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1/
I/ SIMPLE PRESENT:
(THÌ HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN)
always:100%, usually:80%, often:60%,
sometimes:20%, seldom:10%, never:0%,
every day/ week/ month/ year ...; once a
week/month/year …
ĐỐI VỚI DẠNG BÀI TẬP TRẮC NGHIỆM
►TỪ NHẬN BIẾT:
1/ KHẲNG ĐỊNH (AFFIRMATIVE):
a/ Nếu chủ từ là: I/We/You/They/Mary
and Peter …
S + Vo
b/ Nếu chủ từ là: He/ She/ It/ Mary/
Peter/ Hùng/ Lan …
He/She/It/Mary .. + V (es/ies/s)
Vo (ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN MẪU KHÔNG CÓ “TO”)
O (Ông) – S/SS (Sao) – X (Xuống) –
Z/ZZ (Ziếng) – CH (CHọn) - SH
► Thêm “es”: khi động từ tận cùng:
► Nếu động từ tận cùng Y đổi → “ies”:
NẾU TRƯỚC “Y” LÀ 1 TRONG 5
NGUYÊN ÂM A,O,I,E,U (Anh Ø
IÊU)THÌ CHỈ THÊM “S”
► Thêm “S” vào động từ cho các
trường hợp còn lại:
a/ Nếu chủ từ là: I/We/You/They/Mary
and Peter/ Hùng and Lan …
2/ PHỦ ĐỊNH (NEGATIVE):
S + don’t + Vo
S + doesn’t + Vo
b/ Nếu chủ từ là: He/ She/ It/ Mary
/Peter/ Hùng/ Lan …
3/ NGHI VẤN (QUESTION):
a/ Nếu chủ từ là: I/We/You/They/Mary
and Peter/ Hùng and Lan …
Do + S + Vo?
Does + S + Vo?
b/ Nếu chủ từ là: He/ She/ It/ Mary
/Peter/ Hùng/ Lan …
CHÚ Ý QUAN TRỌNG
Nếu trong câu KHÔNG CÓ TỪ NHẬN
BIẾT thì sẽ rơi vào các trường hợp sau đây:
1/ sự thật hiển nhiên.
2/ thói quen ở hiện tại.
3/ lịch của một tiết học; một chuyến bay; một
chuyến xe lửa; một chương trình ca nhạc …
Ex1: The earth (move) ______ around the Sun.
moves
Ex2: We (breathe) _______.
breathe
Ex3: The next train (start) _____ at 7 o’clock.
starts
THÌ HIỆN TẠI CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ “TO BE”
(am/is/are)
Affirmative
I am = I’m
You are = You’re
He is = He’s
She is = She’s
It is = It’s
We are = We’re
You are = You’re
They are = They’re
Negative
I am not = I’m not
You are not =You aren’t
He is not = He isn’t
She is not = She isn’t
It is not = It isn’t
We are not = We aren’t
You are not = You aren’t
They are not = They aren’t
Question
Am I …?
Are you …?
Is he …?
Is she …?
Is it …?
Are we …?
Are you …?
Are they …?
II/ PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
PRESENT CONTINUOUS:
►TỪ NHẬN BIẾT:
now; right now; at (the) present; at the
moment; at this time …
- Look!
- Be quiet!
- Listen!
- Don’t ...
1/ KHẲNG ĐỊNH (AFFIRMATIVE):
S + am/is/are + V-ing
2/ PHỦ ĐỊNH (NEGATIVE):
S + am/is/are + not + V-ing
3/ NGHI VẤN (QUESTION):
Am/Is/Are + S + V-ing?
CHÚ Ý QUAN TRỌNG
►Không chia thì tiếp diễn cho các động
từ: see; hear; recognize; smell; taste;
notice; want; refuse; wish; love; like;
hate; feel; understand; think; seem;
forget; remember; TO BE … thường
biến đổi thành thì HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN.
Ex1: I (be) ___ tired now.
Ex2: She (want) _____ to go for a walk at the
moment.
now
am
wants
moment
Ex1: I (be) am being tired now.
Ex2: She (want) is wanting to go for a walk
at the moment.
Ex3: I (feel) ___ happy now.
now
feel
Ex3: I (feel) am feeling happy now.
at the
III/ PRESENT PERFECT:
►TỪ NHẬN BIẾT:
just; recently; lately; ever; never; already; up to
now = up to the present = so far = until now; up to
this moment; not ... yet; many times; several times;
two/three times ... ; since 1954; since last Christmas
... for three years; for six months ...); This is the
first time; in/ for/ during/ over + the past/ last +
time (during the past 2 years) …
1/ KHẲNG ĐỊNH (AFFIRMATIVE):
a/ Nếu chủ từ là: I/ We/ You/ They/
Mary and Peter …
b/ Nếu chủ từ là: He/ She/ It/ Mary/
Peter …
S + have + Ved/3
S + has + Ved/3
2/ PHỦ ĐỊNH (NEGATIVE):
S + have not/ haven’t + Ved/3
S + has not/ hasn’t + Ved/3
b/ Nếu chủ từ là: He/ She/ It/ Mary/
Peter …
a/ Nếu chủ từ là: I/ We/ You/ They/
Mary and Peter …
3/ NGHI VẤN (QUESTION):
Have + S + Ved/3?
a/ Nếu chủ từ là: I/ We/ You/ They/
Mary and Peter …
Has + S + Ved/3?
b/ Nếu chủ từ là: He/ She/ It/ Mary/
Peter …
IV/ SIMPLE PAST:
(THÌ QUÁ KHỨ ĐƠN)
► TỪ NHẬN BIẾT:
yesterday; ago; last week/ month ...; in/
on + past time ...); from 1997 to 2016; in
the past …
DIỄN TẢ HÀNH ĐỘNG XẢY RA/KẾT
THÚC TRONG QUÁ KHỨ
1/ KHẲNG ĐỊNH (AFFIRMATIVE):
S + V (ed/2)
3/ NGHI VẤN (QUESTION):
Did + S + Vo?
2/ PHỦ ĐỊNH (NEGATIVE):
S + didn’t + Vo
THÌ QUÁ KHỨ CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ “TO BE”
(was/were)
Affirmative
I was
You were
He was
She was
It was
We were
You were
They were
Negative
I was not = I wasn’t
You were not = You weren’t
He was not = He wasn’t
She was not = She wasn’t
It was not = It wasn’t
We were not = We weren’t
You were not = We weren’t
They were not = They weren’t
Question
Was I …?
Were you …?
Was he …?
Was she …?
Was it …?
Were we …?
Were you …?
Were they …?
V/ PAST CONTINUOUS:
(THÌ QUÁ KHỨ TIẾP DIỄN)
► TỪ NHẬN BIẾT:
all day yesterday; all the afternoon; at 7
o’clock last night; at that time; at this
time yesterday ...
1/ KHẲNG ĐỊNH (AFFIRMATIVE):
S + was/were + V-ing
2/ PHỦ ĐỊNH (NEGATIVE):
S + wasn’t/weren’t + V-ing
3/ NGHI VẤN (QUESTION):
Was/Were + S + V-ing?
CÁCH DÙNG:
1/ Nhấn mạnh sự việc ĐANG DIỄN RA
TRONG QUÁ KHỨ (CÓ XÁC ĐỊNH
RÕ THỜI GIAN)
Ex: At 10 o’clock last night, she was
watching TV.
Ex2: My children were doing their
homework at this time yesterday.
2/ Một hành động ĐANG DIỄN RA, có
một hành động khác XEN VÀO/NGANG:
(Đang diễn ra: S + was/were + V-ing, xen
vào/ngang: S + Ved/2)
Ex1: While he was taking a bath, the
lights went out.
Ex2: When she was having lunch in her
room, her phone rang.
3/ Hai hành động diễn ra CÙNG 1
LÚC/SONG SONG trong quá khứ:
Ex1: While she was drawing, he was
playing games.
Ex2: While I was reading a book, they
were playing football in the garden.
VI/ PAST PERFECT:
(THÌ QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH)
► TỪ NHẬN BIẾT:
up to then; until then; when; after;
before; once …
1/ KHẲNG ĐỊNH (AFFIRMATIVE):
S + had + Ved/3
2/ PHỦ ĐỊNH (NEGATIVE):
S + hadn’t + Ved/3
3/ NGHI VẤN (QUESTION):
Had + S + Ved/3?
CÁCH DÙNG:
2 HÀNH ĐỘNG XẢY RA TRONG QK
TRƯỚC SAU
S + HAD + VED/3 S + VED/2
Ex1: He had been seriously ill before he died.
Ex2: When I arrived, they had left.
SIMPLE
(ĐƠN)
S + WILL + Vo
PROGRESSIVE
(TIẾP DIỄN)
S + WILL + BE + V-ING
PERFECT
(HOÀN THÀNH)
S + will + have + Ved/3
TỪ NHẬN BIẾT:
tomorrow; next
(week/ month/
year…);
sometime; sooner
or later; in (the)
future; some day;
soon …
TỪ NHẬN BIẾT:
“when I come tomorrow”;
“at this time tomorrow/
next week…”; “in July
next year”; “at 6.00
tomorrow”; “a year from
now …”; “when you are
21 …”
TỪ NHẬN BIẾT:
“by July next year”;
“by next month”; “by
May 1st ”; “by this time
next week”; “by the end
of next month”;
“within the next year”;
“by the time you …”
III/ FUTURE TENSES (CÁC THÌ TƯƠNG LAI)
►CHÚ Ý QUAN TRỌNG:
KHÔNG DÙNG BẤT KỲ THÌ TƯƠNG
LAI NÀO SAU: before; until; as
soon as, when … VÀ THƯỜNG BIẾN ĐỔI
CÁC THÌ ĐÓ THÀNH HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN.
Ex: When I (meet) ____ him tomorrow,
I (give) _______ him this book.
meet
will give
CÁCH ĐỌC KHI THÊM “S/ES/IES”
1/ Nếu “S” đứng sau những TỪ:
F(Fải) - K/KE (Kính) - P/PH (Phục) -
TH/T/TE (Thầy T TÊ) → đọc /S/
roof  roofs [ru:fs]
book books [buks]
cake  cakes [keiks]
map  maps [mæps]
photograph  photographs ['foutəgrɑ:fs]
cloth cloths [klɔθs]
coat coats [kouts]
hate hates [heits]
2/ Nếu “ES” đứng sau những từ:
CH (CHẳng) – Z/ZZ/ZE (Zè) – CE (Cô) – GE
(Gé) – X (Xem) - S/SS/SE (SE) – SH → đọc /IZ/
church  churches [t∫ə:t∫iz]
buzz  buzzes [bʌziz]
voice  voices [vɔisiz]
age  ages [eidʒiz]
fix  fixes [fiksiz]
class  classes [klɑ:siz]
dish  dishes [di∫iz]
3/ Nếu “S” đứng sau CÁC TỪ CÒN LẠI
→ đọc /Z/
letter  letters [‘letəz]
hand  hands [hændz]
son  sons [sʌnz]
girl  girls [gə:lz]
idea  ideas [ai’diəz]
boy  boys [bɔiz]
NHẮC LẠI:
1/ Nếu “S” đứng sau những TỪ:
F (Fải) – K/KE (Kính) – P/PH (Phục) –
TH/T/TE (Thầy T TÊ) → đọc /S/
2/ Nếu “ES” đứng sau những từ:
CH (CHẳng) – Z/ZZ/ZE (Zè) – CE (Cô) –
GE (Gé) – X (Xem) - S/SS/SE (SE) – SH
→ đọc /IZ/
3/ Nếu “S” đứng sau CÁC TỪ CÒN LẠI
→ đọc /Z/
CHÚ Ý:
MỘT SỐ TỪ TẬN CÙNG LÀ “th” CÓ
2 CÁCH ĐỌC:
Ex: baths [bɑ:θs] [bɑ:θz]
mouths [mauθs] [mauθz]
paths [pɑ:θs] [pɑ:θz]
truths [tru:θs] [tru:θz]
youths [ju:θs] [ju:θz]
/S/ /IZ/ /Z/
towns
houses keys
companies
streets
walks
days
watches
notes
universities
shops
wives
laws
apples
glasses
choices
comes
goes
cleans
organizes
tickets
misses
adults
changes
bags
banks
cooks
potatoes
monkeys
addresses
tomatoes
flowers
lunches
boxes
rises
photos
rubs
massages
reads
maps
shifts
devises
cleans
joins
enjoys
thanks
churches
calculates
secrets
caves
digs
raises
stages
stops
flats
leftovers
takes
practices
CÁCH PHÁT ÂM KHI THÊM “ED”
1/ Nếu động từ tận cùng là : t (tôi);
te (tên) d (dờ); de (dê) khi thêm “ed”
→ đọc /id/
want [wɔnt]  wanted [wɔntid]
need [ni:d]  needed [ni:did]
decide [di'said]  decided [di'saidid]
state [steit]  stated [steitid]
2/ Nếu động từ tận cùng là: ch (chính);
f/gh/ph (phủ); p (pháp); k/ke (không) x (xem);
s/ss/ce (sổ); Sh (sách) khi thêm “ed” → đọc /t/
stop [stɔp]  stopped [stɔpt]
look [luk]  looked [lukt]
proof [pru:f]  proofed [pru:ft]
miss [mis]  missed [mist]
watch [wɔt∫]  watched [wɔt∫t]
finish ['fini∫]  finished ['fini∫t]
fix [fiks]  fixed[fikst]
3/ Các trường hợp còn lại khi thêm “ed”:
→ đọc /d/
plan [plæn]  planned [plænd]
organize ['ɔ:gənaiz]  organized ['ɔ:gənaizd]
smile [smail]  smiled [smaild]
show [∫ou]  showed [∫oud]
CHÚ Ý:
NHỮNG TRƯỜNG HỢP ĐẶC BIỆT
- beloved [bi'lʌvid] (n): người yêu dấu/yêu quý
- crooked ['krukid] (adj): cong; khoằm
- naked ['neikid] (adj): trần truồng; khoả thân
- wicked ['wikid] (adj): xấu xa; độc ác; tinh quoái
- wretched ['ret∫id] (adj): khốn khổ; bất hạnh
CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT
(REPORTED SPEECH)
1/ THỨ NHẤT:
2/ THỨ NHÌ:
3/ THỨ BA:
NGÔI TRONG TIẾNG ANH
I/me/my/mine/myself/we/us/our/ours
you/your/yours
he/him/his/himself/she/her/herself/it/its/they/t
heir/theirs/Mary/Peter/the film/ the books …
NGUYÊN TẮC BIẾN ĐỔI:
1/ Bỏ dấu ngoặc kép – dấu hai chấm – dấu phẩy
và có thể thay bằng “that”.
2/ said: giữ nguyên (nếu không có túc từ theo sau)
said → said to/told (nếu có túc từ theo sau)
said to: giữ nguyên hoặc thay bằng “told”
3/ Ngôi trong dấu ngoặc kép được biến đổi như sau:
NHẤT → THEO CHỦ
NHÌ → THEO TÚC
BA → KHÔNG ĐỔI
4/ Động từ - trạng ngữ chỉ nơi chốn –
trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian được biến đổi
theo bảng sau:
V(s/es /ies) V(ed/2)
→
am/is/are + V-ing was/were + V-ing
→
have/has + Ved/3 had + Ved/3
→
V(ed/2) had + Ved/3
→
had + Ved/3
→
had + Ved/3
can
will
may
shall
has/have to/must
→
→
→
→
→
could
would
might
should
had to
Today
Tonight
Yesterday
→
→
→
That day
That night
The day before
The previous day
Last night
Last week
Last month
Last year …
→
The previous night
The previous week
The previous month
The previous year
The night before
The week before
The month before
The year before
Tomorrow
Next week
Next month
Next year …
→
→
The following day
The next day
The day after
The next week/month/year
The following week/month/year
The week/month/year after
Now
Ago
Here
This/These
So/such
→
→
→
→
→
Then
Before
There
That/Those
Very
Ex1: He said: “I know this boy.”
 boy.
He said (that)he knew that
Ex2: Mary said to me, “I met you
at the wedding party last night.”
 Mary said to/told me (that) she
had met me at the wedding party
the night before.
Ex3: “I have written you this letter,”
said my girlfriend to me.
 me
My girlfriend said to/told (that)
she had written me that letter.
Ex4: Tom said: “I love you, Mary.”
Tomsaid to/told Mary(that)he loved

her.
1/ Bỏ
dấu ngoặc kép
dấu hai chấm
dấu phẩy
và có thể thay bằng “that”
said
giữ nguyên:
(nếu KHÔNG CÓ túc từ theo sau)
said to/told:
(nếu CÓ túc từ theo sau)
said to
giữ nguyên
told
2/
THEO CHỦ
THEO TÚC
KHÔNG ĐỔI
3/ Ngôi
NHẤT
NHÌ
BA
→
→
→
4/ Động từ - trạng ngữ chỉ nơi chốn –
trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian được biến đổi
theo bảng sau:
V(s/es /ies) V(ed/2)
→
am/is/are + V-ing was/were + V-ing
→
have/has + Ved/3 had + Ved/3
→
V(ed/2) had + Ved/3
→
had + Ved/3
→
had + Ved/3
can
will
may
shall
has/have to/must
→
→
→
→
→
could
would
might
should
had to
Today
Tonight
Yesterday
→
→
→
That day
That night
The day before
The previous day
Last night
Last week
Last month
Last year …
→
The previous night
The previous week
The previous month
The previous year
The night before
The week before
The month before
The year before
Tomorrow
Next week
Next month
Next year …
→
→
The following day
The next day
The day after
The next week/month/year
The following week/month/year
The week/month/year after
Now
Ago
Here
This/These
So/such
→
→
→
→
→
Then
Before
There
That/Those
Very
II/ CÂU MỆNH:
a/ Cách đổi giống như câu phát biểu
NHƯNG:
said/said to
told (bảo)
requested/asked(yêu cầu)
begged (cầu/van xin)
ordered/recommanded
advised (khuyên)
b/ Bỏ “please” / “let’s” / “dear” / “honey”
c/ Động từ đầu câu → to infinitive
d/ “Don’t + Vo” → not to infinitive
Ex1: She said to me: “Pull as hard as
you can,”
 She told me to pull as hard as I
could.
S + tell + someone + to infinitive
Ex2: He said to his father, “Please,
give me money.”
 He begged his father to give him
money.
S + beg + someone + to infinitive
Ex3: The teacher said: “Go to the
board , John.”

to the board.
The teacher ordered John to go
S + order + someone + to infinitive
Ex4: He said, “Come to see me
tomorrow.”
He told her to come to see him
the following day / the next day.
S + tell + someone + to infinitive
Ex5: “Be modest if you are a good
student” said her mother.
Her mother her to be modest
if she was a good student.
advised
S + advise + someone + to infinitive
Ex6: Nam said to his friend, “Don’t
shut the door.”

the door.
Nam told his friend not to shut
S + tell + someone + not to infinitive
Ex7: My teacher said to me: “Don’t be
late tomorrow.”

the following day / the next day.
My teacher told me not to be late
S + tell + someone + not to infinitive
Ex 8: “Don't go out without me,” he
begged her.
He begged her not to go out without
him.
S + beg + someone + not to infinitive
III/ CÂU HỎI:
1/ Yes/No question:
Cách đổi giống như câu phát biểu
NHƯNG:
► Bỏ dấu hỏi (?) cuối câu.
► S + asked/ wondered/ wanted to
know … + (object) + if/ whether + S
+ V (LÙI THÌ)
Direct (Trực tiếp) Indirect (Gián tiếp)
- Do / Does + S?
- Am / Is / Are + S?
- Did + S + Vo?
- Was / Were + S?
- Have / Has + S + Ved/3?
- Can / Will + S + Vo?
If/Whether + S + Ved/2
If/Whether + S + was/were.
If/Whether + S + had + Ved/3
If/Whether + S + had + been
If/Whether + S + had + Ved/3
If/Whether + S + could/would + Vo
Ex1: “Did you phone me yesterday?”
Peter asked Mary.
 Mary if/whether
Direct Indirect
Did + S + Vo? If/Whether + S + had + Ved/3
she
had phoned him the day before / the
previous day.
Peter asked
Ex2: She asked: “Do you love me,
Tom?”
 She asked Tom
Direct Indirect
Do + S + Vo? If/Whether + S + Ved/2
if/whether he loved
her.
2/ Wh - question:
Cách đổi giống như câu Yes/No -
question NHƯNG:
► S + asked/ wondered/ wanted to
know … + (object) + Wh - question
+ S + V (LÙI THÌ)
THAY If/Whether = Wh – question
Ex1: “How old is your little girl?”,
said the doctor to Mrs. Brown.
 The doctor asked Mrs. Brown
► S + asked/ wondered/ wanted to
know … + (object) + Wh - question
+ S + V (LÙI THÌ)
how old her little girl was.
Ex2: “Why didn’t you make an
appointment earlier?” the doctor asked .
 The doctor asked her why she
hadn’t made an appointment earlier.
► S + asked/ wondered/ wanted to
know … + (object) + Wh - question
+ S + V (LÙI THÌ)
Ex3: “What is your name?”, said the
policeman to the little boy.
 The policeman asked the little boy
what his name was.
► S + asked/ wondered/ wanted to
know … + (object) + Wh - question
+ S + V (LÙI THÌ)
KIẾN THỨC MỞ
1/ Những động từ sau đây sẽ KHÔNG
ĐỔI khi đổi sang câu gián tiếp:
a/ would like; mustn’t; should; ought
to; used to; could; và động từ của
câu điều kiện loại 2 & 3.
Ex1: She said, “If it rained, I would
stay at home.”
at home.
 She said if it rained, shewould stay
Ex2: She said to me: “You mustn’t
go now.”
 She told me(that)I mustn’t go then.
b/ Những động từ có xác định rõ
năm tháng:
Ex:Tom said, “My father died in 1993.”
Tom said (that)his father diedin 1993
c/ Trích dẫn một sự thật luôn luôn
ĐÚNG:
Ex: My father said, “The earth
moves around the sun.”
My father said (that)
around the sun.
the earth moves
IV/ REPORTED SPEECH WITH INFINITIVE(S)
S +
begged
warned
asked
promised
advised
reminded
+ someone + (not) to infinitive
Ex1: He said to his father: “Please, give me some
money.”
 He begged his father to give him some money.
Ex2: “Don’t swim out too far, boys,” I said.
the boys not to swim out too far.
 I warned
S +
begged
warned
asked
promised
advised
reminded
+ someone + (not) to infinitive
Ex3: “Could you help me, Tom?” said Mary.
 Mary asked her.
Tom to help
S +
begged
warned
asked
promised
advised
reminded
+ someone + (not) to infinitive
Ex4: “We’ll study harder”
harder.
 They promised to study
S +
begged
warned
asked
promised
advised
reminded
+ someone + (not) to infinitive
Ex5: “You’d better not stay up late, dear.”
Daisy’s mother said.
up late.
 Daisy’s mother advised her not to stay
S +
begged
warned
asked
promised
advised
reminded
+ someone + (not) to infinitive
Ex6: “I’d like you to prepare your lesson
carefully” the teacher said.
carefully.
 The teacher wanted to prepare
me my
S +
begged
wanted
asked
promised
advised
reminded
+ someone + (not) to infinitive
lesson
Ex7: “Don’t forget to water some flowers in the
garden,” my mother said.
 My mother reminded me to water some
S +
begged
wanted
asked
promised
advised
reminded
+ someone + (not) to infinitive
flowers in the garden.
Ex8: “You should not eat too much meat” the
doctor said to her.
too much
 The doctor advised her not to eat
S +
begged
wanted
asked
promised
advised
reminded
+ someone + (not) to infinitive
meat.
.
Ex9: “I will follow you wherever you go,
honey,” Mary said to Peter.
 Mary promised Peter to follow him wherever
he went.
S +
begged
wanted
asked
promised
advised
reminded
+ someone + (not) to infinitive
- Khi dùng “promise”: bỏ “I will/ I’ll”; “We will/ We’ll”
- Khi dùng “advise”/ “tell”: bỏ “You should”; “You had
better”; “Why don’t you”
- Khi dùng “remind”: bỏ “Remember”; “Don’t forget”
- Khi dùng “ask”: bỏ “Could you”; “Can you”; “Could
you please”
- Khi dùng “want”: bỏ “I would like”; “I’d like”
- Khi dùng “invite”: bỏ “Would you like”
- Khi dùng “order”: bỏ “You must”
* CHÚ Ý:
V/ REPORTED SPEECH WITH GERUND
S + verb (*) + object + preposition + (not) V-ing
1/ accuse someone of something:
buộc tội ai về việc gì
2/ thank someone for something:
cảm ơn ai về việc gì
3/ congratulate someone on something:
chúc mừng ai đó về việc gì
4/ apologize for: xin lỗi ai về việc gì
5/ insist on: khăng khăng làm việc gì
6/ dream of: mơ ước về điều gì
7/ warn someone against something:
cảnh báo ai ĐỪNG làm gì
8/ prevent someone from something:
ngăn chặn ai KHỎI bị gì
9/ look forward to: mong đợi / hân hoan
10/ deny: từ chối
11/ stop someone from something:
ngăn chặn ai ĐỪNG làm gì
12/ admit: thú nhận
13/ suggest: đề nghị
14/ think of: nghĩ về
15/ be for: tán đồng
16/ be against: chống đối
17/ care for: quan tâm; thích; muốn
18/ give up: từ bỏ
19/ keep on: tiếp tục
20/ leave off: thôi
21/ put off: hoãn lại
22/ see about: đảm đương
23/ be afraid of: sợ
24/ be sorry for: lấy làm tiếc
25/ be ashamed of: xấu hổ về
26/ be accustomed to: quen với việc gì
27/ blame someone for something:
đổ lỗi cho ai về việc gì
DẠNG 1
Ex1: “It was nice of you to help me. Thank
you very much.” Mary said to Peter.
