Achieving Learning Outcomes, Incorporating Technology


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Presentation to the Drake University College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Teaching Symposium, January 2013

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  • Activity: Debrief
  • Motive
  • IndivualDifferneces
  • Small Grp Ex:
  • Can be used at micro andmacro level
  • Achieving Learning Outcomes, Incorporating Technology

    1. 1. Achieving Learning Outcomes, Incorporating Technology Ann E. Kovalchick Ph.D., Education/Instructional Design Chief Information Technology Officer 17 January 2013
    2. 2. • Describe your students • Describe your students’ primary learning challenge • Describe your instructional “problem”: What concept, idea, process, behavior do your students continually fail to grasp • How many times have you taught the course? • Estimate what % of the course you revised & what % you redesign
    3. 3. “Despite massive technology expenditures over the last decade or so, the widespread availability of substantial computing power at increasing reasonable prices, and a growing “comfort level” with this technology among college and university faculty, information technology is not being integrated into the teaching and learning processes nearly as much as people have regularly predicted since it arrived on the educational scene three or four decades ago. There are many isolated pockets of successful technology implementations. But it is an unfortunate fact that these individual successes, as important and encouraging as they may be, have been slow to propagate beyond their initiators; and they have by no means brought about the technologically inspired revolution in teaching and learning so long anticipated by instructional technology advocates.” Geoghegan, W.H. (1994). Whatever happened to instructional technology? Paper presented at the 22nd Annual Conference of the International Business Schools Computing Association, Baltimore, Maryland July 17-20, 1994.
    4. 4. IMPACT TASK SELF • Taking Charge of Change by Shirley M. Hord, William L. Rutherford, Leslie Huling-Austin, and Gene E. Hall, 1987 • From; adapted from Sweeny, B. (1997). The "Stages of Concern" from The Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM). Retrieved November 25, 2003, from Stages of Concern
    5. 5. What Do I Want My Students To Learn? A Model of Learning Objectives [] students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside the classroom. key finding #1 How People Learn. Bransford, J. D. [et al]. (2000). How people learn : brain, mind, experience, and school. Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning and Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council.
    6. 6. to develop competence in an area of inquiry, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application key finding #2 expert learners novice learners • large knowledge base of domain specific patterns • rapidly recognize when patters appear • patterns not recognized • focus on unknowns Chase, W. G., and Simon, H. A. (1973) How people learn, National Research Council (2000) Recall improves when patterns are meaningful rather than random
    7. 7. Identify Best Teaching Approaches for the Learning You Want Teaching Goals Inventory
    8. 8. Learner-centered Psychological Principles • Cognitive and Metacognitive Factors • Motivational and Affective Factors – Deep V Surface Learning • Developmental and Social Factor – Perry, Belenky: Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development • Individual Differences – Kolb’s Styles of Learning Designing Significant Learning Experiences
    9. 9. APPROACH MOTIVE STRATEGY Surface Surface Motive is instrumental: Main purpose is to meet requirements minimally; a balance between working too hard and failing Surface Strategy is reproductive; limit target to bare essentials and reproduce through rote learning Deep Deep Motive is intrinsic: Study to actualize interest and competence in particular academic subject area Deep Strategy is meaningful; read widely, interrelate with previous relevant knowledge Achieving Achieving Motive is based on competition and ego- enhancement; obtain highest grade, whether or not materials interesting Achieving Strategy is based on organizing one’s time and wotking space; behave as model student Designing Significant Learning Experiences Deep learning v Surface learning
    10. 10. Deep learning v Surface learning Designing Significant Learning Experiences …a student’s ability to maintain materials in memory while taking notes end even to process and think about relationships between one idea and other ideas depends upon the knowledge or cognitive structures the student has available for organizing and relating the material.” McKeachie, 1994, Teaching Tips: Strategies, research and theory for college and university teachers.
    11. 11. Payne, CB and Bird, AD, Teaching clinical biomechanics in the context of uncertainty, JAPMA 89(10) 525-530, 1999 • Perry, William G. Jr. (1970), Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the College Years: A Scheme (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston). • Belenky, M. F., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N. R., and Tarule, J. M. (1997). Women's ways of knowing: The development of self, voice and mind. Tenth anniversary edition. New York: Basic Books. Perry’s Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development
    12. 12. Kolb Styles: Characteristics of People
    13. 13. Kolb’s Cycle of Learning 1. Create a concrete experience 1. Reflect on experience, analyze it 3. Integrate experience and reflections into concepts 4. Examine and develop concepts 5. Practice with givens and add something of oneself 6. Work on defined concepts and givens 7. Apply learning by doing it and share with others 8. Analyze application, judge results or experimentation for relevance & usefulness Reflective Observation Active Experimentation Concrete Experience Abstract Conceptualization Imaginative Learners WHY? Analytic Learners WHAT? Common Sense Learners HOW? Dynamic Learners WHAT IF?
    14. 14. BEHAVIORIST COGNITIVE SCIENCE CONSTRUCTIVIST Learning is Change in overt behavior due to conditioning Programming of a new rule for information processing Personal discovery based on insight Goals Predetermined, behavioral Predetermined, Statements of purpose Not pre-determined, negotiated, personal Types of Learning Discrimination, Generalization, Association, Chaining Short-term sensory storage, short-term memory, long-term- memory Problem-solving Instructional Strategies Present and provide for practice and feedback Plan for cognitive learning strategies Provide for active, self- regulating, reflective learner Assessment Of product and process Diagnostic, mental representation and processing Of process and product, personalized Media Strategies Variety of traditional media Computer-based (branching) instruction Responsive environments Key Concepts Reinforcement Elaboration Autotelic principles (Intrinsic motivation) From “The Instructional Design Movement in Educational Technology.” by B. Seels, in Educational Technology, 44(3), p.13. 1995. Educational Technology Publications Instructional Design Paradigms
    15. 15. Instructional Problem: BEHAVIORISM COGNITIVE SCIENCE CONSTRUCTIVIST Goals ? ? ? Assessment ? ? ? Strategies ? ? ? Delivery Systems
    16. 16. Structuring the Learning and Choosing the Technology Consider the Constraints: Time and Spaces • Riser & Dick Model • Laurelled Model • Principle of First Exposure
    17. 17. Riser and Dick Instructional Design Model From Instructional Planning: A Guide for Teachers (p. 5), by R.A. Reiser and W. Dick, 1996, Needham Heights, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon. 1996.
    18. 18. D. Laurrilard: A Conversational Framework
    19. 19. Structuring the Learning and Choosing the Technology • Distributed intelligence (see handout) • Types of Educational Technologies (see handout) – Basic – Progressive • 7 Things You Should Know []
    20. 20. What’s Changed?