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  1. 2. Constructivism for Hands-On Learning <ul><li>Knowledge is constructed by learner </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher guides learner to construct knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher provides rich context </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher provides learner centered environment </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher facilitates, learner controls </li></ul>
  2. 3. Constructivism in the Classroom <ul><li>Students construct new ideas by incorporating new material into the concepts and thought processes already in place. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow student thinking to drive lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Ask thoughtful, open-ended questions </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage metacognition - thinking about how they are learning </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to interact with each other and YOU – Cooperate and Collaborate. </li></ul>Reflect and Predict!
  3. 4. Goals for Students <ul><li>Develop higher level critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Understand causes or effects of ideas or actions </li></ul><ul><li>Become engaged in their own learning </li></ul><ul><li>Become active and not passive learners </li></ul><ul><li>Student initiative accepted </li></ul><ul><li>Student ideas respected and encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Independent thinking encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Students engage in dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Students apply knowledge in authentic problem-solving tasks </li></ul>Brahler & Johnson Remember Bloom’s Taxonomy!
  4. 5. Goals for Teachers <ul><li>Ask open-ended questions and allow wait time for responses </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage student autonomy, initiative, and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Uses raw data and primary material sources </li></ul><ul><li>Provides authentic learning experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Guide and facilitate learning </li></ul>Brahler & Johnson
  5. 6. Constructivist Classroom: Teachers May Experience Difficulties with Classroom Management <ul><li>Teacher loses some control over what learners will learn </li></ul><ul><li>May take longer to cover certain topics </li></ul><ul><li>Testing is more difficult because learning is less structured </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized testing relies on factual recall and lower level thinking </li></ul>
  6. 7. Constructivist Activities for Students <ul><li>Solve complex and realistic problems </li></ul><ul><li>Work together to solve those problems </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the problems from multiple perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Take ownership of the learning process (rather than being passive recipients of instruction) </li></ul><ul><li>Become aware of their own role in the knowledge construction process </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in authentic learning tasks that reflect the complexity of the real-world environment in which learners will be using the skills they are learning </li></ul>
  7. 8. Dale Carnegie’s Cone of Learning How do we typically learn best?
  8. 9. Three Traditional Learning Styles <ul><li>Auditory learners: benefit most from traditional teaching techniques. Auditory learners succeed when  information is presented and requested verbally.  </li></ul><ul><li>Visual learners:   Some students rely upon a visual learning style: &quot;Show me and I'll understand.&quot; Visual learners benefit from diagrams, charts, pictures, films, and written directions.  </li></ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic learners:   Most students excel through kinesthetic means: touching, feeling, experiencing something with hands-on activities.   </li></ul>
  9. 10. Kinesthetic Learners in Secondary Schools <ul><li>Kinesthetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Children enter kindergarten as kinesthetic and tactual learners, moving and touching everything as they learn.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many adults, especially males, maintain kinesthetic and tactual strengths throughout their lives.&quot; (Rita Stafford and Kenneth J. Dunn; Allyn and Bacon, 1993).  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic learners are most successful when totally engaged with the learning activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They acquire information fastest when participating in a science lab, drama presentation, skit, field trip, dance, or other active activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of the high numbers of kinesthetic learners, education is shifting toward a more hands-on approach; manipulatives and other &quot;props&quot; are incorporated into almost every school subject, from physical education to language arts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands-on teaching techniques are gaining recognition because they address the challenging needs of kinesthetic learners, as well as the diverse needs of auditory and visual learners. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual - By second or third grade, some students have become visual learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory - During the late elementary years some students, primarily females, become auditory learners. </li></ul>Teaching Secondary Students Through Their Individual Learning Styles
  10. 11. Project-Based Learning: PBL <ul><li>Allows for a variety of learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Real&quot; world oriented - learning has value beyond the demonstrated competence of the learner </li></ul><ul><li>Risk-free environment - provides positive feedback and allow choice </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages the use of higher order thinking skills and learning concepts as well as basic facts </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes hands-on approaches </li></ul>Kraft -
  11. 12. Project-Based Learning: PBL <ul><li>Provides for in-depth understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible for all learners </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes various modes of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment is congruent with instruction - performance-based </li></ul><ul><li>Students are responsible for their own learning </li></ul><ul><li>Students have ownership of their learning within the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Projects promote meaningful learning, connecting new learning to students' past performances </li></ul>Kraft -
  12. 13. Project-Based Learning: PBL <ul><li>Learning utilizes real time data - investigating data and drawing conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>The learning process is valued as well as the learning project </li></ul><ul><li>Learning cuts across curricular areas - multidisciplinary in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher is a facilitator of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Student self-assessment of learning is encouraged </li></ul>Kraft -
  13. 14. Project Learning: Edutopia <ul><li>According to research: Project Learning is a dynamic approach to teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Explore real-world problems and challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Develop cross-curriculum skills </li></ul><ul><li>Work in small collaborative groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Fosters active and engaged learning </li></ul><ul><li>Inspires students to obtain a deeper knowledge of the subjects they're studying. </li></ul><ul><li>View Video at: </li></ul>
  14. 15. Project Learning: Edutopia <ul><li>Develop confidence and self-direction through both team-based and independent work. </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to retain the knowledge gained through this approach far more readily than through traditional textbook-centered learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Read Intro at: </li></ul><ul><li>Read World Issues Motivate Students - </li></ul>