 Mary thanked Peter for helping her.
thank someone for V-ing/something:
(cảm ơn ai về việc gì)
DẠNG 1
Ex2: “I’ll take you to the airport. I insist.”
Tom told Daisy.
 Tom insisted on taking Daisy/her
to the airport.
insist on + V-ing:
khăng khăng làm việc gì
Ex3: “Don’t bring much money when you
go to the market.” Jack told her.
 Jack warned
warn someone against V-ing/something:
cảnh báo ai ĐỪNG làm gì
her against bringing
much money when she went to the market.
DẠNG 1
DẠNG 2
Ex1: Peter: Let me clean the floor!
Mary: Certainly not. I’ll clean.
 Mary insisted on cleaning the floor.
insist on + V-ing:
khăng khăng làm việc gì
DẠNG 2
Ex2: Teacher: Come in, Peter!
Peter: I’m sorry. I am late.
 Peter apologized for late.
being
apologize for V-ing/something:
xin lỗi ai về việc gì
Ex3: Policeman: You have just stolen
Mr. Nam’s bicycle.
The thief: Yes … ! But …
 The thief admitted stealing
bicycle.
admit + V-ing: thú nhận
steal – stole – stolen
DẠNG 2
Mr. Nam’s
(CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT)
REPORTED SPEECH
I/ STATEMENT (CÂU PHÁT BIỂU):
S + said + (that) + S + V (LÙI THÌ)
S + told + someone + (that) + S + V (LÙI THÌ)
1. Julia said that she ____ there at noon.
A. is going to be B. was going to be
C. will be D. can be
B. was going to be
2. She said to me that she ____ to me the
Sunday before.
A. wrote B. has written
C. was writing D. had written
I/ STATEMENT (CÂU PHÁT BIỂU):
S + said + (that) + S + V (LÙI THÌ)
S + told + someone + (that) + S + V (LÙI THÌ)
D. had written
3. He ____ that he was leaving way that
afternoon.
A. told me B. told to me
C. said me D. says to me
I/ STATEMENT (CÂU PHÁT BIỂU):
S + said + (that) + S + V (LÙI THÌ)
S + told + someone + (that) + S + V (LÙI THÌ)
A. told me
4. They said that they had driven through
the desert ____.
A. the previous day B. yesterday
C. the last day D. Sunday previously
5. Laura said that when she ____ to school,
she saw an accident.
A. was walking B. has walked
C. had been walking D. has been walking
A. the previous day
C. had been walking
6. Peter said he ____ some good marks the
semester before.
A. gets B. got C. had gotten D. have got
7. They told their parents that they ____
their best to do the test.
A. try B. will try C. are trying D. would try
C. had gotten
D. would try
(CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT)
REPORTED SPEECH
II/ COMMAND (CÂU MỆNH LỆNH):
told
requested
asked
begged
ordered
commanded
advised …
S + + someone + (not) + to infinitive
1. The mother told her son ____ so impolitely.
A. not behave B. not to behave
C. not behaving D. did not behave
B. not to behave
told
requested
asked
begged
ordered
commanded
advised …
S + + someone + (not) + to infinitive
2. He asked ____ him some money.
A. her to lend B. she to lend
C. she has lent D. she lends
A. her to lend
told
requested
asked
begged
ordered
commanded
advised …
S + + someone + (not) + to infinitive
3. Sue was very pessimistic about the situation.
I advised her _____.
A. no worry B. not worry
C. no to worry D. not to worry
4. She told the boys _____ on the grass.
A. do not play B. did not play
D. not playing
C. not to play
D. not to worry
C. not to play
(CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT)
REPORTED SPEECH
III/ YES/NO QUESTION (CÂU HỎI CÓ/KHÔNG):
asked
wondered
wanted to know
S +
if
whether
+ (object) S + V
1/ I wondered ______ the right thing.
D. whether I was doing
A. if I am doing B. was I doing
C. am I doing D. whether I was doing
asked
wondered
wanted to know
S +
if
whether
+ (object) S + V
2/ Bill asked Tom ______ in London.
A. does the train arrive
C. whether the train arrives
D. did the train arrive
B. if the train had arrived
B. if the train had arrived
asked
wondered
wanted to know
S +
if
whether
+ (object) S + V
3/ They asked me ______ in London then.
A. is my brother working
B. if my brother is working
C. was my brother working
D. if my brother was working
D. if my brother was working
asked
wondered
wanted to know
S +
if
whether
+ (object) S + V
4/ The woman asked ____ get lunch at
school or not.
A. can the children
B. whether the children could
C. even if the children could
D. could the children
B. whether the children could
(CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT)
REPORTED SPEECH
IV/ WH-QUESTION:
asked
wondered
wanted to know
S +
what
when
why
+ (object) S + V
1/ The mother asked her son ____.
A. where he had been B. whether I had been
C. where has he been D. where had he been
A. where he had been
asked
wondered
wanted to know
S +
what
when
why
(object) S + V
2/ Martin asked me ____.
A. how is my father B. how my father is
C. how was my father D. how my father was
D. how my father was
3/ She asked me ____ my holidays ____.
A. where I spent / the previous year
B. where I had spent/ the previous year
C. where I spent / last year
D. where did I spend / last year
B. where I had spent/ the previous year
asked
wondered
wanted to know
S +
what
when
why
(object) S + V
V/ REPORTED SPEECH WITH INFINITIVE
S +
begged
warned
asked
promised
advised
reminded
+ someone + (not) to infinitive
- Khi dùng “promise”: bỏ “I will/ I’ll”; “We will/ We’ll”
- Khi dùng “advise”/ “tell”: bỏ “You should”; “You had
better”; “Why don’t you”; “If I were you”
- Khi dùng “remind”: bỏ “Remember”; “Don’t forget”
- Khi dùng “ask”: bỏ “Could you”; “Can you”; “Could
you please”
- Khi dùng “want”: bỏ “I would like”; “I’d like”
- Khi dùng “invite”: bỏ “Would you like”
- Khi dùng “order”: bỏ “You must”
* CHÚ Ý:
D. Ann told me not to tell anyone what had happened.
1/ “Please don't tell anyone what happened,” Ann said to me.
A. Ann said to me please don't tell anyone what happened.
B. Ann told me didn't tell anyone what had happened.
C. Ann said me not to tell anyone what happened.
D. Ann told me not to tell anyone what had happened.
D. He would like me to go to the cinema with him this night.
2/ “Would you like to go to the cinema with me tonight?”
he said.
A. He invited me to go to the cinema with him that night.
B. He offered me to go to the cinema with him tonight.
C. He asked me if I'd like to go to the cinema with him tonight.
A. He invited me to go to the cinema with him that night.
D. Ann told me not to tell anyone what had happened.
1/ “Please don't tell anyone what happened,” Ann said to me.
A. Ann said to me please don't tell anyone what happened.
B. Ann told me didn't tell anyone what had happened.
C. Ann said me not to tell anyone what happened.
D. Ann told me not to tell anyone what had happened.
D. He would like me to go to the cinema with him this night.
2/ “Would you like to go to the cinema with me tonight?”
he said.
A. He invited me to go to the cinema with him that night.
B. He offered me to go to the cinema with him tonight.
C. He asked me if I'd like to go to the cinema with him tonight.
A. He invited me to go to the cinema with him that night.
3/ “Remember to pick me up at 6 o'clock tomorrow
afternoon” she said.
A. She told me to remember to pick her up at 6 o'clock
tomorrow afternoon.
B. She reminded me to pick her up at 6 o'clock the
following afternoon.
C. She reminded me to remember to pick her up at 6
o'clock the next afternoon.
D. She told me to pick her up at 6 o'clock the next day
afternoon.
B. She reminded me to pick her up at 6 o'clock the
following afternoon.
3/ “Remember to pick me up at 6 o'clock tomorrow
afternoon” she said.
A. She told me to remember to pick her up at 6 o'clock
tomorrow afternoon.
B. She reminded me to pick her up at 6 o'clock the
following afternoon.
C. She reminded me to remember to pick her up at 6
o'clock the next afternoon.
D. She told me to pick her up at 6 o'clock the next day
afternoon.
B. She reminded me to pick her up at 6 o'clock the
following afternoon.
D. She advised me to tell him the truth.
4/ “If I were you, I'd tell him the truth,”
she said to me.
A. She said to me that if I were you, I'd tell
him the truth.
B. She will tell him the truth if she is me.
C. She suggested to tell him the truth if she
were me.
D. She advised me to tell him the truth.
PASSIVE VOICE
(CÂU BỊ ĐỘNG)
1/ Xác định: S (chủ từ) – V (động từ) – O (túc từ) –
Adv of place (TNCNC) – Adv of time (TNCTT)
2/ O (túc từ) S (chủ từ)
me
you
him He
You
I
her
us
them
Mary
my children
She
We
They
Mary
My children
some cakes Some cakes
THÌ HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN
V1 (s; es; ies)  am/is/are + Ved/3
THÌ HIỆN TẠI TIẾP DIỄN
am/is/are + Ving  am/is/are + being + Ved/3
3/ V (động từ) được biến đổi như sau:
THÌ HIỆN TẠI HOÀN THÀNH
have/has + Ved/3  have/has + been + Ved/3
THÌ QUÁ KHỨ ĐƠN
Ved/2  was/were + Ved/3
3/ V (động từ) được biến đổi như sau:
THÌ QUÁ KHỨ TIẾP DIỄN
was/were + Ving  was/were + being + Ved/3
THÌ QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH
had + Ved/3  had + been + Ved/3
3/ V (động từ) được biến đổi như sau:
MODAL (can; could; will; would; shall;
should; may; might; used to; be going
to; have to; has to; had to; ought to)
Modal + Vo  Modal + be + Ved/3
3/ V (động từ) được biến đổi như sau:
by + O (túc từ)
4/ S (chủ từ)
I
You
He by him
by you
by me
She
We
They
Mary
My children
by her
by us
by them
by Mary
by my children
CHÚ Ý:
1/ Adv of place (TNCNC) trước by + O
2/ Adv of time (TNCTG) sau by + O (đứng cuối câu)
thường bỏ
giữ lại
S V O Adv of place + Adv of time
S be + Ved/3 by + O
Adv of place Adv of time
CHÚ Ý:
1/ Chủ từ thường đứng đầu câu.
2/ Động từ thường đứng ngay sau chủ từ.
3/ Túc từ thường đứng sau động từ.
4/ Trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian thường đứng cuối câu.
TÓM TẮT
Ex1:My mother makes some cakes in the kitchen every morning.
THÌ HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN
V1 (s/es/ies)  am/is/are + Ved/3
Some cakes are made by my mother
in the kitchen every morning.
make – made - made
S V O Adv of place + Adv of time
S be + Ved/3 by + O
Adv of place Adv of time
Ex2: Peter met his girlfriend at the theater last night.
His girlfriend was met by Peter
at the theater last night.
THÌ QUÁ KHỨ ĐƠN
Ved/2  was/were + Ved/3
meet – met – met
Ex3: Mr. Pike has taught English at this school since last Christmas.
Englishhas been taught by Mr. Pike
at this school since last Christmas.
THÌ HIỆN TẠI HOÀN THÀNH
have/has + Ved/3  have/has + been + Ved/3
Ex4: They are doing their exercises in the living room now.
Ex5: Jack and Thomas will speak English at the conference tomorrow.
S V O Adv of place + Adv of time
S be + Ved/3 by + O
Adv of place Adv of time
Their exercisesare being done by them
in the living room now.
THÌ HIỆN TẠI TIẾP DIỄN
am/is/are + Ving  am/is/are + being + Ved/3
do – did – done
Englishwill be spoken by Jack and Thomas
at the conference tomorrow.
Modal + Vo  Modal + be + Ved/3 speak – spoke – spoken
CẤU TRÚC “NHỜ VẢ”
Passive: S + Have/Has + Complement (thing) + Ved/3
Active: S + Have/Has + Complement (person) + Vo
Ex1: I have a boy repair my bike.
 I have my bike repaired.
Ex2: I had them carry my luggage upstairs.
 I had my luggage carried upstairs.
CÂU BỊ ĐỘNG ĐẶC BIỆT
(It is said .. that)
I/ ĐỘNG TỪ CỦA MỆNH ĐỀ CHÍNH
VÀ MỆNH ĐỀ PHỤ CÙNG THÌ:
Đối với cấu trúc này không chỉ có động
từ “say” mà còn có các động từ khác
như: know; think; believe; consider;
find; claim; understand …
Ex1: People(S1) say (that) money(S2) brings
happiness.
+ Cách 1:
 It is said
+ Cách 2:
 Money is said
(that) money brings happiness.
to bring happiness.
Ex2: People(S1) knew that Peter (S2) was
arrested in the USA.
+ Cách 1:
 It was known (that) Peter was arrested
in the USA.
+ Cách 2:
 Peter was known to be arrested in the
USA.
* GHI NHỚ:
1/ Nếu câu bắt đầu bằng “It is said
(that)”
ĐỘNG TỪ sau (S2) 
 viết lại hết bắt đầu từ (S2)
đến cuối câu.
2/ Nếu (S2) is said …
TO INFINITIVE
II/ ĐỘNG TỪ CỦA MỆNH ĐỀ CHÍNH
VÀ MỆNH ĐỀ PHỤ KHÁC THÌ:
Ex1: They(S1) say (that) Tom(S2) was a spy.
+ Cách 1:
 It is said (that)Tom was a spy.
+ Cách 2:
 Tom is said to have been a spy.
Ex2: She(S1) knows (that) Peter(S2) was
armed.
+ Cách 1:
 It is known (that)Peter was armed.
+ Cách 2:
 Peter is knownto have been armed.
Ex3: People(S1) think (that) Mary(S2)
stayed here last night.
+ Cách 1:
 It is thought (that) Mary stayed
here last night.
+ Cách 2:
 Mary is thought to have stayed
here last night.
* GHI NHỚ:
1/ Nếu câu bắt đầu bằng “It is said
(that)”
ĐỘNG TỪ sau (S2) 
 viết lại hết bắt đầu từ
(S2) đến cuối câu.
2/ Nếu (S2) is said …
TO HAVE Ved/3
CONDITIONAL SENTENCE
(CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN)
If clause Main clause
S + Vo(s; es; ies)/ simple present S + will + Vo
* CÔNG THỨC CHÍNH:
* CÔNG THỨC MỞ:
If clause Main clause
S + am/is/are (not) S + will not/ won’t + Vo
If clause Main clause
S + doesn’t/don’t + Vo S + will not/ won’t + Vo
TYPE 1
Ex1:If it rains, everyone
at home.
(stay) _______
rains will stay
If clause Main clause
S + Vo(s; es; ies)
(simple present)
S + will + Vo
will not get
Ex2: If his brother doesn’t practice his
golf, he (not get) any better.
_________
doesn’t practice
If clause Main clause
S + doesn’t/don’t + Vo S + will not/ won’t + Vo
for a swim.
Ex3: If the weather is fine, I (go) will go
is
If clause Main clause
S + am/is/are S + will + Vo
me to her party,I won’t come.
Ex4: If Peter (not invite) ___________
doesn’t invite
won’t come
If clause Main clause
S + doesn’t/don’t + Vo S + will not/ won’t + Vo
Ex5: If Nam (meet)_____
he will give this book to her.
meets
will give
If clause Main clause
S + Vo(s; es; ies)
simple present
S + will + Vo
Judy tomorrow,
_________, she
Ex6: If you (not come)
won’t be happy.
won’t be
don’t come
If clause Main clause
S + doesn’t/don’t + Vo S + will not/ won’t + Vo
CONDITIONAL SENTENCE
(CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN)
If clause Main clause
S + Ved/2 (to be: were cho các ngôi) S + would/could + Vo
* CÔNG THỨC CHÍNH:
* CÔNG THỨC MỞ:
If clause Main clause
S + were (not) S + wouldn’t/couldn’t + Vo
If clause Main clause
S + didn’t + Vo S + wouldn’t/couldn’t + Vo
TYPE 2
__________ what to do.
Ex1: If John were here, he (know)
would know
were
If clause Main clause
S + Ved/2 (to be: were) S + would/could + Vo
______
Ex2: If Nick (study)
would get better grades.
would get
studied more, he
____
Ex3: If I (be) you, I would not go
to his party.
were would not go
If clause Main clause
S + were (not) S + wouldn’t/couldn’t + Vo
_______ _
Ex4: If I had a typewriter I (type)
it myself.
had
could type
CONDITIONAL SENTENCE
(CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN)
If clause Main clause
S + had (not) + Ved/3 S + would/could (not) have + Ved/3
* CÔNG THỨC CHÍNH:
TYPE 3
______________________
Ex1: If Mary had seen you, she (give)
you this book.
had seen
would have given
__________
Ex2: If she (not go)
wouldn’t have got married.
hadn’t gone
wouldn’t have got
_________________
Ex3: If you had taken more exercise, you
wouldn’t have fallen
had taken
If clause Main clause
S + had (not) + Ved/3 S + would/could (not) have + Ved/3
back, they
(not fall)
1/ Unless = If ... not
Ex1: If you are not careful, you will cut
your fingers.
MỘT SỐ ĐIỀU CẦN LƯU Ý
Unless you are careful, you will cut
Ex2: If you don’t ask him, he will explain
you ask him, he will explain
Unless
your fingers.
the lesson to you.
the lesson to you.
2/ ĐẢO NGỮ CỦA MỆNH ĐỀ “IF”
(LOẠI 2,3) SẼ KHÔNG CÒN IF
Ex1: If he were here, he would help us
Were he here, he would help us.
Ex2: If I had known the answer, I could
have told you.
Had I known the answer, I could
have told you.
3/ But for / Without (NẾU KHÔNG / NẾU
KHÔNG CÓ/VÌ): CHỈ DÙNG CHO CÂU
ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 2,3
But for/without + Noun Phrases/V-ing, S + V…
Ex1: But for the difficult view, that would be
a lovely room.
(Nếu không vì tầm nhìn khó khăn, kia sẽ là
một căn phòng đáng yêu.)
Ex2: Without her help, I wouldn’t succeed.
(Nếu không có sự giúp đỡ của cô ấy, tôi
không thể thành công.)
3/ But for / Without (NẾU KHÔNG / NẾU
KHÔNG CÓ/VÌ): CHỈ DÙNG CHO CÂU
ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 2,3
But for/without + Noun Phrases/V-ing, S + V…
Ex3: But for his help, I would have been
difficult in this project.
(Nếu không có sự giúp đỡ của anh ấy, tôi sẽ
gặp khó khăn trong dự án này.)
3/ But for / Without (NẾU KHÔNG / NẾU
KHÔNG CÓ/VÌ): CHỈ DÙNG CHO CÂU
ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 2,3
But for/without + Noun Phrases/V-ing, S + V…
Ex4: Without her reminding, I would have
forgotten that work.
(Nếu không có sự nhắc nhở của cô ấy, tôi đã
quên mất công việc đó.)
3/ But for / Without (NẾU KHÔNG / NẾU
KHÔNG CÓ/VÌ): CHỈ DÙNG CHO CÂU
ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 2,3
But for/without + Noun Phrases/V-ing, S + V…
4/ CÁC TRƯỜNG HỢP ĐẢO NGỮ ĐẶC BIỆT
TYPE 1
Should + S + Vo, S + Will +Vo
If he has free time, he will play tennis.
Should he have free time, he’ll play tennis
TYPE 2
Were + S + to + Vo, S + Would + Vo
If I learnt Russian, I would read a Russian book.
Were I to learn Russian, I would read a Russian book.
LƯU Ý:
Ngoài “if” ta có dùng 1 số từ để thay thế nhằm
nhấn mạnh vào những điều kiện xung quanh sự
việc và hành động. Sau những cụm từ này sẽ là
một mệnh đề. Những cụm từ đó là:
• only (chỉ khi, miễn là)
• provided (that)/ providing (that) (miễn là)
• so long as/ as long as (miễn là)
• on condition that (với điều kiện là)
• unless (trừ phi)
Ex1: The picnic will be canceled only if it
rains.
Only if it rains will the picnic be
canceled.
Ex2: You can drive a car provided that you
have a valid license.
You can drive a car provided you
have a valid license.
(miễn là)
(miễn là)
Ex4: You can borrow the car so long as you
don’t drive too fast.
(Mình cho bạn mượn xe miễn là bạn đừng
chạy quá nhanh.)
Ex3: We are very happy for you to stay at our
house as long as you like.
(Chúng mình rất vui cho bạn ở lại nhà của
chúng mình miễn là bạn thích.)
Ex5: You will be paid tomorrow on condition
that the work is finished.
(Ông sẽ được trả lương vào ngày mai miễn là
làm xong việc.)
Ex6: They spoke on condition that their
names would not be used in the article.
(Họ nói miễn là tên của họ không được viết
trên bài báo.)
RELATIVE CLAUSE
(MỆNH ĐỀ TÍNH NGỮ)
THƯỜNG ĐỨNG NGAY SAU DANH
TỪ MÀ NÓ THAY THẾ
Ex1: The man is very intelligent. The man
helped me yesterday.
A/ WHO
(THAY CHO NGƯỜI LÀM CHỦ TỪ)
* GIỚI HẠN:
is very intelligent.
 The man WHO helped me yesterday
Ex2: Do you know the lady? She is
standing over there.
over there?
Noun of person + WHO + verb
Do you know the lady WHO is standing
B/ WHOM
(THAY CHO NGƯỜI LÀM TÚC TỪ)
* GIỚI HẠN :
Ex1: The woman is my mother. You met
her at the wedding party last night.
 The woman WHOM
wedding party last night
you met at the
is my mother.
Ex2: The little boy is Peter. We helped
him yesterday.
is Peter.
Noun of person + WHOM + S + verb
 The little boy WHOMwe helped
yesterday
C/ WHICH (SUBJECT)
(THAY CHO VẬT LÀ CHỦ TỪ)
* GIỚI HẠN:
Ex1: The book is interesting. The book
was bought by my father yesterday.
is interesting.
 The book WHICH was bought by my
father yesterday
Ex2: The cat is nice. It was bought by my
sister yesterday.
is nice.
Noun of thing/animal + WHICH + verb
 The cat WHICH was bought by my
sister yesterday
D/ WHICH (OBJECT/ANIMAL)
(THAY CHO VẬT/ĐV LÀM TÚC TỪ)
* GIỚI HẠN:
Ex1: The house is expensive. My father
bought it last year.
is expensive.
 The house WHICH my father bought
last year
Ex2: Do you like the monkey? You and I
saw it yesterday.
you and I saw yesterday?
Noun of thing/animal + WHICH + S + verb
 Do you like the monkey WHICH
A/ WHO
THAY CHO NGƯỜI LÀM CHỦ TỪ
Noun of person + WHO + verb
B/ WHOM
THAY CHO NGƯỜI LÀM TÚC TỪ
Noun of person + WHOM + S + verb
C/ WHICH: (SUBJECT)
THAY CHO VẬT LÀM CHỦ TỪ
Noun of animal/thing + WHICH + verb
D/ WHICH: (OBJECT)
THAY CHO VẬT LÀM TÚC TỪ
Noun of animal/thing + WHICH + S + verb
E/ WHOSE (SUBJECT)
Là đại từ quan hệ chỉ sự sở hữu có
nghĩa như: his; your; my …
Sau “whose” luôn là một danh từ và
được dùng cho người và vật.
Ex1: John found the cat. Its leg was
broken.
was broken.
whose + noun
E/ WHOSE (SUBJECT)
 John found the cat WHOSE leg
Ex2: The man called the police. His
car was stolen.
called the police.
 The man WHOSE car was stolen
Ex3: Do you see the house? Its
windows have just been painted.

Noun of thing/animal/person +
WHOSE + noun + verb
Do you see the house WHOSE
windows have just been painted?
Ex1: The girl is my sister. You took
the girl’s picture.
 The girl
F/ WHOSE (OBJECT)
WHOSE picture you took
is my sister.
Ex2: The book is very interesting.
You are reading the first page of the
book.
 The book WHOSE first page
you are reading is very interesting.
Ex3: Do you know the dog? They
are cutting its tail.
they are cutting?
Noun of thing/animal/person +
WHOSE + noun + S + verb
 Do you know the dog WHOSE tail
A/ WHO
(THAY CHO NGƯỜI LÀM CHỦ TỪ)
Noun of person + WHO + verb
B/ WHOM
(THAY CHO NGƯỜI LÀM TÚC TỪ)
Noun of person + WHOM + S + verb
C/ WHICH (SUBJECT)
(THAY CHO VẬT LÀ CHỦ TỪ)
Noun of thing/animal + WHICH + verb
D/ WHICH (OBJECT)
(THAY CHO VẬT LÀM TÚC TỪ)
Noun of thing/animal + WHICH + S + verb
E/ WHOSE (SUBJECT)
Noun of thing/animal/person +
WHOSE + noun + verb
F/ WHOSE (OBJECT)
Noun of thing/animal/person +
WHOSE + noun + S + verb
G/ THAT:
ĐƯỢC SỬ DỤNG MỘT TRONG
NHỮNG TRƯỜNG HỢP SAU
1/ Sau một tiền vị từ hỗn hợp
(The people, the cattle and vehicles …)
Ex: We met the people, the cattle and
vehicles that went to the market.
