web. 9 Sept. 2013.
“Collusion.” Merriam-Webster. Encyclopedia Britannica Company, 2013. Web. 9 Sept. 2013.
“Sanction Rubric.” University of Arkansas. Univ.of Arkansas, n.d. Web. 5 Sept. 2013.