  15. 16. Bloom’s Original Taxonomy with Action Verbs and Products Virginia Tech - Know Remember Comprehend Understand Use Apply Analyze Take Apart Synthesize Create New Evaluate Judge Behaviors: Action Verbs name memorize record list match write state repeat describe discuss give examples locate tell find report predict review recognize estimate translate practice illustrate sketch solve show employ sort classify distinguish experiment compare contrast diagram debate solve examine inventory design plan propose arrange assemble develop produce organize manage revise rate value appraise decide choose score select assess debate recommend Products: Outcomes Assignments Assessments Presentations Experiments Performances facts events models filmstrips books puzzles stories games journals illustrations drawings maps sculptures diorama scrapbook mobile collections diagrams graphs surveys questionnaires reports objects news articles poems machines songs plays hypotheses polls panels recommendations discussions simulations evaluations surveys
  16. 17. Understanding by Design: Theory of Backwards Design <ul><li>Desired Results : What will the student learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable Evidence : How will you design an assessment that accurately determines if the studen learned what he/she was supposed to learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Planning : How do you design a lesson that results in student learning? </li></ul>Identify desired results Determine acceptable evidence Plan learning experiences and instruction
  17. 18. Theory of Backwards Design <ul><li>Understanding by Design: Wiggins & McTighe </li></ul><ul><li>What are the big ideas? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core concepts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing themes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On-going debates/issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insightful perspectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illuminating paradox/problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overarching principle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying assumption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What’s the evidence? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we get there? </li></ul>Enduring Understanding
  18. 19. Assessment: How do you measure what students have learned? <ul><li>Traditional quizzes and tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper/pencil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selected response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constructed response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance tasks and projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-ended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentic </li></ul></ul>Worth being familiar with Important to know and do Enduring Understanding Understanding by Design
  19. 20. Planning a Project: I <ul><li>Pose an essential question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the topic relevant? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it connected to the real world? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is where you begin your in-depth investigation . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish a plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which content standards will be addressed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers and students brainstorm activities that support the inquiry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve students in the planning and project-building process. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plan an assessment that will determine student learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will you assess the project? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use rubrics that address content, process, and timeline. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Planning a Project: II <ul><li>Create a schedule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design a timeline for project components. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will your benchmarks be? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep it simple and age-appropriate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitor student progress and work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be a good facilitator and keep things moving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have students refer to their rubric to keep them on task. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluate and reflect on your success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have individuals and groups present their report. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect on what went well and what could be improved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share ideas that will lead to new projects. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assess the project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will you assess the project? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use rubrics that address content, process, and timeline </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Rubric Assessment for Project-Based Lessons <ul><li>Rubric - a scoring guide for evaluating student performance </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for a variety of criteria or categories to be evaluated on a sliding rating scale (not subject to one final percentage score as in testing) </li></ul><ul><li>A way to measure real-life, authentic learning experiences in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a guide for students in determining expectations of assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Shows students and parents how the teacher is judging student performance </li></ul>
  22. 23. Rubric for Assessment <ul><li>Allows teacher to focus on what expectations he/she have for student work </li></ul><ul><li>Provides alternative grading system for performance assessment, portfolios, projects, web assignments, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Can measure a variety of categories in any content area </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher can determine criteria and scale - rather than be subject to standardized testing scores. </li></ul>
  23. 24. PALS Five Features of Good Performance Assessment <ul><li>Clear targets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide clear descriptions of specific achievement expectations to be assessed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure one or more of the four achievement expectations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assure that evaluators understand and remain aware of what they are assessing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focused purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify the intended uses of the assessment results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specify whose information needs the assessment will meet: teachers, curriculum developers, and policymakers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proper method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use an assessment method that is suited to the assessment goals (such as essays, direct communication, selected response or extended investigations). </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. PALS Five Features of Good Performance Assessment <ul><li>Sound Sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a representative sample of all the questions that can be asked. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce results of maximum quality at minimum cost in time and effort. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yield confident inferences about how the respondent would have done given all possible exercises. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accurate assessment free of bias and distortion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present sources of inference and error that may have affected the development and implementation of the assessment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipate sources of bias that can create ambiguity in results. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. References <ul><li>Edutopia: </li></ul><ul><li>Project Learning: </li></ul><ul><li>PBL: Project Based Learning - </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Based Learning Checklists - </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Based Learning Online Resource - </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pedagogy: A Primer on Education Theory for Technical Professionals” – Brahler & Johnson. Washington State University – Download from Microsoft Higher Education Website </li></ul><ul><li>“ Multiple Intelligences and Technology” – Edwards (no longer available) </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism - </li></ul><ul><li>Bower, Mike: Instructor – Modesto Campus </li></ul>