Proper Citation and Attribution Avoiding PlagiarismLois S. Sadler and Janene BattenYale University School of Nursing2010
What is PLAGIARISM? Use of another persons work without acknowledgment with the intent to pass it off as your own
What is PLAGIARISM? Use of another persons work without acknowledgment with the intent to pass it off as your own Buying, stealing, borrowing, or otherwise obtaining all or part of a paper; hiring someone to write a paper
What is PLAGIARISM? Use of another persons work without acknowledgment with the intent to pass it off as your own Buying, stealing, borrowing, or otherwise obtaining all or part of a paper; hiring someone to write a paper Submitting the same paper for more than one class
It is a serious offense It’s easier to track than you think. Instructors reading your work have a very sound knowledge of the field of interest you are writing about, and can recognize the use of other’s work. It is easier than ever to find the source of plagiarized material.
When is plagiarism most likely tohappen? When assignments or papers are left to the last minute….plan ahead and stage your work to avoid last minute writing…. When students are stressed by multiple life or academic pressures and try to take short cuts When students are not careful about their note-taking, or instead of note-taking, copy and paste actual text into their electronic notes folder or paper draft….NEVER DO THIS!
Consequences ofLack of or Inadequate AttributionYSN - Policy #33Disciplinary Procedures of the School of Nursing http://intranet.nursing.yale.edu/Intranet/Policies/default.aspx?id=33 Hearing If proven to have plagiarized penalties include reprimand probation suspension expulsion In addition YSN may refer students for prosecution
Correct Attribution Students must acknowledge the work of others when they are creating their own works.
How to Avoid Plagiarism proper and complete citation of original source of the work ideas words concepts data ImagesThis applies to paraphrasing or summarizing the work of others as well as direct quotations.If in doubt, always ask!
Source: Public Health Image Libraryhttp://phil.cdc.gov/phil/home.asp
How to avoid – Research keep accurate information about sources never copy and paste text from another source unless you quote it and cite it as a quote if your conclusions are same as someone else’s acknowledge consensus
How to avoid – Helpful Tools Citation Management Tools EndNote ($) RefWorks (Free from the Library) http://www.med.yale.edu/library/education/guides/subcat egory/citations Quosa Organizes and indexes all your articles and documents http://www.med.yale.edu/library/education/guides/quosa
How to avoid – Writing organize your work in an original way give exact attribution use quotation marks and include page number when necessary citations should allow reader to find material quoted *see APA Manual 6th Edition pp. 171-172
How to avoid – EditingAsk yourself is the language my own, even paraphrasing? is this my original idea?If not, acknowledge source or rewrite to reflect your thoughts and wording
Citation Resources in detail! APA Manual 6th Edition! Required for courses and writing assignments Medical Library Info Room REF20 BF76.7 P83 2010 List price $28.95 ($16 on Amazon)
Citation Resources in detail! Dedicated links Nursing Librarian’s APA site http://www.med.yale.edu/library/nursing/research/apa.html APA Style.org Style help http://www.apastyle.org/apa-style-help.aspx Tutorials http://www.apastyle.org/learn/tutorials/index.aspx#false General Counsel Office - Copyright http://ogc.yale.edu/legal_reference/copyright.html Copyright Law and Fair Use http://www.copyright.gov/
Not APA Style??If writing for a journal that requires a different style (other than APA) principles are the same consult the specific guidelines for authors concerning the actual citation format Check the Journal’s/Publisher’s site Manuscript submission Instructions to Authors
ImagesThere are databases should you need images: Image Resources http://guides.med.yale.edu/images Before using any images please check copyright statements for each site Always cite images found on the Internet
Academic Integrity ModuleMANDATORYComplete the YSN Academic Integrity Module reviews the basic principles of academic integrity required for all students as part of the registration process….
Consequences of Lack of Attribution orInadequate Attribution -- #1 YSN Policy #32 Personal Conduct Policy is signed by all students at entry into YSN Policy #33 Disciplinary Procedures of the School of Nursing In most cases, when lack of attribution is documented by the faculty, failure of the assignment occurs, followed by the procedure as outlined in Policy #33
Consequences of Lack of Attribution orInadequate Attribution -- #2 Within the University Graduate School refers all allegations to the Graduate School Committee on Regulations and Discipline. May result in dismissal from the University. http://www.yale.edu/graduateschool/academics/ethics.html Academic Fraud at Yale University http://www.yale.edu/grants/policies/academic-fraud.html
Consequences of Lack of Attribution orInadequate Attribution -- #3 In the larger academic and clinical community Professional careers are ended or severely damaged- Stephen Ambrose, Doris Kearns Goodwin…others
Resources and References American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. American Psychological Association. (2007). APA style guide to electronic references. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Yale College Writing Center -- (http://www.yale.edu/bass/writing/sources/plagiarism/what.html) Yale College and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (http://www.yale.edu/graduateschool/academics/integrity.html) YSN Personal Conduct Policy Policy #32 http://intranet.nursing.yale.edu/Intranet/Policies/default.aspx?id=32 Policy # 33 http://intranet.nursing.yale.edu/Intranet/Policies/default.aspx?id=33