2/ Sau so sánh nhất hoặc những gì là duy
nhất (The first; the last; the most; the only ..)
Ex: She is the most beautiful girl that I
have ever met.
G/ THAT:
ĐƯỢC SỬ DỤNG MỘT TRONG
NHỮNG TRƯỜNG HỢP SAU
3/ Sau đại từ bất định:
(something; someone; anything …)
Ex: I love everything that my mother
makes for me.
G/ THAT:
ĐƯỢC SỬ DỤNG MỘT TRONG
NHỮNG TRƯỜNG HỢP SAU
4/ Sau It is; It was …
Ex: It was I that I killed that tiger.
G/ THAT:
ĐƯỢC SỬ DỤNG MỘT TRONG
NHỮNG TRƯỜNG HỢP SAU
H/ WHEN:
Ex1: March is the month. The weather is
usually hottest in that month.
 March is the month which the weather is
usually hottest in.
 March is the month in which the weather
is usually hottest.
 March is the month when the weather is
usually hottest.
Ex2: I never forget the day. I was born on
that day.
 I never forget the day which I was born on.
 I never forget the day on which I was born.
 I never forget the day when I was born.
Noun of time + WHEN + S + verb
 WHEN = in which = on which = at which
I/ WHERE:
Ex1: Tom has just been to the town.
He was born in that town.
 Tom has just been to the town which
he was born in.
 Tom has just been to the town in
which he was born.
 Tom has just been to the town where
he was born.
 That is the school where my father used to
teach.
Ex2: That is the school. My father used to
teach at that school.
 That is the school which my father used to
teach at.
 That is the school at which my father used
to teach.
Noun of place + WHERE + S + verb
 WHERE = in which = on which = at which
J/ WHY:
Ex1: Tell me the reason. For that
reason you often write to her.
 Tell me the reason for which you
often write to her.
 Tell me the reason why you often
write to her.
 That was the reason why he couldn’t
pass the exam.
Ex2: That was the reason. For that
reason he couldn’t pass the exam.
 That was the reason for which he
couldn’t pass the exam.
 WHY = for which
The reason + WHY + S + verb
* CHÚ Ý:
1/ Khoâng ñöôïc ñaët giôùi töø tröôùc WHO
/ THAT.
2/ Khoâng ñöôïc ñaët giôùi töø cuûa nhöõng
ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP (PHRASAL VERB) nhö: look
after; come across; take on … tröôùc ñaïi töø
quan heä.
3/ Without luoân luoân ñöùng tröôùc WHOM
/ WHICH.
Ex: That is the man. We’ll get lost without him.
1/ NGƯỜI ĐỘNG TỪ
______
2/ NGƯỜI CHỦ + ĐỘNG
_______
3/ VẬT ________
4/ NGƯỜI + VẬT ______
WHO
WHOM
WHICH
THAT
5/ NƠI CHỐN _______
6/ THỜI GIAN _______
7/ THE REASON _____
8/ NGƯỜI /VẬT _______
WHERE
WHEN
WHY
WHOSE DANH TỪ
RELATIVE CLAUSES REPLACED
BY PARTICIPLES and “TO INFINITIVE”
1/ Mệnh đề quan hệ WHO / WHICH / THAT
được thay bằng HIỆN TẠI PHÂN TỪ (Present
participle):
* CHỦ ĐỘNG:
Ex1: The man who spoke to John is my
brother.
 The man speaking to John is my
brother.
(speak – spoke – spoken)
Ex2: The man who is talking to the
teacher is my father.
 The man talking to the teacher is
my father.
Ex3:All the roads that led to the city
center were overcrowded.
 All the roads leading to the city
center were overcrowded.
(lead – led – led)
Ex4: All the equipment which belongs to
the club is insured.
 All the equipment belonging to the
club is insured.
Ex5: Fans who wanted to buy tickets
started queuing early.
 Fans wanting to buy tickets started
queuing early.
Who / Which / That + verb
(belong)
(want)
V-ing
2/ Mệnh đề quan hệ WHO/ WHICH/
THAT được thay bằng QUÁ KHỨ
PHÂN TỪ (Past Participles):
* BỊ ĐỘNG:
Ex1: The Sport Games which were held in
India in 1951 were the first Asian Games.
.
 The Sport Games held in India in 1951
were the first Asian Games
Ex2: The book which was published last
week is her first novel.
 The book published last week is her
first novel.
Ex3: The skyscraper which is being
built has been designed by a French
architect.
 The skyscraper being built has been
designed by a French architect.
.
Ex4: The prisoners who are being
released are all women.
 The prisoners being released are all
women.
Who / Which / That + be + Ved/3
Who / Which / That + be + being + Ved/3

Ved/3
being + Ved/3
3/ Mệnh đề quan hệ WHO/ WHICH/
THAT được thay bằng ĐỘNG TỪ
NGUYÊN MẪU CÓ “TO”:
Ex1: Yuri Gagarin was the first man
who flew into space.
 Yuri Gagarin was the first man to fly
into space. (fly – flew – flown)
Ex2: Alice was the second applicant who
was interviewed.
 Alice was the second applicant to be
interviewed.
Ex3: New Zealand was the first country
that gave women the vote.
 New Zealand was the first country to
give women the vote. (give – gave - given)
(be – was/were - been)
3/ Mệnh đề quan hệ WHO/WHICH/THAT
được thay bằng ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN MẪU
CÓ “TO”:
 Who was the last person to see the man alive?
Ex4: Who was the last person that saw the
man alive? (see – saw - seen)
The first/ second/ third … + noun +
who/ which/ that + verb
 The first/second/ third … + noun + to verb
* CHỦ ĐỘNG:
Who / Which / That + verb  V-ing
* BỊ ĐỘNG:
Who / Which / That + be + ved/3 
Who / Which / That + be + being + ved/3 
Ved/3
being + Ved/3
* CHỦ ĐỘNG
The first/ second/ third … + noun +
who/ which/ that + verb
 The first/second/ third … + noun + to verb
WHO – WHOM – WHICH - THAT
1/ Who: THAY CHO DANH TỪ CHỈ
NGƯỜI (LÀM CHỦ TỪ)
2/ Whom: THAY CHO DANH TỪ CHỈ
NGƯỜI (LÀM TÚC TỪ)
3/ Which: THAY CHO DANH TỪ CHỈ ĐỒ
VẬT/ ĐỘNG VẬT
4/ That: THAY CHO DANH TỪ CHỈ
NGƯỜI và ĐỒ VẬT/ĐỘNG VẬT
Ex1: A nurse is a person ___ looks
after patients.
who
Ex2: Can you help me find the
man ____ saved the girl?
who
TRƯỚC KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ NGƯỜI
SAU KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ ĐỘNG TỪ
who
Ex3: The man _____ you visited
last month is a famous scientist.
whom
Ex4: Do you know the woman
_____ we met last night?
whom
TRƯỚC KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ NGƯỜI
SAU KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ CHỦ +ĐỘNG
whom
Ex5: A fridge is a machine _____ is
used for keeping food fresh.
which
Ex6: These are the pictures ____
my son drew when he was young.
which
TRƯỚC KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ VẬT
which
Ex7: Yesterday I met the people,
the cattle and vehicles ____ went
to the market.
that
TRƯỚC KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ NGƯỜI +
ĐỒ VẬT/ĐỘNG VẬT
that
NGOÀI RA “THAT” CÒN ĐƯỢC
DÙNG TRONG NHỮNG TRƯỜNG
HỢP SAU:
1/ SO SÁNH NHẤT: THE FIRST; THE
LAST; THE MOST; THE BEST …
Ex: She is the most beautiful girl
I have ever seen.
____
that
_____
Ex: I love everything
makes for me.
2/ ĐẠI TỪ BẤT ĐỊNH: VERYTHING;
EVERYONE; ANYTHING …
my mother
that
1/ TRƯỚC KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ NGƯỜI
SAU KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ ĐỘNG TỪ
who
2/ TRƯỚC KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ NGƯỜI
SAU KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ CHỦ +ĐỘNG
whom
3/ TRƯỚC KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ VẬT
which
4/ TRƯỚC KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ
NGƯỜI + ĐỒ VẬT/ĐỘNG VẬT that
1/ NGƯỜI ĐỘNG TỪ
______
2/ NGƯỜI CHỦ + ĐỘNG
_______
3/ VẬT ________
4/ NGƯỜI + VẬT ______
WHO
WHOM
WHICH
THAT
5/ NƠI CHỐN _______
6/ THỜI GIAN _______
7/ THE REASON _____
8/ NGƯỜI /VẬT _______
WHERE
WHEN
WHY
WHOSE DANH TỪ
ARTICLES
(A/AN/THE)
A
AN
- Đứng trước 1
danh từ ĐẾM
ĐƯỢC SỐ ÍT.
- Có đơn vị là
MỘT.
- 1 phụ âm:
Ex: a car; a
book; a cat; a
dog; a person; a
doctor …
- 1 trong nguyên
âm (a;o;i;e;u)
Ex: an engineer;
an apple; an
umbrella …
A/An được dùng trong những câu khẳng định
chung chung (tổng quát) hoặc để giới thiệu
một chủ đề mà trước đó chưa được đề cập đến.
Ex1: A ball is round.
(Nghĩa chung chung: Ý nói tất cả trái banh thì tròn)
Ex2: I saw a boy in the street.
(Nghĩa tổng quát: Ý nói tôi nhìn thấy 1 đứa bé
trên đường nhưng không biết nó là ai))
CHÚ Ý:
1/ An đứng trước h (câm)
2/ A đứng trước nguyên âm u (đọc là [ju])
Ex: an hour ['auə]
(NHƯNG a house [haus]; a hot [hɔt] girl)
Ex: a university [,ju:ni'və:səti]
a uniform ['ju:nifɔ:m]
(NHƯNG an umbrella [ʌm'brelə]
an unexpected [ʌniks'pektid] guest)
Dùng trước một danh từ đã ĐƯỢC XÁC ĐỊNH CỤ
THỂ về mặt tính chất, đặc điểm, vị trí hoặc ĐÃ ĐƯỢC
ĐỀ CẬP ĐẾN TRƯỚC ĐÓ, hoặc những KHÁI NIỆM
PHỔ THÔNG, AI CŨNG BIẾT.
THE
Ex1: The man next to Mary is my friend.
(Cả người nói và người nghe đều biết đó là người đàn ông nào)
Ex2: The sun is big.
(Chỉ có một mặt trời, ai cũng biết)
Ex3: My house is near a river. The river is very beautiful
(Từ “river” của câu thứ 2 được nhắc lại nên dùng “the”)
DÙNG “THE” KHÔNG DÙNG “THE”
1/ Đại dương – sông – biển –
vịnh – hồ (số nhiều):
Ex: the Red Sea (Hoàng Hải);
the Atlantic Ocean (Đại Tây
Dương); the Persian Gulf
(Vịnh Ba Tư); the Great Lakes
(Ngũ Đại Hồ) …
1/ Hồ (số ít):
Ex: Lake Geneva; Lake
Erie; Sword Lake (Hồ
Gươm) …
2/ Dãy núi: 2/ Ngọn núi:
Ex: the Rocky Mountains (dãy
núi Rocky); the Andes (dãy núi
Andes) …
Ex: Mount Vesuvius;
Mount McKinley …
4/ Trường; trường Cao đẳng;
trường Đại học bắt đầu bằng từ
(Trường; viện …)
Ex: the University of Florida
(Viện Đại học Florida); the
College of Arts and Sciences
(trường Cao Đẳng nghệ thuật và
khoa học) …
4/ Trường; trường Cao đẳng;
trường Đại học bắt đầu bằng danh
từ riêng (Thạnh Lộc; Santa Fe ..)
Ex: Santa Fe Community
College (ĐH cộng đồng Santa
Fe); Cooper’s Art School
(Trường nghệ thuật Cooper)
3/ Trái đất; mặt trăng 3/ Hành tinh; chòm sao
Ex: the earth; the moon; the
sun …
Ex: Venus ['vi:nəs] (Sao Kim);
Mars (Sao Hoả); Orion
[ɔ'raiən] (Sao Thiên Lang) …
DÙNG “THE” KHÔNG DÙNG “THE”
DÙNG “THE” KHÔNG DÙNG “THE”
6/ Chiến tranh (ngoại trừ thế
chiến)
Ex: the Crimean War; the
Korean War …
5/ Số thứ tự đứng trước danh
từ:
Ex: the First World War; the
Third chapter …
5/ Số đếm đứng sau danh tư:
Ex: World War one;
chapter three …
7/ Tên những nước có một
chữ:
Ex: Vietnam; China;
France …
DÙNG “THE” KHÔNG DÙNG “THE”
7/ Các quốc gia có tên phức
hợp:
Ex: the United States (Hiệp
Chủng Quốc Hoa Kỳ); the
Central African Republic
(Cộng Hoà Trung Phi) …
8/ Văn kiện lịch sử:
Ex: the Constitution (Bản
Hiến pháp); the Magna Carta
(Hiến chương Magna Carta)
…
8/ Tiểu bang:
Florida; Ohio; California …
DÙNG “THE” KHÔNG DÙNG “THE”
10/ Danh từ trừu tượng:
Ex: freedom; happiness; sadness …
11/ Các môn học:
Ex: maths; physics; economics;
sociology …
12/ Ngày lễ:
Ex: Christmas; Thanksgiving …
9/ Các nhóm sắc tộc:
Ex: the Indians (người
Da đỏ); the Aztecs
(người Aztecs) …
9/ Thể thao:
Ex: football; basketball …
1/ We went by ___ train to the west of England.
2/ ___ people who live in ___ Scotland are called
___ Scots.
3/ ___ Columbus was one of ___ first people to
cross ___ Atlantic.
4/ Davis learned to play ___ violin when he was at
___ university.
5. Did you read ___ book I lent you ___ last
week?
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
the
the
the
the Ø
Ø
6. Is that ___ present Bill gave you for ___
Christmas?
7. ___ computer has already changed ___ our
lives dramatically.
8. There was ___ accident yesterday at ___
corner of ___ street.
9. I need ___ time to think about ___ offer you
gave me.
10. ___ little knowledge is ___ dangerous
thing.
Ø
the
Ø Ø
the
the
an
Ø the
Ø a
ON TIME (ĐÚNG
GIỜ CHÍNH XÁC)
Ex1: We have a meeting at
9.30, please be on time.
(Chúng ta có một cuộc gặp
lúc 9h30, nhớ đến đúng giờ
nhé.)
Ex2: She is always on time.
(Cô ấy luôn đúng giờ.)
IN TIME (KỊP LÚC)
Ex1: Although I get up late, I
go to school in time.
(Mặc dù dậy muộn, tôi vẫn kịp
đến trường đúng giờ.)
Ex2: Luckily, she arrives here
in time.
(May thay cô ấy đến đây kịp giờ.)
Ex: She died of lung cancer. Ex: That neighborhood is
very dangerous, and I don't
want you to die by gunshot!
die of (something)
To die as a result of something.
(Chết vì hậu quả của một điều gì đó.)
die by (something)
To die from a particular cause
(Chết vì một nguyên nhân cụ thể.)
Ex: She often has to travel
abroad on business.
(Cô thường xuyên phải đi công
tác nước ngoài.)
Ex: Once we get the
computer installed we'll be
in business.
(Sau khi cài đặt xong máy tính,
chúng tôi sẽ kinh doanh.)
Be in business: kinh doanh
Be on business: đi công tác
At the end: tại thời điểm mà
nó kết thúc …
In the end: kết quả của ...
Ex2: In the end, what really
matters in a friendship is
trust.
(Cuối cùng, điều thực sự quan trọng
trong một tình bạn là sự tin tưởng.)
Ex1: We worked hard, and in
the end, we achieved our goal.
(Chúng tôi đã làm việc chăm
chỉ và cuối cùng, chúng tôi đã
đạt được mục tiêu của mình.)
Ex1: At the end of his life, he
had no regrets.
(Vào cuối đời, ông đã không
hối tiếc.)
Ex2: I pay the electricity bill
at the end of each month.
(Tôi trả/thanh toán hoá đơn
tiền điện vào cuối mỗi tháng.)
believe in someone: tin tưởng vào khả năng của ai
“Believe in” is a little different. Believe in means to have faith
that something exists. You believe in something because you
have faith that it exists, even though you may never have seen
or experienced it.
(“Tin vào” thì hơi khác một chút. Tin vào có nghĩa là có niềm
tin rằng một cái gì đó tồn tại. Bạn tin vào điều gì đó bởi vì bạn
có niềm tin rằng nó tồn tại, mặc dù bạn có thể chưa bao giờ
nhìn thấy.) Ex1: Do you believe in ghosts?
Ex2: Many people in the world believe in God.
a true friend to someone: 1 người bạn tốt đối với ai đó.
Ex: You are a true friend to me.
Ex: Marie Curie is famous for her contribution
to science.
(Marie Curie nổi tiếng vì đóng góp cho khoa học.)
Ex: He warned us about pickpockets.
(Anh ấy đã cảnh báo chúng tôi về những kẻ móc túi.)
get married to someone: lấy ai, lập gia đình với ai
Ex: Peter got married to Mary last year.
warn someone about: cảnh báo cho ai về ...
famous for something/V-ing: nổi tiêng vì cái gì
There is a house between
the two trees.
There is a house among
many trees.
Ở giữa (2 cái) Ở giữa (nhiều cái bao quanh)
They are walking across the street.
băng qua
opposite
đối mặt / đối diện
get married with someone:
kết hôn với ai
Ex: Next year, Mary is going to get
married with John.
MODAL VERBS
(can; could; may; might; will; would;
must; have/has to;; used to …)
1/ May/ Might: Được dùng để diễn tả
a/ Điều gì đó có thể là thật hoặc có khả
năng xảy ra ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai:
Ex1: It may/ might be a bomb.
Ex2: I may/ might go abroad next month.
b/ Dự đoán về khả năng 1 vấn đề gì đó
có thể xảy ra:
Ex2: My family might come with me
(30%).
Ex1: I may go to London next month
(50%).
c/ Một lời xin phép
(trong lối nói trịnh trọng):
Ex2: Might I use your phone?
Ex1: May I turn the television on?
might not = mightn’t
Chúng ta có thể dùng may well/ might
well để nhấn mạnh đến khả năng có
thể xảy ra.
*CHÚ Ý:
Ex: This picture may/might well be valuable.
(It is very possible that this picture is valuable)
2/ Must (Phải)/ Mustn’t (Không được
phép)/ Needn’t (Không cần phải):
a/ Must: được dùng để diễn tả SỰ CẦN
THIẾT hay SỰ BẮT BUỘC (chủ quan) ở
hiện tại và tương lai.
Ex1: Don’t tell anybody what I said.
You must keep it a secret.
Ex2:We haven’t got much time. We must
hurry.
b/ Mustn’t:
Được dùng để chỉ SỰ CẤM ĐOÁN
Ex1: You mustn’t tell anybody else.
Ex2: We mustn’t drive on the left in
Vietnam.
c/ Needn’t:
Được dùng để diễn tả SỰ KHÔNG CẦN
THIẾT ở hiện tại và tương lai
Ex2: We’ve got plenty of time.
We needn’t hurry.
Ex1: You needn’t do that if you don’t want to.
needn’t do = don’t need to do
* CHÚ Ý:
Must have + Ved/3
Diễn tả sự SUY DIỄN và LÝ LUẬN HỢP
LÝ TRONG QUÁ KHỨ
Ex1: He failed the final examination.
He must have been very lazy.
Ex2: Last year, he died. He must have
been seriously ill.
Could have + Ved/3
1/ Điều gì đó đã có thể xảy ra trong quá
khứ, tuy nhiên nó đã không xảy ra:
Ex: I could have stayed up late last night, but
I decided to go to bed early.
(Tối qua tôi đã có thể thức khuya,
nhưng mà tôi đã quyết định đi ngủ sớm.)
Could have + Ved/3
2/ Điều gì đó đã có thể xảy ra trong quá
khứ, tuy nhiên người nói không dám chắc
Ex: Who was the last person to leave the
store last night? It could have been Tom, but
I’m not sure.
(Tối qua ai là người rời cửa hàng cuối cùng
vậy? Có thể là Tom nhưng mà tôi không chắc)
Might have + Ved/3
Diễn tả một hành động/ điều gì đó có thể
đã xảy ra, tuy nhiên thực tế nó đã không
xảy ra.
Ex: With more effort, we might have
won the game.
(Với nhiều nỗ lực hơn, chúng ta đã có thể thắng
trận đấu rồi – Thực tế là đã thua trận đấu)
Should/Shouldn’t have + Ved/3
Cấu trúc được sử dụng khi chỉ một việc/hành
động đáng lẽ ra đã phải / không phải xảy ra trong quá
khứ nhưng vì lý do nào đó lại không xảy ra, thường
mang hàm ý trách móc hoặc nuối tiếc (điều diễn tả
ngược với quá khứ)
Ex: You should have apologized for what you did.
(Đáng lẽ cậu đã phải xin lỗi vì những điều mình
làm – Thực tế là đã không xin lỗi)
Ex3: I shouldn't have eaten so much
cake!
(Tôi đã ăn quá nhiều bánh và giờ đây tôi bị mệt)
Ex2: I should have studied harder!
(Tôi không chăm chỉ học và rồi tôi bị trượt
kỳ thi. bây giờ tôi hối hận về điều đó.)
Exercise 1: complete the sentences, using
may/might with one verb in the box.
bite
break
need
rain
slip
wake
(làm vỡ)
(cần)
(trượt chân)
(thức dậy)
(mưa)
(cắn)
1/ Take an umbrella with you when you
go out. It _____________ later.
may/might rain
2/ Don’t make too much noise. You
______________ the baby up.
3/ Be careful of that dog. It ______________ you.
4/ I don’t think we should throw that letter away.
We _______________ it later.
5/ Be careful. The footpath is very icy. You
______________.
6/ I don’t want the children to play in this room.
They ________________ something.
may/might wake
may / might bite
may / might need
may / might slip
may / might break
Exercise 2: Complete the sentences,
using needn't, with one of the verbs in
the box.
ask (hỏi, yêu cầu)
come (đến)
explain (giải thích)
(rời bỏ)
leave
tell (kể)
walk (đi bộ)
1/ We’ve got plenty of time.
We ____________ yet.
needn’t leave
needn’t + Vo
2/ I can manage the shopping alone.
You ___________ with me.
3/ We ___________ all the way home.
We can get a taxi.
4/ Just help yourself if you’d like something to
eat. You __________ first.
5/ We can keep this a secret between ourselves.
We ________ _ anybody else.
6/ I understand the situation perfectly.
You _____________ further.
needn’t come
needn’t walk
needn’t ask
needn’t tell
needn’t explain
needn’t + Vo
Exercise 3: Complete the
sentences with must, mustn’t or
needn’t.
must
mustn’t
needn’t
phải
không được (phép)
không cần
Ex 1/ We haven't got much time.
We ____ hurry.
Ex 2/ We’ve got plenty of time.
We ______ hurry.
3/ We have enough food at home so
we ______ go shopping today.
4/ Jim gave me a letter to post. I _____
remember to post it.
needn't
must
must
needn’t
5/ Jim gave me a letter to post.
I _______ forget to post it.
6/ There’s plenty of time for you to make
up your mind. You ______ decide now.
7/ You ______ wash those tomatoes.
They’ve already been washed.
8/ This is a valuable book. You ____ look
after it carefully and you mustn’t lose it.
mustn’t
needn’t
needn’t
must
PASSIVE VOICE
(CÂU BỊ ĐỘNG)
1/ Xác định: S (chủ từ) – V (động từ) – O (túc từ) –
Adv of place (TNCNC) – Adv of time (TNCTT)
2/ O (túc từ) S (chủ từ)
me
you
him He
You
I
her
us
them
Mary
my children
She
We
They
Mary
My children
some cakes Some cakes
MODAL (can; could; will; would; shall;
should; may; might; used to; be going
to; have to; has to; had to; ought to)
Modal + Vo  Modal + be + Ved/3
3/ V (động từ) được biến đổi như sau:
by + O (túc từ)
4/ S (chủ từ)
I
You
He by him
by you
by me
She
We
They
Mary
My children
by her
by us
by them
by Mary
by my children
CHÚ Ý:
1/ Adv of place (TNCNC) trước by + O
2/ Adv of time (TNCTG) sau by + O (đứng cuối câu)
thường bỏ
giữ lại
S + Modal Vo + O + Adv of place + Adv of time
S + Modal be + Ved/3 by + O
Adv of place Adv of time
TÓM TẮT
Ex1: Jack and Thomas will speak English at the conference tomorrow.
Englishwill be spoken by Jack and Thomas
at the conference tomorrow.
Modal + Vo  Modal + be + Ved/3 speak – spoke – spoken
Ex3: They are going to build a new school.
Ex2: You should do this exercise.
This exercise should
A new school is going to be built.
be done.
TRANSITIVE and INTRANSITIVE VERBS
(Ngoại động từ và nội động từ)
1/ Transitive verb (Ngoại đồng từ): thường
được ký hiệu là (Vt) và thường CÓ TÚC
TỪ đi kèm.
S + Vt + Object
Ex3: Don’t surprise(vt) me(object)!
(Đừng làm tôi ngạc nhiên)
Ex1: The customer signed(vt) the check(object).
(Khách hàng đã ký séc.)
Ex2: The car hit(vt) the lamp post(object).
(Chiếc xe đâm vào cột đèn.)
