HOW ABOUT PARTICIPANTS’ POSTS (TWITTER,
FACEBOOK, GOOGLE+, BLOGS...ETC)?
What are data?
Key questions to consider for data collection
Examples of data collection tools
Further considerations for the researcher
FLOW OF THE SESSION
1. Where will the data be collected? In a classroom? Online?
2. When will it be collected?
3. How often are the data to be collected?
4. Who will collect the data?
KEY QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER FOR DATA COLLECTION
they will be
EXAMPLES OF DATA COLECTION INSTRUMENTS
Photo credit: http://www.wikihow.com/Do-Qualitative-Research
Likert scale questionnaires
choosing a response on a continuum
easy to use with large numbers of participants
offer clear‚ numerical data which is easy to analyze
checking their actions they do
writing answers to specific open-ended questions
Questionnaires should be complemented with data from other sources through different
tools through triangulation to increase the integrity of the conclusions drawn
Numbers may not help you understand the whole picture of your research
focus, so there is need for collecting data that will help you look into the
issue from a qualitative perspective as well.
uses multiple sources of data to increase research credibility (Davis‚ 1995;
Denzin & Lincoln‚ 1994)
chooses data collection instruments from a variety of these four categories
provides different aspects of the research focus
gives a more comprehensive picture of the issue under investigation
single or similar sets of data can lead research to misrepresentative
WHY TRIANGULATE DATA?
Check if they are really testing what you want‚ and then revise items in the
questionnaire through trialing
Provide consistency in the questionnaire statements in terms of the coherence
All questions should be eliciting information in the same directions such positive, or
negative. However, some questions can be asked negatively and reverse coded when
SELECTION OR CONSTRUCTION OF A QUESTIONNAIRE
I believe reading outside the
1 2 3 4 5
improves my vocabulary knowledge
Develops my reading pace
Fosters my comprehension
Helps me learn about English texts
DIFFERENT TYPES OF ITEMS ON A QUESTIONNAIRE
Open-ended Both closed-ended and open-ended
How do you feel about reading outside the
Do you think it can develop your reading
skills? In what ways?
Learning vocabulary in context is
every aspect of a specific
students’ reactions in a particular
teachers’ classroom management
Observing can be supported by
informal talk with colleagues on
informal talk with students on
structured follow up interview on
tape classes and then analyze the
having the lesson observed by a
co-researcher who has not been
If you use observation as a data collection
tool, please choose and complete the
LIMITATIONS OF OBSERVATION
•Very time consuming
•feeling obliged to teach in the way
expected by the observer rather than
teach the way they would normally do
•There are unobservable things such as
how students or teachers feel about an
Documents and artifacts from
REPORTS AND INTROSPECTION
Students’ report on
what they do
why they do it
what they believe
what they are or were
DOCUMENTATION, REPORTS AND INTROSPECTION
“insider” perspective on what is being done and why.
access to information generated over a long period
possibility to undertand personal perspectives
KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF REPORTS AND INTROSPECTION
Bear in mind: the participants’ verbal reports highlight estimation of their thoughts, not
what they exactly think
insider perspectives on what
they do and especially why
they do the things they do
Individuals or focus groups
Focus on specific questions
takes a lot of time to
conduct‚ transcribe and
limits the number of
participants who can be
Questions should be clear and unambiguous, concise and to the point & should not lead
the interviewee to convey a particular thought
Please check the potential
interview questions as to
whether they are leading the
interviewee or not?
1. How did the lesson
improve your reding skills?
2. Did you like the activity?
3. How do you feel about the
task you did?
4. What made the task
Journals or diaries kept by
students may yield a deep
and quality data set on their
toward the issue being
They provide researchers a
detailed set of data, but
hard to find such students to
Need for follow-up interviews to
clarify unclear points
an effective way of accessing students’ beliefs and learning practices
these can be helpful for your instructional decisions; knowing about why they learn
in a particular way
stories of experiences
Can you share with me how you feel when you speak in the classroom?
Can you tell us how you learnt grammar in secondary school?
specific aspects of teaching
Can you share with me what you do to learn your vocabulary knowledge?
NARRATIVE AND BIOGRAPHIC METHODS
This type of data collection allows us to have a set of data about the actual process of doing
something, what students or teachers do it in particular way and why.
Teachers or students need to talk about what they are doing at the time of the engagement. For
Videotape while you
perform a task
teach a lesson
mark a paper
consult with a student
write an essay
Then watch the video with your students and ask what they think, why they behave in a
The risk of abusing students for taking their time and energy for something they do
not want to contribute
They may not be gaining any benefits while contributing to your research
The data they will provide may be lacking reliability on account of this
Your students should be part of the data collection as co-researchers
Therefore, we need to develop an alternative way
AN ALTERNATIVE WAY FOR COLLECTING QUALITATIVE
EP encourages classroom researchers to colelct data in such a way that they are co -
working with the people from whom the data is collected.
Therefore, it encourages to generate Potentially Exploitable Pedagogic Activities
integrated into the normal pedagogic activities that a teacher normally do.
aims to benefit students rather than only absuing them as a source of information
students develop their language skills while they are providing you with data
students become integral part of your research, which creates a classroom where teachers and
students work together to understand an issue
(See Alwright and Hanks, 2009)
EXPLORATORY PRACTICE (EP)
POTENTIALLY EXPLOITABLE PEDAGOGIC ACTIVITIES
Verbal data Written data Data from Task Data from Activity & Exercise
Pair-work Diaries Games Tests
Group-work Self-evaluation Projects True & False exercises
Role-play Suggestion box Field trips Jigsaw reading
Consultancy Problem box Vlogs Sentence completion
Discussion Dialogue journal writing Blogging Gap-filling sentences
Self-recording Reading texts about the puzzle
Storytelling Story completion Video-taping
Brainstorming Writing critical incidents Drawing
Self-evaluation Peer feedback
• Do data collection tools allow inference of valid
• Do they give consistent results?Reliability
• How easy to use data collection tools? How long?
• Instructions clear? How easy to score? How to interpret?Usability
FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS FOR A RESEARCHER