MỘT SỐ NGOẠI ĐỘNG TỪ (Vt):
CẦN CÓ TÚC TỪ
1/ read [ri:d]: ñoïc
2/ write [rait]: vieát
3/ meet [mi:t]: gaëp
4/ help [help]: giuùp ñôõ
5/ climb [klaim]: leo; leo treøo
6/ pay [pei]: traû; noäp (tieàn); thanh toaùn
7/ supply [sə’plai]: cung caáp; tieáp teá; ñaùp öùng
8/ surprise [sə’praiz]: laøm ngaïc nhieân; laøm kinh
ngaïc
9/ buy [bai]: mua
11/ notice [‘noutis]: chuù yù
12/ complete [kəm’pli:t]: hoaøn thaønh; laøm
xong
13/ touch [tʌt∫]: sôø; moù; ñuïng; chaïm vaøo
14/ raise [reiz]: giô leân; ñöa leân
15/ put [put]: ñaët
16/ achieve [ə’t∫i:v]: ñaït ñöôïc; giaønh ñöôïc
17/ admire [əd’maiə]: ngöôõng moä
18/ avoid [ə’vɔid]: traùnh; neù
19/ create [kri:’eit]: taïo neân; taïo thaønh
21/ demand [di’mɑ:nd]: ñoøi hoûi; yeâu caàu;
caàn
22/ desire [di’zaiə]: ao öôùc; khaùt khao
23/ enjoy [in’dʒɔi]: thích thuù; thöôûng thöùc
24/ find [faind]: tìm thaáy; nhaän ra
25/ get [get]: coù ñöôïc; laáy ñöôïc
26/ give [giv]: cho; ñöa
27/ hate [heit]: gheùt
28/ include [in’klu:d]: bao goàm; goàm coù
29/ love [lʌv]: yeâu
31/ maintain [mein’tein]: giöõ; duy trì
32/ mention ['men∫n]: noùi ñeán; ñeà caäp
33/ support [sə’pɔ:t]: caáp döôõng; uûng hoä
34/ want [wɔnt]: muoán
35/ build [bild]: xaây döïng
36/ discover [dis’kʌvə]: khaùm phaù; tìm ra
37/ need [ni:d]: caàn
38/ see [si:]: nhìn; thaáy
39/ wish [wi∫]: öôùc; muoán
40/ make [meik]: laøm; cheá taïo
2/ Intransitive verb (Nội động từ):
thường được ký hiệu là (Vi),
KHÔNG CÓ TÚC TỪ đi kèm.
S + Vi
Ex3: She suddenly appeared(vi).
(Cô ấy đột nhiên xuất hiện.)
Ex1: The accident happened(vi).
(Tai nạn đã xảy ra.)
Ex2: The price is rising(vi).
(Giá đang tăng.)
MỘT SỐ NỘI ĐỘNG TỪ (Vi)
KHÔNHG CẦN CÓ TÚC TỪ
1/ sleep [sli:p]: nguû
2/ lie [lai]: noùi doái; noùi laùo
3/ happen ['hæpən]: xaûy ra
4/ occur [ə'kɜ:(r)]: xaûy ra; xuaát hieän
5/ arrive [ə'raiv]: ñeán (nôi)
6/ exist [ig'zist]: ñaõ soáng; toàn taïi
7/ stay [stei]: ôû laïi; löu laïi
8/ blow [blou]: thoåi
9/ rain [rein]: möa
10/ walk [wɔ:k]: ñi boä
11/ laugh [lɑ:f]: cöôøi (lôùn tieáng)
12/ fly [flai]: bay
13/ stand [stænd]: ñöùng
14/ rise [raiz]: moïc; ñöùng leân;
boác leân
15/ swim [swim]: bôi
16/ become [bi'kʌm]: trôû neân
17/ come [kʌm]: ñeán
18/ die [dai]: cheát
19/ fall [fɔ:l]: rôi; teù; ngaõ
21/ go [gou]: ñi
22/ appear [ə'piə]: xuaát hieän
23/ live [liv]: soáng
24/ seem [si:m]: döôøng nhö
25/ sit [sit]: ngoài
26/ sneeze [sni:z]: haét hôi
27/ talk [tɔ:k]: noùi
28/ wait [weit]: ñôïi; chôø
29/ smile [smail]: cöôøi (mæm chi)
1/ Moät soá ñoäng töø vöøa laø
ngoaïi ñoäng töø (vt) vöøa laø noäi
ñoäng töø (vi).
Ex1a: She eat slowly.
Ex1b: She eats an apple(object) for lunch.
Ex2a: She runs . (Cô ấy chạy.)
Ex2b: She runs a hotel(object).
(Cô ấy quản lý một khách sạn.)
CHÚ Ý:
(Vi)
(Vt)
(Vi)
(Vt)
2/ Nếu câu có nội đồng từ thì câu đó
không thể đổi sang câu bị động.
Ex1: The boy fell (Vi) from the tree.
Ex2: He swims (Vi) very well.
Mary Daisy
115 cm 115 cm
CÂU SO SÁNH
I/ SO SÁNH BẰNG:
1/ Khẳng định: S + V + as adj / adv as + (pro) noun
tall
Ex1: Mary is 115 cm tall. Daisy is, too.
 Mary is as as Daisy.
She is beautiful. Her daughter is, too
her.
Ex2: She is beautiful and her daughter is also beautiful.
 Her daughter is as as
beautiful
2/ Phủ định:
Ex2: Daisy is not as/so beautiful as her mother.
Ex1: Tom is not as/so tall as his brother.
CÂU SO SÁNH
I/ SO SÁNH BẰNG:
1/ Khẳng định:
S + V + as adj / adv as + (pro) noun
2/ Phủ định:
S + V (not) + as/so adj / adv as + (pro) noun
COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES
1/ Tính từ NGẮN:
a/ Những tính từ/ trạng từ có 1 ÂM TIẾT:
hot; big; small; short; smart; thin ...
b/ Những tính từ/ trạng từ có 2 ÂM TIẾT
mà tận cùng là -y, -le, -ow, -er, và -et:
happy;
(So sánh hơn của tính từ)
simple; narrow; clever; quiet …
2/ Tính từ DÀI:
b/ Những tính từ/ trạng từ có 2 ÂM TIẾT
NHƯNG TẬN CÙNG LÀ “_ ed”; “_ ful”; “_
ing”, “_ ish”; “_ ous”:
a/ Những tính từ/ trạng từ có 2 ÂM TIẾT
NHƯNG TẬN CÙNG KHÔNG PHẢI LÀ
NHỮNG TỪ ĐÃ ĐƯỢC LIỆT KÊ TRONG
TÍNH TỪ NGẮN. perfect; modern; common …
ed (crowded); ful (useful); ing (boring);
ous (precious)
ish (foolish)
c/ Những tính từ/ trạng từ có 3 ÂM
TIẾT TRỞ LÊN:
expensive; intelligent; interesting …
d/ Những tính từ/ trạng từ được hình
thành TỪ NHỮNG GỐC:
active (act)
slowly (slow)
(quick)
careless (care)
quickly
1/ Tính từ/ trạng từ NGẮN:
II/ SO SÁNH HƠN:
S + V + adj / adv + ER + than + (pro) noun
This is my house. This is your house.
► Your house is
► My house is
small
large / big
► Your house is
smaller than your house.
yours.
larger than my house.
mine.
bigger thanmine.
2/ Tính từ/ trạng từ DÀI:
Lee Mary
► Mary is
They are beautiful girls.
beautiful
S + V + more adj / adv than + (pro) noun
more than Lee.
1/ Tính từ/ trạng từ NGẮN:
II/ SO SÁNH HƠN:
S + V + adj / adv + ER + than + (pro) noun
2/ Tính từ/ trạng từ DÀI:
S + V + more adj / adv than + (pro) noun
III/ SO SÁNH NHẤT:
1/ Tính từ/ trạng từ NGẮN:
1.5 meters
1.6 meters 1.7 meters
S + V + the adj/adv EST in (CN: singular)/of (CN: plural)
Peter John Tom
► Peter is
► Tom is
Dick
1.4 meters
in the class.
the shortest
in the class.
the est
tall
(student/boy)
(student/boy)
2/ Tính từ/ trạng từ DÀI:
Jane Nancy Alice Mary
►Mary is in the class.
the mostbeautiful
S + V + the most adj / adv in (CN: singular) / of (CN: plural)
(student/girl)
III/ SO SÁNH NHẤT:
1/ Tính từ/ trạng từ NGẮN:
S + V + the adj/adv EST in (CN: singular)/of (CN: plural)
2/ Tính từ/ trạng từ DÀI:
S + V + the most adj / adv in (CN: singular) / of (CN: plural)
TÓM TẮT NGẮN GỌN 3 LOẠI CÂU SO SÁNH
BẰNG – HƠN - NHẤT
1/ BẰNG: as adj/adv as
2/ HƠN:
a/ Ngắn:
more
b/ Dài:
er than
3/ NHẤT:
… in/of …
… in/of …
adj/adv
than
adj/adv
a/ Ngắn:
b/ Dài:
est
adj/adv
the
adj/adv
the most
IV/ SO SÁNH ĐỒNG TIẾN:
1/ Tính từ/ trạng từ NGẮN:
Eg: The (dark) .................. it gets, the
(cool) .................. it is.
The adj/adv + ER … , the adj/adv + ER …
 The the
dark cool
er er it is.
it gets,
(Thường đứng ở ĐẦU CÂU)
2/ Tính từ/ trạng từ DÀI:
The more + adj/adv … , the more + adj/adv …
Eg: The (beautifully) .......... she dances,
the (attractive) .......... she becomes.
she becomes.
 The more beautifully she dances,
the more attractive
3/ Tính từ/ trạng từ NGẮN DÀI KẾT HỢP:
Eg1: The (large) .......... the house is, the
(expensive) .......... it is.
Eg2: The (expensive) .......... the hotel is,
the (good) .......... its service becomes.
 The r the house is, the more
expensive it is.
 The more expensive the hotel is,
the better its service becomes.
large
NGUYÊN CẤP SO SÁNH HƠN SO SÁNH NHẤT
good (adj)/ well (adv)
bad (adj)/ badly (adv)
many (cn)/ much (ncn)
little
far
better
worse
more
less
farther/(further)
the best
the worst
the most
the least
the farthest /(the furthest)
SO SÁNH ĐẶC BIỆT
Ex1: This film is (good)
Ex2: My mother cooks (well)
Ex3: She is the (good)
Ex4: Mary reads (many)
Ex5: This was the (bad)
than that one.
______
than my sister.
tennis player of Australia.
books than Daisy.
movie I have ever seen.
_____
___
______
______
better
better
best
more
worst
V/ SO SÁNH LUỸ TIẾN:
(Thường đứng GIỮA hoặc CUỐI CÂU)
1/ Tính từ/ trạng từ NGẮN:
S + V + adj/adv + ER and adj/adv + ER
Eg1: The weather is getting (hot) ...............
Eg2: This tree grows (high) ..................
 The weather is getting hoter
ter and hotter.
 This tree grows high and high
er er.
2/ Tính từ/ trạng từ DÀI:
Eg1: Mary becomes (beautiful) ..................
beautiful.
Mary becomes more and more
S + V + more and more + adj/adv …
difficult.
Eg2: Life is becoming (difficult) .................
Life is becoming more and more
V/ SO SÁNH LUỸ TIẾN:
(Thường đứng GIỮA hoặc CUỐI CÂU)
1/ His visit to New York seemed to get
(short) ________________ because he
was very busy at work.
2/ Eating and travelling in this city is
getting (expensive) ___________________
shorter and shorter
more and more expensive
3/ As the day went on, the weather got
(bad) ______________.
4. We had to stop the discussion because
the question was becoming (complicated)
_______________________.
worse and worse
more and more complicated
5/ Your English is OK now. Your
pronunciation has got (good)
______________.
6/ Little John is becoming (active)
__________________.
better and better
more and more active
7/ As it was getting dark, it was
becoming (difficult)
___________________ to see
everything in the house without
electricity.
8/ I feel happy as my birthday is
coming (close) ______________.
more and more difficult
closer and closer
TÓM TẮT NGẮN GỌN 5 LOẠI CÂU SO SÁNH
BẰNG – HƠN – NHẤT – ĐỒNG – LUỸ
1/ BẰNG:
as adj/adv as
2/ HƠN:
a/ Ngắn:
more
b/ Dài:
er than
adj/adv
than
adj/adv
3/ NHẤT:
… in/of …
… in/of…
a/ Ngắn:
b/ Dài:
est
adj/adv
the
adj/adv
the most
4/ ĐỒNG:
a/ Ngắn:
b/ Dài:
er …,
adj/adv
The
adj/adv
The more
er …
adj/adv
the
, adj/adv
the more
5/ LŨY:
a/ Ngắn:
b/ Dài:
er
adj/adv
adj/adv
more and more
er
adj/adv
and
PHRASAL VERBS
(ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP)
ĐỘNG TỪ
1 or 2 preposition(s) (giới từ)
1 adv (trạng từ)
PHRASAL VERB CÓ NGHĨA HOÀN TOÀN
KHÁC VỚI ĐỘNG TỪ GỐC TẠO NÊN NÓ.
look (v): nhìn + for (pre) look for: tìm kiếm
look (v): nhìn + forward (pre)+ to (pre)
look forward to: mong chờ/đợi
pass (v): đi qua + away (adv)
pass away: chết/mất/ra đi mãi mãi
4 ĐẶC ĐIỂM CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP
1/ ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP
KHÔNG CẦN CÓ TÚC TỪ:
- take off: cất cánh (máy bay)
Ex: When we got to the airport, the plane
had taken off.
- pass away: (die) chết
Ex: His grandfather passed away last year.
2/ ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP
CÓ THỂ TÁCH ĐỘNG TỪ VÀ GIỚI TỪ RA
- hand in: nộp
Ex: May I hand in my paper tomorrow, Sir?
 May I hand my paper in tomorrow, Sir?
- wake up: đánh thức
Ex: A loud noise woke up all the passengers.
 A loud noise woke all the passengers up.
► ► ► CHÚ Ý QUAN TRỌNG:
Khi dùng đại từ (pronoun) ta phải
ĐẶT ĐẠI TỪ TRƯỚC GIỚI TỪ.
Ex1: May I hand it in tomorrow, Sir?
Ex2: A loud noise woke them up.
3/ ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP
KHÔNG THỂ TÁCH ĐỘNG TỪ VÀ GIỚI TỪ
- look for: tìm; kiếm
Ex: I’m looking for my watch. Have you
seen it?
- run into: tình cờ gặp
Ex: Alice ran into an old friend while she
was doing shopping.
Ex: The machine stopped working because
it ran out of fuel.
4/ ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP
CÓ 2 GIỚI TỪ
- put up with: chịu nổi
Ex: We’ve put up with our noisy neighbors
for years.
- run out of: hết; cạn
Khi dùng đại từ (pronoun) ta phải ĐẶT ĐẠI
TỪ TRƯỚC GIỚI TỪ.
4 ĐẶC ĐIỂM CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP
1/ Động từ kép KHÔNG CẦN CÓ TÚC TỪ:
2/ Động từ kép CÓ THỂ TÁCH ĐỘNG TỪ
VÀ GIỚI TỪ RA:
3/ Động từ kép KHÔNG THỂ TÁCH ĐỘNG
TỪ VÀ GIỚI TỪ RA:
4/ Động từ kép CÓ 2 GIỚI TỪ:
MỘT SỐ ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP CẦN HỌC THUỘC LÒNG:
1/ fill in: điền vào (đơn …)
Ex: He is trying to fill in a form.
2/ give up: bỏ; từ bỏ
Ex: My father gave up smoking two years ago.
3/ take off: cởi (giày); cất cánh (máy bay)
Ex: The plane had taken off
when they got to the airport.
Ex: She took off her shoes.
4/ wash up: rửa dọn; rửa bát đĩa
Ex: She is washing up.
5/ go on: continue (tiếp tục)
GO ON
Ex: He went on persuading his father to
buy him a car.
6/ look up: tra (từ trong từ điển)
Ex: You can look up the new words in the dictionary.
Ex: He is putting on a coat.
7/ put on: = wear: mặc (quần áo); đội (mũ); mang (giày)
8/ turn on:
bật (đèn; nhạc; truyền hình …)
Ex: Can you turn on the music?
I want to relax.
9/ turn off:
tắt (đèn; nhạc; truyền hình …)
Ex: Can you turn off the music?
I need to work.
1/ fill in: điền vào (đơn …)
2/ give up: bỏ; từ bỏ
3/ take off: cởi (giày);cất cánh (máy bay)
4/ wash up: rửa dọn; rửa bát đĩa
5/ go on: continue (tiếp tục)
6/ look up:tra (từ trong từ điển)
7/ put on: mặc (quần áo); đội (mũ); mang (giày)
8/ turn on:bật (đèn; nhạc; truyền hình …)
9/ turn off:tắt (đèn; nhạc; truyền hình …)
Exercise 1: Complete the sentences below,
using the words from the box. Some words
can be used more than once (page 159).
fill in - give up - take off - wash up - go
on - look up - put on - turn on - turn off
1/ John got ill and had to ______ smoking.
2/ Please _____ this form and post it.
3/ It’s dark in here. Can I _______ the lights?
give up
fill in
turn on
4. Remember to _______ your shoes when
you are in a Japanese house.
5. Let me help you _______
6. You can ______ the new words in the
dictionary.
7. _______ the lights when you are not using them
8. Why do you have to _____ the form?
9. He is too tired to _____ working.
10. ______ your coat, it’s cold outside.
take off
wash up
look up
turn off
fill in
go on
Put on
10/ go in: đi vào
Ex: The door opened and I went in.
11/ get up: thức dậy
Ex: He often gets up at seven o’clock in the morning.
12/ go out:đi ra ngoài
Ex: She went out to dinner.
13/ turn round:quay lại
Ex: She heard a noise behind her and turned
round, but there was nothing.
14/ hurry up:
Ex: Hurry up! The bus is coming.
nhanh lên; mau lên
15/ lie down:
nằm nghỉ (trên giường); nằm xuống
Ex: He is not feeling well. He’s going to
lie down for an hour.
16/ go away: ra đi; đi khỏi
Ex: Please, don’t go away! I need you.
DON’T
17/ sit down: ngồi xuống
Ex: Please come in and sit down.
10/ go in: đi vào
11/ get up: thức dậy
12/ go out: đi ra ngoài
13/ turn round: quay lại
14/ hurry up: nhanh lên; mau lên
15/ lie down:nằm nghỉ (trên giường); nằm xuống
16/ go away: ra đi; đi khỏi
17/ sit down: ngồi xuống
Exercise 2: Complete the sentences
below, using the right word from the box
Some words can be used more than once.
in - on - up - down - back
up - away - in - round - out
1. The door opened and I went in.
2. I usually get ___ at six o’clock in the
morning.
3. I’m bored. Shall we go ___ this evening?
up
out
4. I heard a noise behind me and turned _____,
but there was nothing.
5. I can’t go __ walking. Can we stop and have
a short rest?
6. Hurry __! The bus is coming.
7. I’m not feeling well. I’m going to lie ____
for an hour.
8. “I need you. Don’t go _____”
9. “Please come in and sit _____”
10. John put ___ his best clothes for the interview.
round
on
up
down
away
down
on
18/ turn up: đến (arrive); xuất hiện (appear)
Ex: How many people turned up at the airport?
19/ look after = take care of:
trông nom; chăm sóc
Ex: Is she looking after her husband?
20/ take after = resemble [ri'zembl]:
(trông) giống
Tom
Ex: Tom takes after his father.
21/ get over = recover from:
phục hồi; khỏi (bệnh)
Ex: He finally got over his sickness.
22/ go off
explore (v):
ring (v):
Ex: Bombs went off all
around in the city.
The alarm goes off at 7
o’clock.
nổ (bom) rung; reo; báo thức
(đồng hồ)
23/ try out = test:to use something to see if it works well:
(để sử dụng một cái gì đó để xem nếu nó hoạt động tốt hay không)
Peter is trying out his new bicycle.
The plane was held up because of the heavy snow.
24/ hold up = delay: hoãn lại
18/ turn up: đến (arrive); xuất hiện (appear)
19/ look after = take care of: trông nom; chăm sóc
20/ take after = resemble [ri'zembl]:(trông) giống
21/ get over = recover from: phục hồi; khỏi (bệnh)
22/ go off
explore (v):
ring (v):
nổ (bom)
rung; reo; báo thức (đồng hồ)
23/ try out = test: to use something to see if it works well:
(để sử dụng một cái gì đó để xem nếu nó hoạt động tốt hay không)
24/ hold up = delay: hoãn lại
Exercise 3: Replace the words in brackets in the
following sentences with a suitable phrasal verb
in the box. (Make any other necessary changes.)
turn up - look after - take after
get over - go off - try out - hold up
1. The trouble with Frank is that he never
turns up on time for a meeting. (arrives)
2. John, could you ________ my handbag
while I go to the toilet? (take care of)
look after
7. The bomb _______ with a loud bang which
could be heard all over. (exploded)
3. What a lovely baby! He certainly _________
his father, doesn’t he? (resembles)
4. My father still hasn’t really _______ the death
of my mother. (recovered from)
5. Because of an accident, my train was ______
for several hours. (delayed)
6. I'll be back in a minute, Jane. I just want to
______ my new tape recorder. (test)
takes after
got over
held up
try out
went off
25/ explain something to someone:
Ex: She is explaining the problem to her office workers.
giải thích cho ai cái gì
26/ invite someone to somewhere:
Would you like
to visit my
house?
Ex: She invited him to her house.
mời ai đến đâu
Tom
Peter
Ex: Tom laughed at Peter.
27/ laugh at someone: chế nhạo ai
28/ listen to:
Ex: She is listening to music.
nghe; lắng nghe
29/ point at:
Ex: He is pointing at the board.
chỉ vào
30/ glance at someone/something:
Ex: She glanced at him.
liếc nhìn ai/cái gì
31/ speak to someone: nói với ai
Ex: She is speaking to her daughter.
32/ throw something at someone/something:
ném cái gì đó vào ai/cái gì
Ex: Dick threw a ball at Tom.
Dick Tom
33/ stare at someone:
Ex: She stared at her husband.
nhìn chằm chằm vào ai
34/ write to someone:viết thư cho ai
Ex: She is writing to her boyfriend.
35/ wait for someone: chờ/đợi ai
Ex: He has waited for her for an hour
but she hasn’t arrived yet.
36/ apply to someone:
Pike
Ex: After filling in the application for employment,
Pike didn’t know whom he applied to.
nộp cho ai
37/ apply for (a job):
xin (một công việc)
Ex: They are lining up to apply for a job.
38/ ask someone for something:
hỏi/yêu cầu ai xin cái gì
Ex: The beggar asked someone for some money.
39/ search for someone:
Ex: The police have searched everywhere for the
missing boy but they haven’t been able to find him.
tìm kiếm ai
40/ have a discussion about something:
Ex: The students are having a discussion about
their studying.
thảo luận về điều gì
25/ explain something to someone:
giải thích cho ai cái gì
26/ invite someone to somewhere:
mời ai đến đâu
27/ laugh at someone: chế nhạo ai
28/ listen to: nghe; lắng nghe
29/ point at: chỉ vào
30/ glance at someone/something:
liếc nhìn ai/cái gì
31/ speak to someone: nói với ai
32/ throw something at someone/something:
ném cái gì đó vào ai/cái gì
33/ stare at someone: nhìn chằm chằm vào ai
34/ write to someone: viết thư cho ai
35/ wait for someone: chờ/đợi ai
36/ apply to someone: nộp cho ai
37/ apply for (a job): xin (một công việc)
38/ ask someone for something:
hỏi/yêu cầu ai xin cái gì
39/ search for someone: tìm kiếm ai
40/ have a discussion about something:
thảo luận về điều gì
25/ explain something __ someone:
26/ invite someone __ somewhere:
27/ laugh __ someone:
28/ listen __:
29/ point __:
30/ glance __ someone/something:
31/ speak __ someone:
32/ throw something __ someone/ something:
to
to
at
to
at
at
to
at
33/ stare __ someone:
34/ write __ someone:
35/ wait __ someone:
36/ apply __ someone:
37/ apply __ (a job):
38/ ask someone ___ something:
39/ search ___ someone:
40/ have a discussion _____ something:
at
to
for
to
for
for
for
about
Exercise 1: Choose one of the following verbs
(in the correct form) + the correct
preposition to complete the sentences.
explain - invite - laugh - listen - point
glance - speak - throw - stare - write
Ex2: I don’t understand what this means.
Can you explain it __ me?
Ex1: I look stupid with this haircut.
Everybody will laugh __ me.
at
to
1/ I ________ my watch to see what the
time was.
2/ We’ve been ________ the party but
unfortunately we can’t go.
3/ Please _______ me! I’ve got
something important to tell you.
glance at
invited to
listen to
4/ Don’t ______ stones __ the birds.
That’s prohibited.
throw at
8/ Be careful with those scissors! Don’t
_____ them __ me!
5/ The woman sitting opposite me on the
train kept _________ me.
6/ Sally and Kevin had an argument and
now they’re not __________ one another.
7/ I _______ Joanna last week but she
hasn’t replied to my letter yet.
starting at
speaking to
wrote to
point at
Exercise 2: Fill in each of the blanks with an
appropriate preposition if necessary.
1/ You’re always asking me ___ money. Ask
somebody else for a change.
2/ I’ve applied ___ a job at the factory. I
don’t know if I'll get it.
3/ If I want a job at the factory, who do I
apply __?
4/ I’ve searched everywhere ___ John but I
haven’t been able to find him.
for
for
to
for
5/ I don't want to talk _____ what
happened last night. Let’s forget it.
6/ I don’t want to discuss __ what
happened last night. Let’s forget it.
7/ We had an interesting discussion
_____ the problem but we didn’t reach
a decision.
about
√
about
10/ We waited ___ Jim for half an
hour but he never came.
8/ Keith and Sonia are touring Europe.
They’re in Rome at the moment, but
tomorrow they leave ___ Venice
9/ The roof of the house is in very bad
condition. I think we ought to do
something ___ it.
for
for
for

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VĂN PHẠM LỚP 12.pptx

  • 1. 1/
  • 2. I/ SIMPLE PRESENT: (THÌ HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN) always:100%, usually:80%, often:60%, sometimes:20%, seldom:10%, never:0%, every day/ week/ month/ year ...; once a week/month/year … ĐỐI VỚI DẠNG BÀI TẬP TRẮC NGHIỆM ►TỪ NHẬN BIẾT:
  • 3. 1/ KHẲNG ĐỊNH (AFFIRMATIVE): a/ Nếu chủ từ là: I/We/You/They/Mary and Peter … S + Vo b/ Nếu chủ từ là: He/ She/ It/ Mary/ Peter/ Hùng/ Lan … He/She/It/Mary .. + V (es/ies/s) Vo (ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN MẪU KHÔNG CÓ “TO”)
  • 4. O (Ông) – S/SS (Sao) – X (Xuống) – Z/ZZ (Ziếng) – CH (CHọn) - SH ► Thêm “es”: khi động từ tận cùng: ► Nếu động từ tận cùng Y đổi → “ies”: NẾU TRƯỚC “Y” LÀ 1 TRONG 5 NGUYÊN ÂM A,O,I,E,U (Anh Ø IÊU)THÌ CHỈ THÊM “S” ► Thêm “S” vào động từ cho các trường hợp còn lại:
  • 5. a/ Nếu chủ từ là: I/We/You/They/Mary and Peter/ Hùng and Lan … 2/ PHỦ ĐỊNH (NEGATIVE): S + don’t + Vo S + doesn’t + Vo b/ Nếu chủ từ là: He/ She/ It/ Mary /Peter/ Hùng/ Lan …
  • 6. 3/ NGHI VẤN (QUESTION): a/ Nếu chủ từ là: I/We/You/They/Mary and Peter/ Hùng and Lan … Do + S + Vo? Does + S + Vo? b/ Nếu chủ từ là: He/ She/ It/ Mary /Peter/ Hùng/ Lan …
  • 7. CHÚ Ý QUAN TRỌNG Nếu trong câu KHÔNG CÓ TỪ NHẬN BIẾT thì sẽ rơi vào các trường hợp sau đây: 1/ sự thật hiển nhiên. 2/ thói quen ở hiện tại. 3/ lịch của một tiết học; một chuyến bay; một chuyến xe lửa; một chương trình ca nhạc … Ex1: The earth (move) ______ around the Sun. moves Ex2: We (breathe) _______. breathe Ex3: The next train (start) _____ at 7 o’clock. starts
  • 8. THÌ HIỆN TẠI CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ “TO BE” (am/is/are) Affirmative I am = I’m You are = You’re He is = He’s She is = She’s It is = It’s We are = We’re You are = You’re They are = They’re Negative I am not = I’m not You are not =You aren’t He is not = He isn’t She is not = She isn’t It is not = It isn’t We are not = We aren’t You are not = You aren’t They are not = They aren’t Question Am I …? Are you …? Is he …? Is she …? Is it …? Are we …? Are you …? Are they …?
  • 9. II/ PRESENT PROGRESSIVE PRESENT CONTINUOUS: ►TỪ NHẬN BIẾT: now; right now; at (the) present; at the moment; at this time … - Look! - Be quiet! - Listen! - Don’t ...
  • 10. 1/ KHẲNG ĐỊNH (AFFIRMATIVE): S + am/is/are + V-ing 2/ PHỦ ĐỊNH (NEGATIVE): S + am/is/are + not + V-ing 3/ NGHI VẤN (QUESTION): Am/Is/Are + S + V-ing?
  • 11. CHÚ Ý QUAN TRỌNG ►Không chia thì tiếp diễn cho các động từ: see; hear; recognize; smell; taste; notice; want; refuse; wish; love; like; hate; feel; understand; think; seem; forget; remember; TO BE … thường biến đổi thành thì HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN.
  • 12. Ex1: I (be) ___ tired now. Ex2: She (want) _____ to go for a walk at the moment. now am wants moment Ex1: I (be) am being tired now. Ex2: She (want) is wanting to go for a walk at the moment. Ex3: I (feel) ___ happy now. now feel Ex3: I (feel) am feeling happy now. at the
  • 13. III/ PRESENT PERFECT: ►TỪ NHẬN BIẾT: just; recently; lately; ever; never; already; up to now = up to the present = so far = until now; up to this moment; not ... yet; many times; several times; two/three times ... ; since 1954; since last Christmas ... for three years; for six months ...); This is the first time; in/ for/ during/ over + the past/ last + time (during the past 2 years) …
  • 14. 1/ KHẲNG ĐỊNH (AFFIRMATIVE): a/ Nếu chủ từ là: I/ We/ You/ They/ Mary and Peter … b/ Nếu chủ từ là: He/ She/ It/ Mary/ Peter … S + have + Ved/3 S + has + Ved/3
  • 15. 2/ PHỦ ĐỊNH (NEGATIVE): S + have not/ haven’t + Ved/3 S + has not/ hasn’t + Ved/3 b/ Nếu chủ từ là: He/ She/ It/ Mary/ Peter … a/ Nếu chủ từ là: I/ We/ You/ They/ Mary and Peter …
  • 16. 3/ NGHI VẤN (QUESTION): Have + S + Ved/3? a/ Nếu chủ từ là: I/ We/ You/ They/ Mary and Peter … Has + S + Ved/3? b/ Nếu chủ từ là: He/ She/ It/ Mary/ Peter …
  • 17. IV/ SIMPLE PAST: (THÌ QUÁ KHỨ ĐƠN) ► TỪ NHẬN BIẾT: yesterday; ago; last week/ month ...; in/ on + past time ...); from 1997 to 2016; in the past … DIỄN TẢ HÀNH ĐỘNG XẢY RA/KẾT THÚC TRONG QUÁ KHỨ
  • 18. 1/ KHẲNG ĐỊNH (AFFIRMATIVE): S + V (ed/2) 3/ NGHI VẤN (QUESTION): Did + S + Vo? 2/ PHỦ ĐỊNH (NEGATIVE): S + didn’t + Vo
  • 19. THÌ QUÁ KHỨ CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ “TO BE” (was/were) Affirmative I was You were He was She was It was We were You were They were Negative I was not = I wasn’t You were not = You weren’t He was not = He wasn’t She was not = She wasn’t It was not = It wasn’t We were not = We weren’t You were not = We weren’t They were not = They weren’t Question Was I …? Were you …? Was he …? Was she …? Was it …? Were we …? Were you …? Were they …?
  • 20. V/ PAST CONTINUOUS: (THÌ QUÁ KHỨ TIẾP DIỄN) ► TỪ NHẬN BIẾT: all day yesterday; all the afternoon; at 7 o’clock last night; at that time; at this time yesterday ...
  • 21. 1/ KHẲNG ĐỊNH (AFFIRMATIVE): S + was/were + V-ing 2/ PHỦ ĐỊNH (NEGATIVE): S + wasn’t/weren’t + V-ing 3/ NGHI VẤN (QUESTION): Was/Were + S + V-ing?
  • 22. CÁCH DÙNG: 1/ Nhấn mạnh sự việc ĐANG DIỄN RA TRONG QUÁ KHỨ (CÓ XÁC ĐỊNH RÕ THỜI GIAN) Ex: At 10 o’clock last night, she was watching TV. Ex2: My children were doing their homework at this time yesterday.
  • 23. 2/ Một hành động ĐANG DIỄN RA, có một hành động khác XEN VÀO/NGANG: (Đang diễn ra: S + was/were + V-ing, xen vào/ngang: S + Ved/2) Ex1: While he was taking a bath, the lights went out. Ex2: When she was having lunch in her room, her phone rang.
  • 24. 3/ Hai hành động diễn ra CÙNG 1 LÚC/SONG SONG trong quá khứ: Ex1: While she was drawing, he was playing games. Ex2: While I was reading a book, they were playing football in the garden.
  • 25. VI/ PAST PERFECT: (THÌ QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH) ► TỪ NHẬN BIẾT: up to then; until then; when; after; before; once …
  • 26. 1/ KHẲNG ĐỊNH (AFFIRMATIVE): S + had + Ved/3 2/ PHỦ ĐỊNH (NEGATIVE): S + hadn’t + Ved/3 3/ NGHI VẤN (QUESTION): Had + S + Ved/3?
  • 27. CÁCH DÙNG: 2 HÀNH ĐỘNG XẢY RA TRONG QK TRƯỚC SAU S + HAD + VED/3 S + VED/2 Ex1: He had been seriously ill before he died. Ex2: When I arrived, they had left.
  • 28. SIMPLE (ĐƠN) S + WILL + Vo PROGRESSIVE (TIẾP DIỄN) S + WILL + BE + V-ING PERFECT (HOÀN THÀNH) S + will + have + Ved/3 TỪ NHẬN BIẾT: tomorrow; next (week/ month/ year…); sometime; sooner or later; in (the) future; some day; soon … TỪ NHẬN BIẾT: “when I come tomorrow”; “at this time tomorrow/ next week…”; “in July next year”; “at 6.00 tomorrow”; “a year from now …”; “when you are 21 …” TỪ NHẬN BIẾT: “by July next year”; “by next month”; “by May 1st ”; “by this time next week”; “by the end of next month”; “within the next year”; “by the time you …” III/ FUTURE TENSES (CÁC THÌ TƯƠNG LAI)
  • 29. ►CHÚ Ý QUAN TRỌNG: KHÔNG DÙNG BẤT KỲ THÌ TƯƠNG LAI NÀO SAU: before; until; as soon as, when … VÀ THƯỜNG BIẾN ĐỔI CÁC THÌ ĐÓ THÀNH HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN. Ex: When I (meet) ____ him tomorrow, I (give) _______ him this book. meet will give
  • 30.
  • 31. CÁCH ĐỌC KHI THÊM “S/ES/IES” 1/ Nếu “S” đứng sau những TỪ: F(Fải) - K/KE (Kính) - P/PH (Phục) - TH/T/TE (Thầy T TÊ) → đọc /S/ roof  roofs [ru:fs] book books [buks] cake  cakes [keiks] map  maps [mæps] photograph  photographs ['foutəgrɑ:fs] cloth cloths [klɔθs] coat coats [kouts] hate hates [heits]
  • 32. 2/ Nếu “ES” đứng sau những từ: CH (CHẳng) – Z/ZZ/ZE (Zè) – CE (Cô) – GE (Gé) – X (Xem) - S/SS/SE (SE) – SH → đọc /IZ/ church  churches [t∫ə:t∫iz] buzz  buzzes [bʌziz] voice  voices [vɔisiz] age  ages [eidʒiz] fix  fixes [fiksiz] class  classes [klɑ:siz] dish  dishes [di∫iz]
  • 33. 3/ Nếu “S” đứng sau CÁC TỪ CÒN LẠI → đọc /Z/ letter  letters [‘letəz] hand  hands [hændz] son  sons [sʌnz] girl  girls [gə:lz] idea  ideas [ai’diəz] boy  boys [bɔiz]
  • 34. NHẮC LẠI: 1/ Nếu “S” đứng sau những TỪ: F (Fải) – K/KE (Kính) – P/PH (Phục) – TH/T/TE (Thầy T TÊ) → đọc /S/ 2/ Nếu “ES” đứng sau những từ: CH (CHẳng) – Z/ZZ/ZE (Zè) – CE (Cô) – GE (Gé) – X (Xem) - S/SS/SE (SE) – SH → đọc /IZ/ 3/ Nếu “S” đứng sau CÁC TỪ CÒN LẠI → đọc /Z/
  • 35. CHÚ Ý: MỘT SỐ TỪ TẬN CÙNG LÀ “th” CÓ 2 CÁCH ĐỌC: Ex: baths [bɑ:θs] [bɑ:θz] mouths [mauθs] [mauθz] paths [pɑ:θs] [pɑ:θz] truths [tru:θs] [tru:θz] youths [ju:θs] [ju:θz]
  • 36. /S/ /IZ/ /Z/ towns houses keys companies streets walks days watches notes universities shops wives laws apples glasses choices comes goes cleans organizes tickets misses adults changes bags banks cooks potatoes monkeys addresses tomatoes flowers lunches boxes rises photos rubs massages reads maps shifts devises cleans joins enjoys thanks churches calculates secrets caves digs raises stages stops flats leftovers takes practices
  • 37. CÁCH PHÁT ÂM KHI THÊM “ED” 1/ Nếu động từ tận cùng là : t (tôi); te (tên) d (dờ); de (dê) khi thêm “ed” → đọc /id/ want [wɔnt]  wanted [wɔntid] need [ni:d]  needed [ni:did] decide [di'said]  decided [di'saidid] state [steit]  stated [steitid]
  • 38. 2/ Nếu động từ tận cùng là: ch (chính); f/gh/ph (phủ); p (pháp); k/ke (không) x (xem); s/ss/ce (sổ); Sh (sách) khi thêm “ed” → đọc /t/ stop [stɔp]  stopped [stɔpt] look [luk]  looked [lukt] proof [pru:f]  proofed [pru:ft] miss [mis]  missed [mist] watch [wɔt∫]  watched [wɔt∫t] finish ['fini∫]  finished ['fini∫t] fix [fiks]  fixed[fikst]
  • 39. 3/ Các trường hợp còn lại khi thêm “ed”: → đọc /d/ plan [plæn]  planned [plænd] organize ['ɔ:gənaiz]  organized ['ɔ:gənaizd] smile [smail]  smiled [smaild] show [∫ou]  showed [∫oud]
  • 40. CHÚ Ý: NHỮNG TRƯỜNG HỢP ĐẶC BIỆT - beloved [bi'lʌvid] (n): người yêu dấu/yêu quý - crooked ['krukid] (adj): cong; khoằm - naked ['neikid] (adj): trần truồng; khoả thân - wicked ['wikid] (adj): xấu xa; độc ác; tinh quoái - wretched ['ret∫id] (adj): khốn khổ; bất hạnh
  • 41.
  • 42. CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT (REPORTED SPEECH) 1/ THỨ NHẤT: 2/ THỨ NHÌ: 3/ THỨ BA: NGÔI TRONG TIẾNG ANH I/me/my/mine/myself/we/us/our/ours you/your/yours he/him/his/himself/she/her/herself/it/its/they/t heir/theirs/Mary/Peter/the film/ the books …
  • 43. NGUYÊN TẮC BIẾN ĐỔI: 1/ Bỏ dấu ngoặc kép – dấu hai chấm – dấu phẩy và có thể thay bằng “that”. 2/ said: giữ nguyên (nếu không có túc từ theo sau) said → said to/told (nếu có túc từ theo sau) said to: giữ nguyên hoặc thay bằng “told” 3/ Ngôi trong dấu ngoặc kép được biến đổi như sau: NHẤT → THEO CHỦ NHÌ → THEO TÚC BA → KHÔNG ĐỔI
  • 44. 4/ Động từ - trạng ngữ chỉ nơi chốn – trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian được biến đổi theo bảng sau: V(s/es /ies) V(ed/2) → am/is/are + V-ing was/were + V-ing → have/has + Ved/3 had + Ved/3 → V(ed/2) had + Ved/3 → had + Ved/3 → had + Ved/3
  • 47. Last night Last week Last month Last year … → The previous night The previous week The previous month The previous year The night before The week before The month before The year before
  • 48. Tomorrow Next week Next month Next year … → → The following day The next day The day after The next week/month/year The following week/month/year The week/month/year after
  • 50. Ex1: He said: “I know this boy.”  boy. He said (that)he knew that
  • 51. Ex2: Mary said to me, “I met you at the wedding party last night.”  Mary said to/told me (that) she had met me at the wedding party the night before.
  • 52. Ex3: “I have written you this letter,” said my girlfriend to me.  me My girlfriend said to/told (that) she had written me that letter.
  • 53. Ex4: Tom said: “I love you, Mary.” Tomsaid to/told Mary(that)he loved  her.
  • 54. 1/ Bỏ dấu ngoặc kép dấu hai chấm dấu phẩy và có thể thay bằng “that”
  • 55. said giữ nguyên: (nếu KHÔNG CÓ túc từ theo sau) said to/told: (nếu CÓ túc từ theo sau) said to giữ nguyên told 2/
  • 56. THEO CHỦ THEO TÚC KHÔNG ĐỔI 3/ Ngôi NHẤT NHÌ BA → → →
  • 57. 4/ Động từ - trạng ngữ chỉ nơi chốn – trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian được biến đổi theo bảng sau: V(s/es /ies) V(ed/2) → am/is/are + V-ing was/were + V-ing → have/has + Ved/3 had + Ved/3 → V(ed/2) had + Ved/3 → had + Ved/3 → had + Ved/3
  • 60. Last night Last week Last month Last year … → The previous night The previous week The previous month The previous year The night before The week before The month before The year before
  • 61. Tomorrow Next week Next month Next year … → → The following day The next day The day after The next week/month/year The following week/month/year The week/month/year after
  • 63. II/ CÂU MỆNH: a/ Cách đổi giống như câu phát biểu NHƯNG: said/said to told (bảo) requested/asked(yêu cầu) begged (cầu/van xin) ordered/recommanded advised (khuyên) b/ Bỏ “please” / “let’s” / “dear” / “honey” c/ Động từ đầu câu → to infinitive d/ “Don’t + Vo” → not to infinitive
  • 64. Ex1: She said to me: “Pull as hard as you can,”  She told me to pull as hard as I could. S + tell + someone + to infinitive
  • 65. Ex2: He said to his father, “Please, give me money.”  He begged his father to give him money. S + beg + someone + to infinitive
  • 66. Ex3: The teacher said: “Go to the board , John.”  to the board. The teacher ordered John to go S + order + someone + to infinitive
  • 67. Ex4: He said, “Come to see me tomorrow.” He told her to come to see him the following day / the next day. S + tell + someone + to infinitive
  • 68. Ex5: “Be modest if you are a good student” said her mother. Her mother her to be modest if she was a good student. advised S + advise + someone + to infinitive
  • 69. Ex6: Nam said to his friend, “Don’t shut the door.”  the door. Nam told his friend not to shut S + tell + someone + not to infinitive
  • 70. Ex7: My teacher said to me: “Don’t be late tomorrow.”  the following day / the next day. My teacher told me not to be late S + tell + someone + not to infinitive
  • 71. Ex 8: “Don't go out without me,” he begged her. He begged her not to go out without him. S + beg + someone + not to infinitive
  • 72. III/ CÂU HỎI: 1/ Yes/No question: Cách đổi giống như câu phát biểu NHƯNG: ► Bỏ dấu hỏi (?) cuối câu. ► S + asked/ wondered/ wanted to know … + (object) + if/ whether + S + V (LÙI THÌ)
  • 73. Direct (Trực tiếp) Indirect (Gián tiếp) - Do / Does + S? - Am / Is / Are + S? - Did + S + Vo? - Was / Were + S? - Have / Has + S + Ved/3? - Can / Will + S + Vo? If/Whether + S + Ved/2 If/Whether + S + was/were. If/Whether + S + had + Ved/3 If/Whether + S + had + been If/Whether + S + had + Ved/3 If/Whether + S + could/would + Vo
  • 74. Ex1: “Did you phone me yesterday?” Peter asked Mary.  Mary if/whether Direct Indirect Did + S + Vo? If/Whether + S + had + Ved/3 she had phoned him the day before / the previous day. Peter asked
  • 75. Ex2: She asked: “Do you love me, Tom?”  She asked Tom Direct Indirect Do + S + Vo? If/Whether + S + Ved/2 if/whether he loved her.
  • 76. 2/ Wh - question: Cách đổi giống như câu Yes/No - question NHƯNG: ► S + asked/ wondered/ wanted to know … + (object) + Wh - question + S + V (LÙI THÌ) THAY If/Whether = Wh – question
  • 77. Ex1: “How old is your little girl?”, said the doctor to Mrs. Brown.  The doctor asked Mrs. Brown ► S + asked/ wondered/ wanted to know … + (object) + Wh - question + S + V (LÙI THÌ) how old her little girl was.
  • 78. Ex2: “Why didn’t you make an appointment earlier?” the doctor asked .  The doctor asked her why she hadn’t made an appointment earlier. ► S + asked/ wondered/ wanted to know … + (object) + Wh - question + S + V (LÙI THÌ)
  • 79. Ex3: “What is your name?”, said the policeman to the little boy.  The policeman asked the little boy what his name was. ► S + asked/ wondered/ wanted to know … + (object) + Wh - question + S + V (LÙI THÌ)
  • 80. KIẾN THỨC MỞ 1/ Những động từ sau đây sẽ KHÔNG ĐỔI khi đổi sang câu gián tiếp: a/ would like; mustn’t; should; ought to; used to; could; và động từ của câu điều kiện loại 2 & 3.
  • 81. Ex1: She said, “If it rained, I would stay at home.” at home.  She said if it rained, shewould stay Ex2: She said to me: “You mustn’t go now.”  She told me(that)I mustn’t go then.
  • 82. b/ Những động từ có xác định rõ năm tháng: Ex:Tom said, “My father died in 1993.” Tom said (that)his father diedin 1993
  • 83. c/ Trích dẫn một sự thật luôn luôn ĐÚNG: Ex: My father said, “The earth moves around the sun.” My father said (that) around the sun. the earth moves
  • 84. IV/ REPORTED SPEECH WITH INFINITIVE(S) S + begged warned asked promised advised reminded + someone + (not) to infinitive Ex1: He said to his father: “Please, give me some money.”  He begged his father to give him some money.
  • 85. Ex2: “Don’t swim out too far, boys,” I said. the boys not to swim out too far.  I warned S + begged warned asked promised advised reminded + someone + (not) to infinitive
  • 86. Ex3: “Could you help me, Tom?” said Mary.  Mary asked her. Tom to help S + begged warned asked promised advised reminded + someone + (not) to infinitive
  • 87. Ex4: “We’ll study harder” harder.  They promised to study S + begged warned asked promised advised reminded + someone + (not) to infinitive
  • 88. Ex5: “You’d better not stay up late, dear.” Daisy’s mother said. up late.  Daisy’s mother advised her not to stay S + begged warned asked promised advised reminded + someone + (not) to infinitive
  • 89. Ex6: “I’d like you to prepare your lesson carefully” the teacher said. carefully.  The teacher wanted to prepare me my S + begged wanted asked promised advised reminded + someone + (not) to infinitive lesson
  • 90. Ex7: “Don’t forget to water some flowers in the garden,” my mother said.  My mother reminded me to water some S + begged wanted asked promised advised reminded + someone + (not) to infinitive flowers in the garden.
  • 91. Ex8: “You should not eat too much meat” the doctor said to her. too much  The doctor advised her not to eat S + begged wanted asked promised advised reminded + someone + (not) to infinitive meat.
  • 92. . Ex9: “I will follow you wherever you go, honey,” Mary said to Peter.  Mary promised Peter to follow him wherever he went. S + begged wanted asked promised advised reminded + someone + (not) to infinitive
  • 93. - Khi dùng “promise”: bỏ “I will/ I’ll”; “We will/ We’ll” - Khi dùng “advise”/ “tell”: bỏ “You should”; “You had better”; “Why don’t you” - Khi dùng “remind”: bỏ “Remember”; “Don’t forget” - Khi dùng “ask”: bỏ “Could you”; “Can you”; “Could you please” - Khi dùng “want”: bỏ “I would like”; “I’d like” - Khi dùng “invite”: bỏ “Would you like” - Khi dùng “order”: bỏ “You must” * CHÚ Ý:
  • 94. V/ REPORTED SPEECH WITH GERUND S + verb (*) + object + preposition + (not) V-ing 1/ accuse someone of something: buộc tội ai về việc gì 2/ thank someone for something: cảm ơn ai về việc gì 3/ congratulate someone on something: chúc mừng ai đó về việc gì 4/ apologize for: xin lỗi ai về việc gì
  • 95. 5/ insist on: khăng khăng làm việc gì 6/ dream of: mơ ước về điều gì 7/ warn someone against something: cảnh báo ai ĐỪNG làm gì 8/ prevent someone from something: ngăn chặn ai KHỎI bị gì 9/ look forward to: mong đợi / hân hoan 10/ deny: từ chối 11/ stop someone from something: ngăn chặn ai ĐỪNG làm gì
  • 96. 12/ admit: thú nhận 13/ suggest: đề nghị 14/ think of: nghĩ về 15/ be for: tán đồng 16/ be against: chống đối 17/ care for: quan tâm; thích; muốn 18/ give up: từ bỏ 19/ keep on: tiếp tục 20/ leave off: thôi
  • 97. 21/ put off: hoãn lại 22/ see about: đảm đương 23/ be afraid of: sợ 24/ be sorry for: lấy làm tiếc 25/ be ashamed of: xấu hổ về 26/ be accustomed to: quen với việc gì 27/ blame someone for something: đổ lỗi cho ai về việc gì
  • 98. DẠNG 1 Ex1: “It was nice of you to help me. Thank you very much.” Mary said to Peter.  Mary thanked Peter for helping her. thank someone for V-ing/something: (cảm ơn ai về việc gì)
  • 99. DẠNG 1 Ex2: “I’ll take you to the airport. I insist.” Tom told Daisy.  Tom insisted on taking Daisy/her to the airport. insist on + V-ing: khăng khăng làm việc gì
  • 100. Ex3: “Don’t bring much money when you go to the market.” Jack told her.  Jack warned warn someone against V-ing/something: cảnh báo ai ĐỪNG làm gì her against bringing much money when she went to the market. DẠNG 1
  • 101. DẠNG 2 Ex1: Peter: Let me clean the floor! Mary: Certainly not. I’ll clean.  Mary insisted on cleaning the floor. insist on + V-ing: khăng khăng làm việc gì
  • 102. DẠNG 2 Ex2: Teacher: Come in, Peter! Peter: I’m sorry. I am late.  Peter apologized for late. being apologize for V-ing/something: xin lỗi ai về việc gì
  • 103. Ex3: Policeman: You have just stolen Mr. Nam’s bicycle. The thief: Yes … ! But …  The thief admitted stealing bicycle. admit + V-ing: thú nhận steal – stole – stolen DẠNG 2 Mr. Nam’s
  • 104.
  • 105. (CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT) REPORTED SPEECH I/ STATEMENT (CÂU PHÁT BIỂU): S + said + (that) + S + V (LÙI THÌ) S + told + someone + (that) + S + V (LÙI THÌ) 1. Julia said that she ____ there at noon. A. is going to be B. was going to be C. will be D. can be B. was going to be
  • 106. 2. She said to me that she ____ to me the Sunday before. A. wrote B. has written C. was writing D. had written I/ STATEMENT (CÂU PHÁT BIỂU): S + said + (that) + S + V (LÙI THÌ) S + told + someone + (that) + S + V (LÙI THÌ) D. had written
  • 107. 3. He ____ that he was leaving way that afternoon. A. told me B. told to me C. said me D. says to me I/ STATEMENT (CÂU PHÁT BIỂU): S + said + (that) + S + V (LÙI THÌ) S + told + someone + (that) + S + V (LÙI THÌ) A. told me
  • 108. 4. They said that they had driven through the desert ____. A. the previous day B. yesterday C. the last day D. Sunday previously 5. Laura said that when she ____ to school, she saw an accident. A. was walking B. has walked C. had been walking D. has been walking A. the previous day C. had been walking
  • 109. 6. Peter said he ____ some good marks the semester before. A. gets B. got C. had gotten D. have got 7. They told their parents that they ____ their best to do the test. A. try B. will try C. are trying D. would try C. had gotten D. would try
  • 110. (CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT) REPORTED SPEECH II/ COMMAND (CÂU MỆNH LỆNH): told requested asked begged ordered commanded advised … S + + someone + (not) + to infinitive
  • 111. 1. The mother told her son ____ so impolitely. A. not behave B. not to behave C. not behaving D. did not behave B. not to behave told requested asked begged ordered commanded advised … S + + someone + (not) + to infinitive
  • 112. 2. He asked ____ him some money. A. her to lend B. she to lend C. she has lent D. she lends A. her to lend told requested asked begged ordered commanded advised … S + + someone + (not) + to infinitive
  • 113. 3. Sue was very pessimistic about the situation. I advised her _____. A. no worry B. not worry C. no to worry D. not to worry 4. She told the boys _____ on the grass. A. do not play B. did not play D. not playing C. not to play D. not to worry C. not to play
  • 114. (CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT) REPORTED SPEECH III/ YES/NO QUESTION (CÂU HỎI CÓ/KHÔNG): asked wondered wanted to know S + if whether + (object) S + V 1/ I wondered ______ the right thing. D. whether I was doing A. if I am doing B. was I doing C. am I doing D. whether I was doing
  • 115. asked wondered wanted to know S + if whether + (object) S + V 2/ Bill asked Tom ______ in London. A. does the train arrive C. whether the train arrives D. did the train arrive B. if the train had arrived B. if the train had arrived
  • 116. asked wondered wanted to know S + if whether + (object) S + V 3/ They asked me ______ in London then. A. is my brother working B. if my brother is working C. was my brother working D. if my brother was working D. if my brother was working
  • 117. asked wondered wanted to know S + if whether + (object) S + V 4/ The woman asked ____ get lunch at school or not. A. can the children B. whether the children could C. even if the children could D. could the children B. whether the children could
  • 118. (CÂU TƯỜNG THUẬT) REPORTED SPEECH IV/ WH-QUESTION: asked wondered wanted to know S + what when why + (object) S + V 1/ The mother asked her son ____. A. where he had been B. whether I had been C. where has he been D. where had he been A. where he had been
  • 119. asked wondered wanted to know S + what when why (object) S + V 2/ Martin asked me ____. A. how is my father B. how my father is C. how was my father D. how my father was D. how my father was
  • 120. 3/ She asked me ____ my holidays ____. A. where I spent / the previous year B. where I had spent/ the previous year C. where I spent / last year D. where did I spend / last year B. where I had spent/ the previous year asked wondered wanted to know S + what when why (object) S + V
  • 121. V/ REPORTED SPEECH WITH INFINITIVE S + begged warned asked promised advised reminded + someone + (not) to infinitive
  • 122. - Khi dùng “promise”: bỏ “I will/ I’ll”; “We will/ We’ll” - Khi dùng “advise”/ “tell”: bỏ “You should”; “You had better”; “Why don’t you”; “If I were you” - Khi dùng “remind”: bỏ “Remember”; “Don’t forget” - Khi dùng “ask”: bỏ “Could you”; “Can you”; “Could you please” - Khi dùng “want”: bỏ “I would like”; “I’d like” - Khi dùng “invite”: bỏ “Would you like” - Khi dùng “order”: bỏ “You must” * CHÚ Ý:
  • 123. D. Ann told me not to tell anyone what had happened. 1/ “Please don't tell anyone what happened,” Ann said to me. A. Ann said to me please don't tell anyone what happened. B. Ann told me didn't tell anyone what had happened. C. Ann said me not to tell anyone what happened. D. Ann told me not to tell anyone what had happened. D. He would like me to go to the cinema with him this night. 2/ “Would you like to go to the cinema with me tonight?” he said. A. He invited me to go to the cinema with him that night. B. He offered me to go to the cinema with him tonight. C. He asked me if I'd like to go to the cinema with him tonight. A. He invited me to go to the cinema with him that night.
  • 124. D. Ann told me not to tell anyone what had happened. 1/ “Please don't tell anyone what happened,” Ann said to me. A. Ann said to me please don't tell anyone what happened. B. Ann told me didn't tell anyone what had happened. C. Ann said me not to tell anyone what happened. D. Ann told me not to tell anyone what had happened. D. He would like me to go to the cinema with him this night. 2/ “Would you like to go to the cinema with me tonight?” he said. A. He invited me to go to the cinema with him that night. B. He offered me to go to the cinema with him tonight. C. He asked me if I'd like to go to the cinema with him tonight. A. He invited me to go to the cinema with him that night.
  • 125. 3/ “Remember to pick me up at 6 o'clock tomorrow afternoon” she said. A. She told me to remember to pick her up at 6 o'clock tomorrow afternoon. B. She reminded me to pick her up at 6 o'clock the following afternoon. C. She reminded me to remember to pick her up at 6 o'clock the next afternoon. D. She told me to pick her up at 6 o'clock the next day afternoon. B. She reminded me to pick her up at 6 o'clock the following afternoon.
  • 126. 3/ “Remember to pick me up at 6 o'clock tomorrow afternoon” she said. A. She told me to remember to pick her up at 6 o'clock tomorrow afternoon. B. She reminded me to pick her up at 6 o'clock the following afternoon. C. She reminded me to remember to pick her up at 6 o'clock the next afternoon. D. She told me to pick her up at 6 o'clock the next day afternoon. B. She reminded me to pick her up at 6 o'clock the following afternoon.
  • 127. D. She advised me to tell him the truth. 4/ “If I were you, I'd tell him the truth,” she said to me. A. She said to me that if I were you, I'd tell him the truth. B. She will tell him the truth if she is me. C. She suggested to tell him the truth if she were me. D. She advised me to tell him the truth.
  • 128.
  • 129. PASSIVE VOICE (CÂU BỊ ĐỘNG) 1/ Xác định: S (chủ từ) – V (động từ) – O (túc từ) – Adv of place (TNCNC) – Adv of time (TNCTT) 2/ O (túc từ) S (chủ từ) me you him He You I her us them Mary my children She We They Mary My children some cakes Some cakes
  • 130. THÌ HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN V1 (s; es; ies)  am/is/are + Ved/3 THÌ HIỆN TẠI TIẾP DIỄN am/is/are + Ving  am/is/are + being + Ved/3 3/ V (động từ) được biến đổi như sau:
  • 131. THÌ HIỆN TẠI HOÀN THÀNH have/has + Ved/3  have/has + been + Ved/3 THÌ QUÁ KHỨ ĐƠN Ved/2  was/were + Ved/3 3/ V (động từ) được biến đổi như sau:
  • 132. THÌ QUÁ KHỨ TIẾP DIỄN was/were + Ving  was/were + being + Ved/3 THÌ QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH had + Ved/3  had + been + Ved/3 3/ V (động từ) được biến đổi như sau:
  • 133. MODAL (can; could; will; would; shall; should; may; might; used to; be going to; have to; has to; had to; ought to) Modal + Vo  Modal + be + Ved/3 3/ V (động từ) được biến đổi như sau:
  • 134. by + O (túc từ) 4/ S (chủ từ) I You He by him by you by me She We They Mary My children by her by us by them by Mary by my children CHÚ Ý: 1/ Adv of place (TNCNC) trước by + O 2/ Adv of time (TNCTG) sau by + O (đứng cuối câu) thường bỏ giữ lại
  • 135. S V O Adv of place + Adv of time S be + Ved/3 by + O Adv of place Adv of time CHÚ Ý: 1/ Chủ từ thường đứng đầu câu. 2/ Động từ thường đứng ngay sau chủ từ. 3/ Túc từ thường đứng sau động từ. 4/ Trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian thường đứng cuối câu. TÓM TẮT Ex1:My mother makes some cakes in the kitchen every morning. THÌ HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN V1 (s/es/ies)  am/is/are + Ved/3 Some cakes are made by my mother in the kitchen every morning. make – made - made
  • 136. S V O Adv of place + Adv of time S be + Ved/3 by + O Adv of place Adv of time Ex2: Peter met his girlfriend at the theater last night. His girlfriend was met by Peter at the theater last night. THÌ QUÁ KHỨ ĐƠN Ved/2  was/were + Ved/3 meet – met – met Ex3: Mr. Pike has taught English at this school since last Christmas. Englishhas been taught by Mr. Pike at this school since last Christmas. THÌ HIỆN TẠI HOÀN THÀNH have/has + Ved/3  have/has + been + Ved/3
  • 137. Ex4: They are doing their exercises in the living room now. Ex5: Jack and Thomas will speak English at the conference tomorrow. S V O Adv of place + Adv of time S be + Ved/3 by + O Adv of place Adv of time Their exercisesare being done by them in the living room now. THÌ HIỆN TẠI TIẾP DIỄN am/is/are + Ving  am/is/are + being + Ved/3 do – did – done Englishwill be spoken by Jack and Thomas at the conference tomorrow. Modal + Vo  Modal + be + Ved/3 speak – spoke – spoken
  • 138. CẤU TRÚC “NHỜ VẢ” Passive: S + Have/Has + Complement (thing) + Ved/3 Active: S + Have/Has + Complement (person) + Vo Ex1: I have a boy repair my bike.  I have my bike repaired. Ex2: I had them carry my luggage upstairs.  I had my luggage carried upstairs.
  • 139. CÂU BỊ ĐỘNG ĐẶC BIỆT (It is said .. that) I/ ĐỘNG TỪ CỦA MỆNH ĐỀ CHÍNH VÀ MỆNH ĐỀ PHỤ CÙNG THÌ: Đối với cấu trúc này không chỉ có động từ “say” mà còn có các động từ khác như: know; think; believe; consider; find; claim; understand …
  • 140. Ex1: People(S1) say (that) money(S2) brings happiness. + Cách 1:  It is said + Cách 2:  Money is said (that) money brings happiness. to bring happiness.
  • 141. Ex2: People(S1) knew that Peter (S2) was arrested in the USA. + Cách 1:  It was known (that) Peter was arrested in the USA. + Cách 2:  Peter was known to be arrested in the USA.
  • 142. * GHI NHỚ: 1/ Nếu câu bắt đầu bằng “It is said (that)” ĐỘNG TỪ sau (S2)   viết lại hết bắt đầu từ (S2) đến cuối câu. 2/ Nếu (S2) is said … TO INFINITIVE
  • 143. II/ ĐỘNG TỪ CỦA MỆNH ĐỀ CHÍNH VÀ MỆNH ĐỀ PHỤ KHÁC THÌ: Ex1: They(S1) say (that) Tom(S2) was a spy. + Cách 1:  It is said (that)Tom was a spy. + Cách 2:  Tom is said to have been a spy.
  • 144. Ex2: She(S1) knows (that) Peter(S2) was armed. + Cách 1:  It is known (that)Peter was armed. + Cách 2:  Peter is knownto have been armed.
  • 145. Ex3: People(S1) think (that) Mary(S2) stayed here last night. + Cách 1:  It is thought (that) Mary stayed here last night. + Cách 2:  Mary is thought to have stayed here last night.
  • 146. * GHI NHỚ: 1/ Nếu câu bắt đầu bằng “It is said (that)” ĐỘNG TỪ sau (S2)   viết lại hết bắt đầu từ (S2) đến cuối câu. 2/ Nếu (S2) is said … TO HAVE Ved/3
  • 147.
  • 148. CONDITIONAL SENTENCE (CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN) If clause Main clause S + Vo(s; es; ies)/ simple present S + will + Vo * CÔNG THỨC CHÍNH: * CÔNG THỨC MỞ: If clause Main clause S + am/is/are (not) S + will not/ won’t + Vo If clause Main clause S + doesn’t/don’t + Vo S + will not/ won’t + Vo TYPE 1
  • 149. Ex1:If it rains, everyone at home. (stay) _______ rains will stay If clause Main clause S + Vo(s; es; ies) (simple present) S + will + Vo
  • 150. will not get Ex2: If his brother doesn’t practice his golf, he (not get) any better. _________ doesn’t practice If clause Main clause S + doesn’t/don’t + Vo S + will not/ won’t + Vo
  • 151. for a swim. Ex3: If the weather is fine, I (go) will go is If clause Main clause S + am/is/are S + will + Vo
  • 152. me to her party,I won’t come. Ex4: If Peter (not invite) ___________ doesn’t invite won’t come If clause Main clause S + doesn’t/don’t + Vo S + will not/ won’t + Vo
  • 153. Ex5: If Nam (meet)_____ he will give this book to her. meets will give If clause Main clause S + Vo(s; es; ies) simple present S + will + Vo Judy tomorrow,
  • 154. _________, she Ex6: If you (not come) won’t be happy. won’t be don’t come If clause Main clause S + doesn’t/don’t + Vo S + will not/ won’t + Vo
  • 155. CONDITIONAL SENTENCE (CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN) If clause Main clause S + Ved/2 (to be: were cho các ngôi) S + would/could + Vo * CÔNG THỨC CHÍNH: * CÔNG THỨC MỞ: If clause Main clause S + were (not) S + wouldn’t/couldn’t + Vo If clause Main clause S + didn’t + Vo S + wouldn’t/couldn’t + Vo TYPE 2
  • 156. __________ what to do. Ex1: If John were here, he (know) would know were If clause Main clause S + Ved/2 (to be: were) S + would/could + Vo ______ Ex2: If Nick (study) would get better grades. would get studied more, he
  • 157. ____ Ex3: If I (be) you, I would not go to his party. were would not go If clause Main clause S + were (not) S + wouldn’t/couldn’t + Vo _______ _ Ex4: If I had a typewriter I (type) it myself. had could type
  • 158. CONDITIONAL SENTENCE (CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN) If clause Main clause S + had (not) + Ved/3 S + would/could (not) have + Ved/3 * CÔNG THỨC CHÍNH: TYPE 3 ______________________ Ex1: If Mary had seen you, she (give) you this book. had seen would have given
  • 159. __________ Ex2: If she (not go) wouldn’t have got married. hadn’t gone wouldn’t have got _________________ Ex3: If you had taken more exercise, you wouldn’t have fallen had taken If clause Main clause S + had (not) + Ved/3 S + would/could (not) have + Ved/3 back, they (not fall)
  • 160. 1/ Unless = If ... not Ex1: If you are not careful, you will cut your fingers. MỘT SỐ ĐIỀU CẦN LƯU Ý Unless you are careful, you will cut Ex2: If you don’t ask him, he will explain you ask him, he will explain Unless your fingers. the lesson to you. the lesson to you.
  • 161. 2/ ĐẢO NGỮ CỦA MỆNH ĐỀ “IF” (LOẠI 2,3) SẼ KHÔNG CÒN IF Ex1: If he were here, he would help us Were he here, he would help us. Ex2: If I had known the answer, I could have told you. Had I known the answer, I could have told you.
  • 162. 3/ But for / Without (NẾU KHÔNG / NẾU KHÔNG CÓ/VÌ): CHỈ DÙNG CHO CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 2,3 But for/without + Noun Phrases/V-ing, S + V… Ex1: But for the difficult view, that would be a lovely room. (Nếu không vì tầm nhìn khó khăn, kia sẽ là một căn phòng đáng yêu.)
  • 163. Ex2: Without her help, I wouldn’t succeed. (Nếu không có sự giúp đỡ của cô ấy, tôi không thể thành công.) 3/ But for / Without (NẾU KHÔNG / NẾU KHÔNG CÓ/VÌ): CHỈ DÙNG CHO CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 2,3 But for/without + Noun Phrases/V-ing, S + V…
  • 164. Ex3: But for his help, I would have been difficult in this project. (Nếu không có sự giúp đỡ của anh ấy, tôi sẽ gặp khó khăn trong dự án này.) 3/ But for / Without (NẾU KHÔNG / NẾU KHÔNG CÓ/VÌ): CHỈ DÙNG CHO CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 2,3 But for/without + Noun Phrases/V-ing, S + V…
  • 165. Ex4: Without her reminding, I would have forgotten that work. (Nếu không có sự nhắc nhở của cô ấy, tôi đã quên mất công việc đó.) 3/ But for / Without (NẾU KHÔNG / NẾU KHÔNG CÓ/VÌ): CHỈ DÙNG CHO CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 2,3 But for/without + Noun Phrases/V-ing, S + V…
  • 166. 4/ CÁC TRƯỜNG HỢP ĐẢO NGỮ ĐẶC BIỆT TYPE 1 Should + S + Vo, S + Will +Vo If he has free time, he will play tennis. Should he have free time, he’ll play tennis TYPE 2 Were + S + to + Vo, S + Would + Vo If I learnt Russian, I would read a Russian book. Were I to learn Russian, I would read a Russian book.
  • 167. LƯU Ý: Ngoài “if” ta có dùng 1 số từ để thay thế nhằm nhấn mạnh vào những điều kiện xung quanh sự việc và hành động. Sau những cụm từ này sẽ là một mệnh đề. Những cụm từ đó là: • only (chỉ khi, miễn là) • provided (that)/ providing (that) (miễn là) • so long as/ as long as (miễn là) • on condition that (với điều kiện là) • unless (trừ phi)
  • 168. Ex1: The picnic will be canceled only if it rains. Only if it rains will the picnic be canceled. Ex2: You can drive a car provided that you have a valid license. You can drive a car provided you have a valid license. (miễn là) (miễn là)
  • 169. Ex4: You can borrow the car so long as you don’t drive too fast. (Mình cho bạn mượn xe miễn là bạn đừng chạy quá nhanh.) Ex3: We are very happy for you to stay at our house as long as you like. (Chúng mình rất vui cho bạn ở lại nhà của chúng mình miễn là bạn thích.)
  • 170. Ex5: You will be paid tomorrow on condition that the work is finished. (Ông sẽ được trả lương vào ngày mai miễn là làm xong việc.) Ex6: They spoke on condition that their names would not be used in the article. (Họ nói miễn là tên của họ không được viết trên bài báo.)
  • 171.
  • 172. RELATIVE CLAUSE (MỆNH ĐỀ TÍNH NGỮ) THƯỜNG ĐỨNG NGAY SAU DANH TỪ MÀ NÓ THAY THẾ
  • 173. Ex1: The man is very intelligent. The man helped me yesterday. A/ WHO (THAY CHO NGƯỜI LÀM CHỦ TỪ) * GIỚI HẠN: is very intelligent.  The man WHO helped me yesterday
  • 174. Ex2: Do you know the lady? She is standing over there. over there? Noun of person + WHO + verb Do you know the lady WHO is standing
  • 175. B/ WHOM (THAY CHO NGƯỜI LÀM TÚC TỪ) * GIỚI HẠN : Ex1: The woman is my mother. You met her at the wedding party last night.  The woman WHOM wedding party last night you met at the is my mother.
  • 176. Ex2: The little boy is Peter. We helped him yesterday. is Peter. Noun of person + WHOM + S + verb  The little boy WHOMwe helped yesterday
  • 177. C/ WHICH (SUBJECT) (THAY CHO VẬT LÀ CHỦ TỪ) * GIỚI HẠN: Ex1: The book is interesting. The book was bought by my father yesterday. is interesting.  The book WHICH was bought by my father yesterday
  • 178. Ex2: The cat is nice. It was bought by my sister yesterday. is nice. Noun of thing/animal + WHICH + verb  The cat WHICH was bought by my sister yesterday
  • 179. D/ WHICH (OBJECT/ANIMAL) (THAY CHO VẬT/ĐV LÀM TÚC TỪ) * GIỚI HẠN: Ex1: The house is expensive. My father bought it last year. is expensive.  The house WHICH my father bought last year
  • 180. Ex2: Do you like the monkey? You and I saw it yesterday. you and I saw yesterday? Noun of thing/animal + WHICH + S + verb  Do you like the monkey WHICH
  • 181. A/ WHO THAY CHO NGƯỜI LÀM CHỦ TỪ Noun of person + WHO + verb
  • 182. B/ WHOM THAY CHO NGƯỜI LÀM TÚC TỪ Noun of person + WHOM + S + verb
  • 183. C/ WHICH: (SUBJECT) THAY CHO VẬT LÀM CHỦ TỪ Noun of animal/thing + WHICH + verb
  • 184. D/ WHICH: (OBJECT) THAY CHO VẬT LÀM TÚC TỪ Noun of animal/thing + WHICH + S + verb
  • 185. E/ WHOSE (SUBJECT) Là đại từ quan hệ chỉ sự sở hữu có nghĩa như: his; your; my … Sau “whose” luôn là một danh từ và được dùng cho người và vật.
  • 186. Ex1: John found the cat. Its leg was broken. was broken. whose + noun E/ WHOSE (SUBJECT)  John found the cat WHOSE leg
  • 187. Ex2: The man called the police. His car was stolen. called the police.  The man WHOSE car was stolen
  • 188. Ex3: Do you see the house? Its windows have just been painted.  Noun of thing/animal/person + WHOSE + noun + verb Do you see the house WHOSE windows have just been painted?
  • 189. Ex1: The girl is my sister. You took the girl’s picture.  The girl F/ WHOSE (OBJECT) WHOSE picture you took is my sister.
  • 190. Ex2: The book is very interesting. You are reading the first page of the book.  The book WHOSE first page you are reading is very interesting.
  • 191. Ex3: Do you know the dog? They are cutting its tail. they are cutting? Noun of thing/animal/person + WHOSE + noun + S + verb  Do you know the dog WHOSE tail
  • 192. A/ WHO (THAY CHO NGƯỜI LÀM CHỦ TỪ) Noun of person + WHO + verb B/ WHOM (THAY CHO NGƯỜI LÀM TÚC TỪ) Noun of person + WHOM + S + verb
  • 193. C/ WHICH (SUBJECT) (THAY CHO VẬT LÀ CHỦ TỪ) Noun of thing/animal + WHICH + verb D/ WHICH (OBJECT) (THAY CHO VẬT LÀM TÚC TỪ) Noun of thing/animal + WHICH + S + verb
  • 194. E/ WHOSE (SUBJECT) Noun of thing/animal/person + WHOSE + noun + verb F/ WHOSE (OBJECT) Noun of thing/animal/person + WHOSE + noun + S + verb
  • 195. G/ THAT: ĐƯỢC SỬ DỤNG MỘT TRONG NHỮNG TRƯỜNG HỢP SAU 1/ Sau một tiền vị từ hỗn hợp (The people, the cattle and vehicles …) Ex: We met the people, the cattle and vehicles that went to the market.
  • 196. 2/ Sau so sánh nhất hoặc những gì là duy nhất (The first; the last; the most; the only ..) Ex: She is the most beautiful girl that I have ever met. G/ THAT: ĐƯỢC SỬ DỤNG MỘT TRONG NHỮNG TRƯỜNG HỢP SAU
  • 197. 3/ Sau đại từ bất định: (something; someone; anything …) Ex: I love everything that my mother makes for me. G/ THAT: ĐƯỢC SỬ DỤNG MỘT TRONG NHỮNG TRƯỜNG HỢP SAU
  • 198. 4/ Sau It is; It was … Ex: It was I that I killed that tiger. G/ THAT: ĐƯỢC SỬ DỤNG MỘT TRONG NHỮNG TRƯỜNG HỢP SAU
  • 199. H/ WHEN: Ex1: March is the month. The weather is usually hottest in that month.  March is the month which the weather is usually hottest in.  March is the month in which the weather is usually hottest.  March is the month when the weather is usually hottest.
  • 200. Ex2: I never forget the day. I was born on that day.  I never forget the day which I was born on.  I never forget the day on which I was born.  I never forget the day when I was born. Noun of time + WHEN + S + verb  WHEN = in which = on which = at which
  • 201. I/ WHERE: Ex1: Tom has just been to the town. He was born in that town.  Tom has just been to the town which he was born in.  Tom has just been to the town in which he was born.  Tom has just been to the town where he was born.
  • 202.  That is the school where my father used to teach. Ex2: That is the school. My father used to teach at that school.  That is the school which my father used to teach at.  That is the school at which my father used to teach. Noun of place + WHERE + S + verb  WHERE = in which = on which = at which
  • 203. J/ WHY: Ex1: Tell me the reason. For that reason you often write to her.  Tell me the reason for which you often write to her.  Tell me the reason why you often write to her.
  • 204.  That was the reason why he couldn’t pass the exam. Ex2: That was the reason. For that reason he couldn’t pass the exam.  That was the reason for which he couldn’t pass the exam.  WHY = for which The reason + WHY + S + verb
  • 205. * CHÚ Ý: 1/ Khoâng ñöôïc ñaët giôùi töø tröôùc WHO / THAT. 2/ Khoâng ñöôïc ñaët giôùi töø cuûa nhöõng ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP (PHRASAL VERB) nhö: look after; come across; take on … tröôùc ñaïi töø quan heä. 3/ Without luoân luoân ñöùng tröôùc WHOM / WHICH. Ex: That is the man. We’ll get lost without him.
  • 206. 1/ NGƯỜI ĐỘNG TỪ ______ 2/ NGƯỜI CHỦ + ĐỘNG _______ 3/ VẬT ________ 4/ NGƯỜI + VẬT ______ WHO WHOM WHICH THAT
  • 207. 5/ NƠI CHỐN _______ 6/ THỜI GIAN _______ 7/ THE REASON _____ 8/ NGƯỜI /VẬT _______ WHERE WHEN WHY WHOSE DANH TỪ
  • 208. RELATIVE CLAUSES REPLACED BY PARTICIPLES and “TO INFINITIVE” 1/ Mệnh đề quan hệ WHO / WHICH / THAT được thay bằng HIỆN TẠI PHÂN TỪ (Present participle): * CHỦ ĐỘNG: Ex1: The man who spoke to John is my brother.  The man speaking to John is my brother. (speak – spoke – spoken)
  • 209. Ex2: The man who is talking to the teacher is my father.  The man talking to the teacher is my father. Ex3:All the roads that led to the city center were overcrowded.  All the roads leading to the city center were overcrowded. (lead – led – led)
  • 210. Ex4: All the equipment which belongs to the club is insured.  All the equipment belonging to the club is insured. Ex5: Fans who wanted to buy tickets started queuing early.  Fans wanting to buy tickets started queuing early. Who / Which / That + verb (belong) (want) V-ing
  • 211. 2/ Mệnh đề quan hệ WHO/ WHICH/ THAT được thay bằng QUÁ KHỨ PHÂN TỪ (Past Participles): * BỊ ĐỘNG: Ex1: The Sport Games which were held in India in 1951 were the first Asian Games. .  The Sport Games held in India in 1951 were the first Asian Games
  • 212. Ex2: The book which was published last week is her first novel.  The book published last week is her first novel. Ex3: The skyscraper which is being built has been designed by a French architect.  The skyscraper being built has been designed by a French architect.
  • 213. . Ex4: The prisoners who are being released are all women.  The prisoners being released are all women. Who / Which / That + be + Ved/3 Who / Which / That + be + being + Ved/3  Ved/3 being + Ved/3
  • 214. 3/ Mệnh đề quan hệ WHO/ WHICH/ THAT được thay bằng ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN MẪU CÓ “TO”: Ex1: Yuri Gagarin was the first man who flew into space.  Yuri Gagarin was the first man to fly into space. (fly – flew – flown)
  • 215. Ex2: Alice was the second applicant who was interviewed.  Alice was the second applicant to be interviewed. Ex3: New Zealand was the first country that gave women the vote.  New Zealand was the first country to give women the vote. (give – gave - given) (be – was/were - been)
  • 216. 3/ Mệnh đề quan hệ WHO/WHICH/THAT được thay bằng ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN MẪU CÓ “TO”:  Who was the last person to see the man alive? Ex4: Who was the last person that saw the man alive? (see – saw - seen) The first/ second/ third … + noun + who/ which/ that + verb  The first/second/ third … + noun + to verb
  • 217. * CHỦ ĐỘNG: Who / Which / That + verb  V-ing * BỊ ĐỘNG: Who / Which / That + be + ved/3  Who / Which / That + be + being + ved/3  Ved/3 being + Ved/3 * CHỦ ĐỘNG The first/ second/ third … + noun + who/ which/ that + verb  The first/second/ third … + noun + to verb
  • 218. WHO – WHOM – WHICH - THAT 1/ Who: THAY CHO DANH TỪ CHỈ NGƯỜI (LÀM CHỦ TỪ) 2/ Whom: THAY CHO DANH TỪ CHỈ NGƯỜI (LÀM TÚC TỪ) 3/ Which: THAY CHO DANH TỪ CHỈ ĐỒ VẬT/ ĐỘNG VẬT 4/ That: THAY CHO DANH TỪ CHỈ NGƯỜI và ĐỒ VẬT/ĐỘNG VẬT
  • 219. Ex1: A nurse is a person ___ looks after patients. who Ex2: Can you help me find the man ____ saved the girl? who TRƯỚC KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ NGƯỜI SAU KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ ĐỘNG TỪ who
  • 220. Ex3: The man _____ you visited last month is a famous scientist. whom Ex4: Do you know the woman _____ we met last night? whom TRƯỚC KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ NGƯỜI SAU KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ CHỦ +ĐỘNG whom
  • 221. Ex5: A fridge is a machine _____ is used for keeping food fresh. which Ex6: These are the pictures ____ my son drew when he was young. which TRƯỚC KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ VẬT which
  • 222. Ex7: Yesterday I met the people, the cattle and vehicles ____ went to the market. that TRƯỚC KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ NGƯỜI + ĐỒ VẬT/ĐỘNG VẬT that
  • 223. NGOÀI RA “THAT” CÒN ĐƯỢC DÙNG TRONG NHỮNG TRƯỜNG HỢP SAU: 1/ SO SÁNH NHẤT: THE FIRST; THE LAST; THE MOST; THE BEST … Ex: She is the most beautiful girl I have ever seen. ____ that
  • 224. _____ Ex: I love everything makes for me. 2/ ĐẠI TỪ BẤT ĐỊNH: VERYTHING; EVERYONE; ANYTHING … my mother that
  • 225. 1/ TRƯỚC KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ NGƯỜI SAU KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ ĐỘNG TỪ who 2/ TRƯỚC KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ NGƯỜI SAU KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ CHỦ +ĐỘNG whom 3/ TRƯỚC KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ VẬT which 4/ TRƯỚC KHOẢNG TRỐNG LÀ NGƯỜI + ĐỒ VẬT/ĐỘNG VẬT that
  • 226. 1/ NGƯỜI ĐỘNG TỪ ______ 2/ NGƯỜI CHỦ + ĐỘNG _______ 3/ VẬT ________ 4/ NGƯỜI + VẬT ______ WHO WHOM WHICH THAT
  • 227. 5/ NƠI CHỐN _______ 6/ THỜI GIAN _______ 7/ THE REASON _____ 8/ NGƯỜI /VẬT _______ WHERE WHEN WHY WHOSE DANH TỪ
  • 228.
  • 229. ARTICLES (A/AN/THE) A AN - Đứng trước 1 danh từ ĐẾM ĐƯỢC SỐ ÍT. - Có đơn vị là MỘT. - 1 phụ âm: Ex: a car; a book; a cat; a dog; a person; a doctor … - 1 trong nguyên âm (a;o;i;e;u) Ex: an engineer; an apple; an umbrella …
  • 230. A/An được dùng trong những câu khẳng định chung chung (tổng quát) hoặc để giới thiệu một chủ đề mà trước đó chưa được đề cập đến. Ex1: A ball is round. (Nghĩa chung chung: Ý nói tất cả trái banh thì tròn) Ex2: I saw a boy in the street. (Nghĩa tổng quát: Ý nói tôi nhìn thấy 1 đứa bé trên đường nhưng không biết nó là ai))
  • 231. CHÚ Ý: 1/ An đứng trước h (câm) 2/ A đứng trước nguyên âm u (đọc là [ju]) Ex: an hour ['auə] (NHƯNG a house [haus]; a hot [hɔt] girl) Ex: a university [,ju:ni'və:səti] a uniform ['ju:nifɔ:m] (NHƯNG an umbrella [ʌm'brelə] an unexpected [ʌniks'pektid] guest)
  • 232. Dùng trước một danh từ đã ĐƯỢC XÁC ĐỊNH CỤ THỂ về mặt tính chất, đặc điểm, vị trí hoặc ĐÃ ĐƯỢC ĐỀ CẬP ĐẾN TRƯỚC ĐÓ, hoặc những KHÁI NIỆM PHỔ THÔNG, AI CŨNG BIẾT. THE Ex1: The man next to Mary is my friend. (Cả người nói và người nghe đều biết đó là người đàn ông nào) Ex2: The sun is big. (Chỉ có một mặt trời, ai cũng biết) Ex3: My house is near a river. The river is very beautiful (Từ “river” của câu thứ 2 được nhắc lại nên dùng “the”)
  • 233. DÙNG “THE” KHÔNG DÙNG “THE” 1/ Đại dương – sông – biển – vịnh – hồ (số nhiều): Ex: the Red Sea (Hoàng Hải); the Atlantic Ocean (Đại Tây Dương); the Persian Gulf (Vịnh Ba Tư); the Great Lakes (Ngũ Đại Hồ) … 1/ Hồ (số ít): Ex: Lake Geneva; Lake Erie; Sword Lake (Hồ Gươm) … 2/ Dãy núi: 2/ Ngọn núi: Ex: the Rocky Mountains (dãy núi Rocky); the Andes (dãy núi Andes) … Ex: Mount Vesuvius; Mount McKinley …
  • 234. 4/ Trường; trường Cao đẳng; trường Đại học bắt đầu bằng từ (Trường; viện …) Ex: the University of Florida (Viện Đại học Florida); the College of Arts and Sciences (trường Cao Đẳng nghệ thuật và khoa học) … 4/ Trường; trường Cao đẳng; trường Đại học bắt đầu bằng danh từ riêng (Thạnh Lộc; Santa Fe ..) Ex: Santa Fe Community College (ĐH cộng đồng Santa Fe); Cooper’s Art School (Trường nghệ thuật Cooper) 3/ Trái đất; mặt trăng 3/ Hành tinh; chòm sao Ex: the earth; the moon; the sun … Ex: Venus ['vi:nəs] (Sao Kim); Mars (Sao Hoả); Orion [ɔ'raiən] (Sao Thiên Lang) … DÙNG “THE” KHÔNG DÙNG “THE”
  • 235. DÙNG “THE” KHÔNG DÙNG “THE” 6/ Chiến tranh (ngoại trừ thế chiến) Ex: the Crimean War; the Korean War … 5/ Số thứ tự đứng trước danh từ: Ex: the First World War; the Third chapter … 5/ Số đếm đứng sau danh tư: Ex: World War one; chapter three …
  • 236. 7/ Tên những nước có một chữ: Ex: Vietnam; China; France … DÙNG “THE” KHÔNG DÙNG “THE” 7/ Các quốc gia có tên phức hợp: Ex: the United States (Hiệp Chủng Quốc Hoa Kỳ); the Central African Republic (Cộng Hoà Trung Phi) … 8/ Văn kiện lịch sử: Ex: the Constitution (Bản Hiến pháp); the Magna Carta (Hiến chương Magna Carta) … 8/ Tiểu bang: Florida; Ohio; California …
  • 237. DÙNG “THE” KHÔNG DÙNG “THE” 10/ Danh từ trừu tượng: Ex: freedom; happiness; sadness … 11/ Các môn học: Ex: maths; physics; economics; sociology … 12/ Ngày lễ: Ex: Christmas; Thanksgiving … 9/ Các nhóm sắc tộc: Ex: the Indians (người Da đỏ); the Aztecs (người Aztecs) … 9/ Thể thao: Ex: football; basketball …
  • 238.
  • 239. 1/ We went by ___ train to the west of England. 2/ ___ people who live in ___ Scotland are called ___ Scots. 3/ ___ Columbus was one of ___ first people to cross ___ Atlantic. 4/ Davis learned to play ___ violin when he was at ___ university. 5. Did you read ___ book I lent you ___ last week? Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø the the the the Ø Ø
  • 240. 6. Is that ___ present Bill gave you for ___ Christmas? 7. ___ computer has already changed ___ our lives dramatically. 8. There was ___ accident yesterday at ___ corner of ___ street. 9. I need ___ time to think about ___ offer you gave me. 10. ___ little knowledge is ___ dangerous thing. Ø the Ø Ø the the an Ø the Ø a
  • 241. ON TIME (ĐÚNG GIỜ CHÍNH XÁC) Ex1: We have a meeting at 9.30, please be on time. (Chúng ta có một cuộc gặp lúc 9h30, nhớ đến đúng giờ nhé.) Ex2: She is always on time. (Cô ấy luôn đúng giờ.) IN TIME (KỊP LÚC) Ex1: Although I get up late, I go to school in time. (Mặc dù dậy muộn, tôi vẫn kịp đến trường đúng giờ.) Ex2: Luckily, she arrives here in time. (May thay cô ấy đến đây kịp giờ.)
  • 242. Ex: She died of lung cancer. Ex: That neighborhood is very dangerous, and I don't want you to die by gunshot! die of (something) To die as a result of something. (Chết vì hậu quả của một điều gì đó.) die by (something) To die from a particular cause (Chết vì một nguyên nhân cụ thể.) Ex: She often has to travel abroad on business. (Cô thường xuyên phải đi công tác nước ngoài.) Ex: Once we get the computer installed we'll be in business. (Sau khi cài đặt xong máy tính, chúng tôi sẽ kinh doanh.) Be in business: kinh doanh Be on business: đi công tác
  • 243. At the end: tại thời điểm mà nó kết thúc … In the end: kết quả của ... Ex2: In the end, what really matters in a friendship is trust. (Cuối cùng, điều thực sự quan trọng trong một tình bạn là sự tin tưởng.) Ex1: We worked hard, and in the end, we achieved our goal. (Chúng tôi đã làm việc chăm chỉ và cuối cùng, chúng tôi đã đạt được mục tiêu của mình.) Ex1: At the end of his life, he had no regrets. (Vào cuối đời, ông đã không hối tiếc.) Ex2: I pay the electricity bill at the end of each month. (Tôi trả/thanh toán hoá đơn tiền điện vào cuối mỗi tháng.)
  • 244. believe in someone: tin tưởng vào khả năng của ai “Believe in” is a little different. Believe in means to have faith that something exists. You believe in something because you have faith that it exists, even though you may never have seen or experienced it. (“Tin vào” thì hơi khác một chút. Tin vào có nghĩa là có niềm tin rằng một cái gì đó tồn tại. Bạn tin vào điều gì đó bởi vì bạn có niềm tin rằng nó tồn tại, mặc dù bạn có thể chưa bao giờ nhìn thấy.) Ex1: Do you believe in ghosts? Ex2: Many people in the world believe in God. a true friend to someone: 1 người bạn tốt đối với ai đó. Ex: You are a true friend to me.
  • 245. Ex: Marie Curie is famous for her contribution to science. (Marie Curie nổi tiếng vì đóng góp cho khoa học.) Ex: He warned us about pickpockets. (Anh ấy đã cảnh báo chúng tôi về những kẻ móc túi.) get married to someone: lấy ai, lập gia đình với ai Ex: Peter got married to Mary last year. warn someone about: cảnh báo cho ai về ... famous for something/V-ing: nổi tiêng vì cái gì
  • 246. There is a house between the two trees. There is a house among many trees. Ở giữa (2 cái) Ở giữa (nhiều cái bao quanh)
  • 247. They are walking across the street. băng qua
  • 248. opposite đối mặt / đối diện
  • 249. get married with someone: kết hôn với ai Ex: Next year, Mary is going to get married with John.
  • 250. MODAL VERBS (can; could; may; might; will; would; must; have/has to;; used to …) 1/ May/ Might: Được dùng để diễn tả a/ Điều gì đó có thể là thật hoặc có khả năng xảy ra ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai: Ex1: It may/ might be a bomb. Ex2: I may/ might go abroad next month.
  • 251. b/ Dự đoán về khả năng 1 vấn đề gì đó có thể xảy ra: Ex2: My family might come with me (30%). Ex1: I may go to London next month (50%).
  • 252. c/ Một lời xin phép (trong lối nói trịnh trọng): Ex2: Might I use your phone? Ex1: May I turn the television on?
  • 253. might not = mightn’t Chúng ta có thể dùng may well/ might well để nhấn mạnh đến khả năng có thể xảy ra. *CHÚ Ý: Ex: This picture may/might well be valuable. (It is very possible that this picture is valuable)
  • 254. 2/ Must (Phải)/ Mustn’t (Không được phép)/ Needn’t (Không cần phải): a/ Must: được dùng để diễn tả SỰ CẦN THIẾT hay SỰ BẮT BUỘC (chủ quan) ở hiện tại và tương lai. Ex1: Don’t tell anybody what I said. You must keep it a secret. Ex2:We haven’t got much time. We must hurry.
  • 255. b/ Mustn’t: Được dùng để chỉ SỰ CẤM ĐOÁN Ex1: You mustn’t tell anybody else. Ex2: We mustn’t drive on the left in Vietnam.
  • 256. c/ Needn’t: Được dùng để diễn tả SỰ KHÔNG CẦN THIẾT ở hiện tại và tương lai Ex2: We’ve got plenty of time. We needn’t hurry. Ex1: You needn’t do that if you don’t want to. needn’t do = don’t need to do * CHÚ Ý:
  • 257. Must have + Ved/3 Diễn tả sự SUY DIỄN và LÝ LUẬN HỢP LÝ TRONG QUÁ KHỨ Ex1: He failed the final examination. He must have been very lazy. Ex2: Last year, he died. He must have been seriously ill.
  • 258. Could have + Ved/3 1/ Điều gì đó đã có thể xảy ra trong quá khứ, tuy nhiên nó đã không xảy ra: Ex: I could have stayed up late last night, but I decided to go to bed early. (Tối qua tôi đã có thể thức khuya, nhưng mà tôi đã quyết định đi ngủ sớm.)
  • 259. Could have + Ved/3 2/ Điều gì đó đã có thể xảy ra trong quá khứ, tuy nhiên người nói không dám chắc Ex: Who was the last person to leave the store last night? It could have been Tom, but I’m not sure. (Tối qua ai là người rời cửa hàng cuối cùng vậy? Có thể là Tom nhưng mà tôi không chắc)
  • 260. Might have + Ved/3 Diễn tả một hành động/ điều gì đó có thể đã xảy ra, tuy nhiên thực tế nó đã không xảy ra. Ex: With more effort, we might have won the game. (Với nhiều nỗ lực hơn, chúng ta đã có thể thắng trận đấu rồi – Thực tế là đã thua trận đấu)
  • 261. Should/Shouldn’t have + Ved/3 Cấu trúc được sử dụng khi chỉ một việc/hành động đáng lẽ ra đã phải / không phải xảy ra trong quá khứ nhưng vì lý do nào đó lại không xảy ra, thường mang hàm ý trách móc hoặc nuối tiếc (điều diễn tả ngược với quá khứ) Ex: You should have apologized for what you did. (Đáng lẽ cậu đã phải xin lỗi vì những điều mình làm – Thực tế là đã không xin lỗi)
  • 262. Ex3: I shouldn't have eaten so much cake! (Tôi đã ăn quá nhiều bánh và giờ đây tôi bị mệt) Ex2: I should have studied harder! (Tôi không chăm chỉ học và rồi tôi bị trượt kỳ thi. bây giờ tôi hối hận về điều đó.)
  • 263. Exercise 1: complete the sentences, using may/might with one verb in the box. bite break need rain slip wake (làm vỡ) (cần) (trượt chân) (thức dậy) (mưa) (cắn) 1/ Take an umbrella with you when you go out. It _____________ later. may/might rain
  • 264. 2/ Don’t make too much noise. You ______________ the baby up. 3/ Be careful of that dog. It ______________ you. 4/ I don’t think we should throw that letter away. We _______________ it later. 5/ Be careful. The footpath is very icy. You ______________. 6/ I don’t want the children to play in this room. They ________________ something. may/might wake may / might bite may / might need may / might slip may / might break
  • 265. Exercise 2: Complete the sentences, using needn't, with one of the verbs in the box. ask (hỏi, yêu cầu) come (đến) explain (giải thích) (rời bỏ) leave tell (kể) walk (đi bộ) 1/ We’ve got plenty of time. We ____________ yet. needn’t leave needn’t + Vo
  • 266. 2/ I can manage the shopping alone. You ___________ with me. 3/ We ___________ all the way home. We can get a taxi. 4/ Just help yourself if you’d like something to eat. You __________ first. 5/ We can keep this a secret between ourselves. We ________ _ anybody else. 6/ I understand the situation perfectly. You _____________ further. needn’t come needn’t walk needn’t ask needn’t tell needn’t explain needn’t + Vo
  • 267. Exercise 3: Complete the sentences with must, mustn’t or needn’t. must mustn’t needn’t phải không được (phép) không cần
  • 268. Ex 1/ We haven't got much time. We ____ hurry. Ex 2/ We’ve got plenty of time. We ______ hurry. 3/ We have enough food at home so we ______ go shopping today. 4/ Jim gave me a letter to post. I _____ remember to post it. needn't must must needn’t
  • 269. 5/ Jim gave me a letter to post. I _______ forget to post it. 6/ There’s plenty of time for you to make up your mind. You ______ decide now. 7/ You ______ wash those tomatoes. They’ve already been washed. 8/ This is a valuable book. You ____ look after it carefully and you mustn’t lose it. mustn’t needn’t needn’t must
  • 270.
  • 271. PASSIVE VOICE (CÂU BỊ ĐỘNG) 1/ Xác định: S (chủ từ) – V (động từ) – O (túc từ) – Adv of place (TNCNC) – Adv of time (TNCTT) 2/ O (túc từ) S (chủ từ) me you him He You I her us them Mary my children She We They Mary My children some cakes Some cakes
  • 272. MODAL (can; could; will; would; shall; should; may; might; used to; be going to; have to; has to; had to; ought to) Modal + Vo  Modal + be + Ved/3 3/ V (động từ) được biến đổi như sau:
  • 273. by + O (túc từ) 4/ S (chủ từ) I You He by him by you by me She We They Mary My children by her by us by them by Mary by my children CHÚ Ý: 1/ Adv of place (TNCNC) trước by + O 2/ Adv of time (TNCTG) sau by + O (đứng cuối câu) thường bỏ giữ lại
  • 274. S + Modal Vo + O + Adv of place + Adv of time S + Modal be + Ved/3 by + O Adv of place Adv of time TÓM TẮT
  • 275. Ex1: Jack and Thomas will speak English at the conference tomorrow. Englishwill be spoken by Jack and Thomas at the conference tomorrow. Modal + Vo  Modal + be + Ved/3 speak – spoke – spoken Ex3: They are going to build a new school. Ex2: You should do this exercise. This exercise should A new school is going to be built. be done.
  • 276.
  • 277. TRANSITIVE and INTRANSITIVE VERBS (Ngoại động từ và nội động từ) 1/ Transitive verb (Ngoại đồng từ): thường được ký hiệu là (Vt) và thường CÓ TÚC TỪ đi kèm.
  • 278. S + Vt + Object Ex3: Don’t surprise(vt) me(object)! (Đừng làm tôi ngạc nhiên) Ex1: The customer signed(vt) the check(object). (Khách hàng đã ký séc.) Ex2: The car hit(vt) the lamp post(object). (Chiếc xe đâm vào cột đèn.)
  • 279. MỘT SỐ NGOẠI ĐỘNG TỪ (Vt): CẦN CÓ TÚC TỪ 1/ read [ri:d]: ñoïc 2/ write [rait]: vieát 3/ meet [mi:t]: gaëp 4/ help [help]: giuùp ñôõ 5/ climb [klaim]: leo; leo treøo 6/ pay [pei]: traû; noäp (tieàn); thanh toaùn 7/ supply [sə’plai]: cung caáp; tieáp teá; ñaùp öùng 8/ surprise [sə’praiz]: laøm ngaïc nhieân; laøm kinh ngaïc 9/ buy [bai]: mua
  • 280. 11/ notice [‘noutis]: chuù yù 12/ complete [kəm’pli:t]: hoaøn thaønh; laøm xong 13/ touch [tʌt∫]: sôø; moù; ñuïng; chaïm vaøo 14/ raise [reiz]: giô leân; ñöa leân 15/ put [put]: ñaët 16/ achieve [ə’t∫i:v]: ñaït ñöôïc; giaønh ñöôïc 17/ admire [əd’maiə]: ngöôõng moä 18/ avoid [ə’vɔid]: traùnh; neù 19/ create [kri:’eit]: taïo neân; taïo thaønh
  • 281. 21/ demand [di’mɑ:nd]: ñoøi hoûi; yeâu caàu; caàn 22/ desire [di’zaiə]: ao öôùc; khaùt khao 23/ enjoy [in’dʒɔi]: thích thuù; thöôûng thöùc 24/ find [faind]: tìm thaáy; nhaän ra 25/ get [get]: coù ñöôïc; laáy ñöôïc 26/ give [giv]: cho; ñöa 27/ hate [heit]: gheùt 28/ include [in’klu:d]: bao goàm; goàm coù 29/ love [lʌv]: yeâu
  • 282. 31/ maintain [mein’tein]: giöõ; duy trì 32/ mention ['men∫n]: noùi ñeán; ñeà caäp 33/ support [sə’pɔ:t]: caáp döôõng; uûng hoä 34/ want [wɔnt]: muoán 35/ build [bild]: xaây döïng 36/ discover [dis’kʌvə]: khaùm phaù; tìm ra 37/ need [ni:d]: caàn 38/ see [si:]: nhìn; thaáy 39/ wish [wi∫]: öôùc; muoán 40/ make [meik]: laøm; cheá taïo
  • 283. 2/ Intransitive verb (Nội động từ): thường được ký hiệu là (Vi), KHÔNG CÓ TÚC TỪ đi kèm. S + Vi
  • 284. Ex3: She suddenly appeared(vi). (Cô ấy đột nhiên xuất hiện.) Ex1: The accident happened(vi). (Tai nạn đã xảy ra.) Ex2: The price is rising(vi). (Giá đang tăng.)
  • 285. MỘT SỐ NỘI ĐỘNG TỪ (Vi) KHÔNHG CẦN CÓ TÚC TỪ 1/ sleep [sli:p]: nguû 2/ lie [lai]: noùi doái; noùi laùo 3/ happen ['hæpən]: xaûy ra 4/ occur [ə'kɜ:(r)]: xaûy ra; xuaát hieän 5/ arrive [ə'raiv]: ñeán (nôi) 6/ exist [ig'zist]: ñaõ soáng; toàn taïi 7/ stay [stei]: ôû laïi; löu laïi 8/ blow [blou]: thoåi 9/ rain [rein]: möa 10/ walk [wɔ:k]: ñi boä
  • 286. 11/ laugh [lɑ:f]: cöôøi (lôùn tieáng) 12/ fly [flai]: bay 13/ stand [stænd]: ñöùng 14/ rise [raiz]: moïc; ñöùng leân; boác leân 15/ swim [swim]: bôi 16/ become [bi'kʌm]: trôû neân 17/ come [kʌm]: ñeán 18/ die [dai]: cheát 19/ fall [fɔ:l]: rôi; teù; ngaõ
  • 287. 21/ go [gou]: ñi 22/ appear [ə'piə]: xuaát hieän 23/ live [liv]: soáng 24/ seem [si:m]: döôøng nhö 25/ sit [sit]: ngoài 26/ sneeze [sni:z]: haét hôi 27/ talk [tɔ:k]: noùi 28/ wait [weit]: ñôïi; chôø 29/ smile [smail]: cöôøi (mæm chi)
  • 288. 1/ Moät soá ñoäng töø vöøa laø ngoaïi ñoäng töø (vt) vöøa laø noäi ñoäng töø (vi). Ex1a: She eat slowly. Ex1b: She eats an apple(object) for lunch. Ex2a: She runs . (Cô ấy chạy.) Ex2b: She runs a hotel(object). (Cô ấy quản lý một khách sạn.) CHÚ Ý: (Vi) (Vt) (Vi) (Vt)
  • 289. 2/ Nếu câu có nội đồng từ thì câu đó không thể đổi sang câu bị động. Ex1: The boy fell (Vi) from the tree. Ex2: He swims (Vi) very well.
  • 290.
  • 291.
  • 292. Mary Daisy 115 cm 115 cm CÂU SO SÁNH I/ SO SÁNH BẰNG: 1/ Khẳng định: S + V + as adj / adv as + (pro) noun tall Ex1: Mary is 115 cm tall. Daisy is, too.  Mary is as as Daisy.
  • 293. She is beautiful. Her daughter is, too her. Ex2: She is beautiful and her daughter is also beautiful.  Her daughter is as as beautiful 2/ Phủ định: Ex2: Daisy is not as/so beautiful as her mother. Ex1: Tom is not as/so tall as his brother.
  • 294. CÂU SO SÁNH I/ SO SÁNH BẰNG: 1/ Khẳng định: S + V + as adj / adv as + (pro) noun 2/ Phủ định: S + V (not) + as/so adj / adv as + (pro) noun
  • 295. COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1/ Tính từ NGẮN: a/ Những tính từ/ trạng từ có 1 ÂM TIẾT: hot; big; small; short; smart; thin ... b/ Những tính từ/ trạng từ có 2 ÂM TIẾT mà tận cùng là -y, -le, -ow, -er, và -et: happy; (So sánh hơn của tính từ) simple; narrow; clever; quiet …
  • 296. 2/ Tính từ DÀI: b/ Những tính từ/ trạng từ có 2 ÂM TIẾT NHƯNG TẬN CÙNG LÀ “_ ed”; “_ ful”; “_ ing”, “_ ish”; “_ ous”: a/ Những tính từ/ trạng từ có 2 ÂM TIẾT NHƯNG TẬN CÙNG KHÔNG PHẢI LÀ NHỮNG TỪ ĐÃ ĐƯỢC LIỆT KÊ TRONG TÍNH TỪ NGẮN. perfect; modern; common … ed (crowded); ful (useful); ing (boring); ous (precious) ish (foolish)
  • 297. c/ Những tính từ/ trạng từ có 3 ÂM TIẾT TRỞ LÊN: expensive; intelligent; interesting … d/ Những tính từ/ trạng từ được hình thành TỪ NHỮNG GỐC: active (act) slowly (slow) (quick) careless (care) quickly
  • 298. 1/ Tính từ/ trạng từ NGẮN: II/ SO SÁNH HƠN: S + V + adj / adv + ER + than + (pro) noun This is my house. This is your house. ► Your house is ► My house is small large / big ► Your house is smaller than your house. yours. larger than my house. mine. bigger thanmine.
  • 299. 2/ Tính từ/ trạng từ DÀI: Lee Mary ► Mary is They are beautiful girls. beautiful S + V + more adj / adv than + (pro) noun more than Lee.
  • 300. 1/ Tính từ/ trạng từ NGẮN: II/ SO SÁNH HƠN: S + V + adj / adv + ER + than + (pro) noun 2/ Tính từ/ trạng từ DÀI: S + V + more adj / adv than + (pro) noun
  • 301. III/ SO SÁNH NHẤT: 1/ Tính từ/ trạng từ NGẮN: 1.5 meters 1.6 meters 1.7 meters S + V + the adj/adv EST in (CN: singular)/of (CN: plural) Peter John Tom ► Peter is ► Tom is Dick 1.4 meters in the class. the shortest in the class. the est tall (student/boy) (student/boy)
  • 302. 2/ Tính từ/ trạng từ DÀI: Jane Nancy Alice Mary ►Mary is in the class. the mostbeautiful S + V + the most adj / adv in (CN: singular) / of (CN: plural) (student/girl)
  • 303. III/ SO SÁNH NHẤT: 1/ Tính từ/ trạng từ NGẮN: S + V + the adj/adv EST in (CN: singular)/of (CN: plural) 2/ Tính từ/ trạng từ DÀI: S + V + the most adj / adv in (CN: singular) / of (CN: plural)
  • 304. TÓM TẮT NGẮN GỌN 3 LOẠI CÂU SO SÁNH BẰNG – HƠN - NHẤT 1/ BẰNG: as adj/adv as 2/ HƠN: a/ Ngắn: more b/ Dài: er than 3/ NHẤT: … in/of … … in/of … adj/adv than adj/adv a/ Ngắn: b/ Dài: est adj/adv the adj/adv the most
  • 305. IV/ SO SÁNH ĐỒNG TIẾN: 1/ Tính từ/ trạng từ NGẮN: Eg: The (dark) .................. it gets, the (cool) .................. it is. The adj/adv + ER … , the adj/adv + ER …  The the dark cool er er it is. it gets, (Thường đứng ở ĐẦU CÂU)
  • 306. 2/ Tính từ/ trạng từ DÀI: The more + adj/adv … , the more + adj/adv … Eg: The (beautifully) .......... she dances, the (attractive) .......... she becomes. she becomes.  The more beautifully she dances, the more attractive
  • 307. 3/ Tính từ/ trạng từ NGẮN DÀI KẾT HỢP: Eg1: The (large) .......... the house is, the (expensive) .......... it is. Eg2: The (expensive) .......... the hotel is, the (good) .......... its service becomes.  The r the house is, the more expensive it is.  The more expensive the hotel is, the better its service becomes. large
  • 308. NGUYÊN CẤP SO SÁNH HƠN SO SÁNH NHẤT good (adj)/ well (adv) bad (adj)/ badly (adv) many (cn)/ much (ncn) little far better worse more less farther/(further) the best the worst the most the least the farthest /(the furthest) SO SÁNH ĐẶC BIỆT Ex1: This film is (good) Ex2: My mother cooks (well) Ex3: She is the (good) Ex4: Mary reads (many) Ex5: This was the (bad) than that one. ______ than my sister. tennis player of Australia. books than Daisy. movie I have ever seen. _____ ___ ______ ______ better better best more worst
  • 309. V/ SO SÁNH LUỸ TIẾN: (Thường đứng GIỮA hoặc CUỐI CÂU) 1/ Tính từ/ trạng từ NGẮN: S + V + adj/adv + ER and adj/adv + ER Eg1: The weather is getting (hot) ............... Eg2: This tree grows (high) ..................  The weather is getting hoter ter and hotter.  This tree grows high and high er er.
  • 310. 2/ Tính từ/ trạng từ DÀI: Eg1: Mary becomes (beautiful) .................. beautiful. Mary becomes more and more S + V + more and more + adj/adv … difficult. Eg2: Life is becoming (difficult) ................. Life is becoming more and more V/ SO SÁNH LUỸ TIẾN: (Thường đứng GIỮA hoặc CUỐI CÂU)
  • 311. 1/ His visit to New York seemed to get (short) ________________ because he was very busy at work. 2/ Eating and travelling in this city is getting (expensive) ___________________ shorter and shorter more and more expensive
  • 312. 3/ As the day went on, the weather got (bad) ______________. 4. We had to stop the discussion because the question was becoming (complicated) _______________________. worse and worse more and more complicated
  • 313. 5/ Your English is OK now. Your pronunciation has got (good) ______________. 6/ Little John is becoming (active) __________________. better and better more and more active
  • 314. 7/ As it was getting dark, it was becoming (difficult) ___________________ to see everything in the house without electricity. 8/ I feel happy as my birthday is coming (close) ______________. more and more difficult closer and closer
  • 315. TÓM TẮT NGẮN GỌN 5 LOẠI CÂU SO SÁNH BẰNG – HƠN – NHẤT – ĐỒNG – LUỸ 1/ BẰNG: as adj/adv as
  • 316. 2/ HƠN: a/ Ngắn: more b/ Dài: er than adj/adv than adj/adv
  • 317. 3/ NHẤT: … in/of … … in/of… a/ Ngắn: b/ Dài: est adj/adv the adj/adv the most
  • 318. 4/ ĐỒNG: a/ Ngắn: b/ Dài: er …, adj/adv The adj/adv The more er … adj/adv the , adj/adv the more
  • 319. 5/ LŨY: a/ Ngắn: b/ Dài: er adj/adv adj/adv more and more er adj/adv and
  • 320.
  • 321. PHRASAL VERBS (ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP) ĐỘNG TỪ 1 or 2 preposition(s) (giới từ) 1 adv (trạng từ) PHRASAL VERB CÓ NGHĨA HOÀN TOÀN KHÁC VỚI ĐỘNG TỪ GỐC TẠO NÊN NÓ.
  • 322. look (v): nhìn + for (pre) look for: tìm kiếm look (v): nhìn + forward (pre)+ to (pre) look forward to: mong chờ/đợi pass (v): đi qua + away (adv) pass away: chết/mất/ra đi mãi mãi
  • 323. 4 ĐẶC ĐIỂM CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP
  • 324. 1/ ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP KHÔNG CẦN CÓ TÚC TỪ: - take off: cất cánh (máy bay) Ex: When we got to the airport, the plane had taken off. - pass away: (die) chết Ex: His grandfather passed away last year.
  • 325. 2/ ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP CÓ THỂ TÁCH ĐỘNG TỪ VÀ GIỚI TỪ RA - hand in: nộp Ex: May I hand in my paper tomorrow, Sir?  May I hand my paper in tomorrow, Sir? - wake up: đánh thức Ex: A loud noise woke up all the passengers.  A loud noise woke all the passengers up.
  • 326. ► ► ► CHÚ Ý QUAN TRỌNG: Khi dùng đại từ (pronoun) ta phải ĐẶT ĐẠI TỪ TRƯỚC GIỚI TỪ. Ex1: May I hand it in tomorrow, Sir? Ex2: A loud noise woke them up.
  • 327. 3/ ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP KHÔNG THỂ TÁCH ĐỘNG TỪ VÀ GIỚI TỪ - look for: tìm; kiếm Ex: I’m looking for my watch. Have you seen it? - run into: tình cờ gặp Ex: Alice ran into an old friend while she was doing shopping.
  • 328. Ex: The machine stopped working because it ran out of fuel. 4/ ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP CÓ 2 GIỚI TỪ - put up with: chịu nổi Ex: We’ve put up with our noisy neighbors for years. - run out of: hết; cạn
  • 329. Khi dùng đại từ (pronoun) ta phải ĐẶT ĐẠI TỪ TRƯỚC GIỚI TỪ. 4 ĐẶC ĐIỂM CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP 1/ Động từ kép KHÔNG CẦN CÓ TÚC TỪ: 2/ Động từ kép CÓ THỂ TÁCH ĐỘNG TỪ VÀ GIỚI TỪ RA: 3/ Động từ kép KHÔNG THỂ TÁCH ĐỘNG TỪ VÀ GIỚI TỪ RA: 4/ Động từ kép CÓ 2 GIỚI TỪ:
  • 330. MỘT SỐ ĐỘNG TỪ KÉP CẦN HỌC THUỘC LÒNG: 1/ fill in: điền vào (đơn …) Ex: He is trying to fill in a form.
  • 331. 2/ give up: bỏ; từ bỏ Ex: My father gave up smoking two years ago.
  • 332. 3/ take off: cởi (giày); cất cánh (máy bay) Ex: The plane had taken off when they got to the airport. Ex: She took off her shoes.
  • 333. 4/ wash up: rửa dọn; rửa bát đĩa Ex: She is washing up.
  • 334. 5/ go on: continue (tiếp tục) GO ON Ex: He went on persuading his father to buy him a car.
  • 335. 6/ look up: tra (từ trong từ điển) Ex: You can look up the new words in the dictionary.
  • 336. Ex: He is putting on a coat. 7/ put on: = wear: mặc (quần áo); đội (mũ); mang (giày)
  • 337. 8/ turn on: bật (đèn; nhạc; truyền hình …) Ex: Can you turn on the music? I want to relax. 9/ turn off: tắt (đèn; nhạc; truyền hình …) Ex: Can you turn off the music? I need to work.
  • 338. 1/ fill in: điền vào (đơn …) 2/ give up: bỏ; từ bỏ 3/ take off: cởi (giày);cất cánh (máy bay) 4/ wash up: rửa dọn; rửa bát đĩa 5/ go on: continue (tiếp tục) 6/ look up:tra (từ trong từ điển) 7/ put on: mặc (quần áo); đội (mũ); mang (giày) 8/ turn on:bật (đèn; nhạc; truyền hình …) 9/ turn off:tắt (đèn; nhạc; truyền hình …)
  • 339. Exercise 1: Complete the sentences below, using the words from the box. Some words can be used more than once (page 159). fill in - give up - take off - wash up - go on - look up - put on - turn on - turn off 1/ John got ill and had to ______ smoking. 2/ Please _____ this form and post it. 3/ It’s dark in here. Can I _______ the lights? give up fill in turn on
  • 340. 4. Remember to _______ your shoes when you are in a Japanese house. 5. Let me help you _______ 6. You can ______ the new words in the dictionary. 7. _______ the lights when you are not using them 8. Why do you have to _____ the form? 9. He is too tired to _____ working. 10. ______ your coat, it’s cold outside. take off wash up look up turn off fill in go on Put on
  • 341. 10/ go in: đi vào Ex: The door opened and I went in.
  • 342. 11/ get up: thức dậy Ex: He often gets up at seven o’clock in the morning.
  • 343. 12/ go out:đi ra ngoài Ex: She went out to dinner.
  • 344. 13/ turn round:quay lại Ex: She heard a noise behind her and turned round, but there was nothing.
  • 345. 14/ hurry up: Ex: Hurry up! The bus is coming. nhanh lên; mau lên
  • 346. 15/ lie down: nằm nghỉ (trên giường); nằm xuống Ex: He is not feeling well. He’s going to lie down for an hour.
  • 347. 16/ go away: ra đi; đi khỏi Ex: Please, don’t go away! I need you. DON’T
  • 348. 17/ sit down: ngồi xuống Ex: Please come in and sit down.
  • 349. 10/ go in: đi vào 11/ get up: thức dậy 12/ go out: đi ra ngoài 13/ turn round: quay lại 14/ hurry up: nhanh lên; mau lên 15/ lie down:nằm nghỉ (trên giường); nằm xuống 16/ go away: ra đi; đi khỏi 17/ sit down: ngồi xuống
  • 350. Exercise 2: Complete the sentences below, using the right word from the box Some words can be used more than once. in - on - up - down - back up - away - in - round - out 1. The door opened and I went in. 2. I usually get ___ at six o’clock in the morning. 3. I’m bored. Shall we go ___ this evening? up out
  • 351. 4. I heard a noise behind me and turned _____, but there was nothing. 5. I can’t go __ walking. Can we stop and have a short rest? 6. Hurry __! The bus is coming. 7. I’m not feeling well. I’m going to lie ____ for an hour. 8. “I need you. Don’t go _____” 9. “Please come in and sit _____” 10. John put ___ his best clothes for the interview. round on up down away down on
  • 352. 18/ turn up: đến (arrive); xuất hiện (appear) Ex: How many people turned up at the airport?
  • 353. 19/ look after = take care of: trông nom; chăm sóc Ex: Is she looking after her husband?
  • 354. 20/ take after = resemble [ri'zembl]: (trông) giống Tom Ex: Tom takes after his father.
  • 355. 21/ get over = recover from: phục hồi; khỏi (bệnh) Ex: He finally got over his sickness.
  • 356. 22/ go off explore (v): ring (v): Ex: Bombs went off all around in the city. The alarm goes off at 7 o’clock. nổ (bom) rung; reo; báo thức (đồng hồ)
  • 357. 23/ try out = test:to use something to see if it works well: (để sử dụng một cái gì đó để xem nếu nó hoạt động tốt hay không) Peter is trying out his new bicycle.
  • 358. The plane was held up because of the heavy snow. 24/ hold up = delay: hoãn lại
  • 359. 18/ turn up: đến (arrive); xuất hiện (appear) 19/ look after = take care of: trông nom; chăm sóc 20/ take after = resemble [ri'zembl]:(trông) giống 21/ get over = recover from: phục hồi; khỏi (bệnh) 22/ go off explore (v): ring (v): nổ (bom) rung; reo; báo thức (đồng hồ) 23/ try out = test: to use something to see if it works well: (để sử dụng một cái gì đó để xem nếu nó hoạt động tốt hay không) 24/ hold up = delay: hoãn lại
  • 360. Exercise 3: Replace the words in brackets in the following sentences with a suitable phrasal verb in the box. (Make any other necessary changes.) turn up - look after - take after get over - go off - try out - hold up 1. The trouble with Frank is that he never turns up on time for a meeting. (arrives) 2. John, could you ________ my handbag while I go to the toilet? (take care of) look after
  • 361. 7. The bomb _______ with a loud bang which could be heard all over. (exploded) 3. What a lovely baby! He certainly _________ his father, doesn’t he? (resembles) 4. My father still hasn’t really _______ the death of my mother. (recovered from) 5. Because of an accident, my train was ______ for several hours. (delayed) 6. I'll be back in a minute, Jane. I just want to ______ my new tape recorder. (test) takes after got over held up try out went off
  • 362.
  • 363. 25/ explain something to someone: Ex: She is explaining the problem to her office workers. giải thích cho ai cái gì
  • 364. 26/ invite someone to somewhere: Would you like to visit my house? Ex: She invited him to her house. mời ai đến đâu
  • 365. Tom Peter Ex: Tom laughed at Peter. 27/ laugh at someone: chế nhạo ai
  • 366. 28/ listen to: Ex: She is listening to music. nghe; lắng nghe
  • 367. 29/ point at: Ex: He is pointing at the board. chỉ vào
  • 368. 30/ glance at someone/something: Ex: She glanced at him. liếc nhìn ai/cái gì
  • 369. 31/ speak to someone: nói với ai Ex: She is speaking to her daughter.
  • 370. 32/ throw something at someone/something: ném cái gì đó vào ai/cái gì Ex: Dick threw a ball at Tom. Dick Tom
  • 371. 33/ stare at someone: Ex: She stared at her husband. nhìn chằm chằm vào ai
  • 372. 34/ write to someone:viết thư cho ai Ex: She is writing to her boyfriend.
  • 373. 35/ wait for someone: chờ/đợi ai Ex: He has waited for her for an hour but she hasn’t arrived yet.
  • 374. 36/ apply to someone: Pike Ex: After filling in the application for employment, Pike didn’t know whom he applied to. nộp cho ai
  • 375. 37/ apply for (a job): xin (một công việc) Ex: They are lining up to apply for a job.
  • 376. 38/ ask someone for something: hỏi/yêu cầu ai xin cái gì Ex: The beggar asked someone for some money.
  • 377. 39/ search for someone: Ex: The police have searched everywhere for the missing boy but they haven’t been able to find him. tìm kiếm ai
  • 378. 40/ have a discussion about something: Ex: The students are having a discussion about their studying. thảo luận về điều gì
  • 379. 25/ explain something to someone: giải thích cho ai cái gì 26/ invite someone to somewhere: mời ai đến đâu 27/ laugh at someone: chế nhạo ai 28/ listen to: nghe; lắng nghe 29/ point at: chỉ vào 30/ glance at someone/something: liếc nhìn ai/cái gì 31/ speak to someone: nói với ai 32/ throw something at someone/something: ném cái gì đó vào ai/cái gì
  • 380. 33/ stare at someone: nhìn chằm chằm vào ai 34/ write to someone: viết thư cho ai 35/ wait for someone: chờ/đợi ai 36/ apply to someone: nộp cho ai 37/ apply for (a job): xin (một công việc) 38/ ask someone for something: hỏi/yêu cầu ai xin cái gì 39/ search for someone: tìm kiếm ai 40/ have a discussion about something: thảo luận về điều gì
  • 381. 25/ explain something __ someone: 26/ invite someone __ somewhere: 27/ laugh __ someone: 28/ listen __: 29/ point __: 30/ glance __ someone/something: 31/ speak __ someone: 32/ throw something __ someone/ something: to to at to at at to at
  • 382. 33/ stare __ someone: 34/ write __ someone: 35/ wait __ someone: 36/ apply __ someone: 37/ apply __ (a job): 38/ ask someone ___ something: 39/ search ___ someone: 40/ have a discussion _____ something: at to for to for for for about
  • 383. Exercise 1: Choose one of the following verbs (in the correct form) + the correct preposition to complete the sentences. explain - invite - laugh - listen - point glance - speak - throw - stare - write Ex2: I don’t understand what this means. Can you explain it __ me? Ex1: I look stupid with this haircut. Everybody will laugh __ me. at to
  • 384. 1/ I ________ my watch to see what the time was. 2/ We’ve been ________ the party but unfortunately we can’t go. 3/ Please _______ me! I’ve got something important to tell you. glance at invited to listen to 4/ Don’t ______ stones __ the birds. That’s prohibited. throw at
  • 385. 8/ Be careful with those scissors! Don’t _____ them __ me! 5/ The woman sitting opposite me on the train kept _________ me. 6/ Sally and Kevin had an argument and now they’re not __________ one another. 7/ I _______ Joanna last week but she hasn’t replied to my letter yet. starting at speaking to wrote to point at
  • 386. Exercise 2: Fill in each of the blanks with an appropriate preposition if necessary. 1/ You’re always asking me ___ money. Ask somebody else for a change. 2/ I’ve applied ___ a job at the factory. I don’t know if I'll get it. 3/ If I want a job at the factory, who do I apply __? 4/ I’ve searched everywhere ___ John but I haven’t been able to find him. for for to for
  • 387. 5/ I don't want to talk _____ what happened last night. Let’s forget it. 6/ I don’t want to discuss __ what happened last night. Let’s forget it. 7/ We had an interesting discussion _____ the problem but we didn’t reach a decision. about √ about
  • 388. 10/ We waited ___ Jim for half an hour but he never came. 8/ Keith and Sonia are touring Europe. They’re in Rome at the moment, but tomorrow they leave ___ Venice 9/ The roof of the house is in very bad condition. I think we ought to do something ___ it. for for for