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CE3013 - ADVANCED CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES
Prepared By: Er. A A Kumar, M.E (STRUCT).,
(Ph.D).,
COURSE OBJECTIVE:
To study and understand the latest construction techniques applied to
engineering construction for sub structure, super structure, special
structures, rehabilitation and strengthening techniques and demolition
techniques.
Credit
SYLLABUS
2
UNIT III CONSTRUCTION OF SPECIAL STRUCTURES
Erection of lattice towers - Rigging of transmission line structures –
Construction sequence in cooling towers, Silos, chimney, sky scrapers -
Bow string bridges, Cable stayed bridges – Launching and pushing of box
decks – Construction of jetties and break water structures –
Construction sequence and methods in domes – Support structure for
heavy equipment and machinery in heavy industries – Erection of
articulated structures and space decks.
Unit 3 – Construction of Special
Structures
3
 INTRODUCTION
Construction of special structures involves the design, planning, and
construction of unique and complex structures that go beyond the scope of
typical buildings or infrastructure projects. These structures often require
specialized engineering knowledge, advanced construction techniques, and
innovative approaches to overcome specific challenges and achieve
extraordinary outcomes.
Special structures encompass a wide range of projects, including iconic and
landmarks, sports stadiums, airports, bridges, dams, tunnels, high-rise
buildings, and cultural or religious monuments. They are characterized by
their exceptional architectural design, demanding structural requirements,
and the need for extraordinary construction methods.
3.4. CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE IN COOLING TOWERS, SILOS,
CHIMNEY, SKY SCRAPERS, BOW STRING BRIDGES, CABLE
STAYED BRIDGES CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE IN COOLING
TOWERS
4 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
1. CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE IN COOLING TOWERS
Condi…..
5 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Condi…..
6
 Site Preparation: The construction process begins with site
preparation, which involves clearing the land, leveling the ground, and
setting up temporary facilities such as construction offices, storage
areas, and worker facilities.
 Foundation Construction: The foundation is a critical element of
cooling tower construction. The type of foundation depends on the
tower's design and soil conditions. It could be a concrete raft foundation,
piles, or deep foundations. The foundation provides stability and ensures
the tower can withstand the loads imposed on it.
 Construction of the Tower Shell: The tower shell is constructed using
reinforced concrete or structural steel. The construction typically starts
from the bottom, and formwork is used to shape the tower's walls.
Reinforcement bars are installed, and concrete is poured to create the
shell sections. This process continues vertically until the desired height
is reached.
Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Condi…..
7
 Installation of Cooling Tower Components: Once the tower shell is
complete, various components are installed. This includes the
installation of fill material, drift eliminators, louvers, fan systems, water
distribution systems, and structural supports. These components are
critical for the tower's performance in heat dissipation and efficient
cooling.
 Mechanical and Electrical Installations: Cooling towers require
mechanical and electrical systems for operation. This includes the
installation of pumps, piping systems, valves, motors, electrical panels,
and control systems. These systems ensure the efficient circulation of
water and the operation of the tower's fan systems.
 Testing and Commissioning: Once the construction is complete, the
cooling tower undergoes testing and commissioning. This includes
checking the functionality of mechanical and electrical systems,
conducting pressure tests, and ensuring proper water distribution.
Performance tests are conducted to verify the tower's capacity to cool
water efficiently.
Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Condi…..
8
 Finishing and External Works: The final stage involves finishing
touches and external works. This includes applying protective coatings
or paints on the tower's exterior, landscaping the surrounding area,
installing access platforms and ladders, and ensuring safety measures
are in place.
Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Construction Sequence in Silos
9 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Condi…..
10 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
 Excavation and Foundation: The construction of a silo begins
with excavation and foundation work. The ground is prepared,
and the foundation is constructed. The type of foundation varies
depending on factors such as the soil conditions and the size of
the silo. Common foundation types include shallow foundations
or deep pile foundations.
 Construction of Walls: The walls of the silo are typically
constructed using reinforced concrete. Formwork is set up to
shape the walls, and reinforcement bars are placed within the
formwork. Concrete is poured into the formwork to create the
walls. This process continues vertically until the desired height is
reached.
 Roof Construction: Once the walls are complete, the roof of the
silo is constructed. The roof can be a flat slab, a domed structure,
or a cone-shaped structure depending on the specific
requirements. The roof is typically made of reinforced concrete or
steel.
Condi…..
11 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
 Installation of Conveyors and Augers: Silos are often used for
storing and dispensing bulk materials such as grain or cement.
Therefore, conveyors, augers, or other material handling systems
are installed within the silo for efficient loading and unloading of
the stored materials.
 Ventilation and Access Systems: Silos require proper ventilation
to prevent moisture buildup and maintain the quality of stored
materials. Ventilation systems, such as fans or vents, are installed.
Access systems such as ladders, platforms, and catwalks are also
constructed to enable safe access to different levels of the silo for
inspection and maintenance.
 Testing and Commissioning: Once the construction is complete,
the silo undergoes testing and commissioning. This includes
checking the structural integrity, conducting pressure tests, and
ensuring the proper functioning of material handling systems and
ventilation.
Construction Sequence in Chimneys
12 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Condi…..
13 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
 Foundation Construction: Chimneys require a solid foundation
to support their weight and withstand wind loads. The foundation
is constructed based on engineering calculations and site-specific
conditions. It may involve deep foundations such as piles or
caissons or shallow foundations such as reinforced concrete
footings.
 Construction of Chimney Shell: The construction of the chimney
shell depends on the material used, which can be reinforced
concrete, steel, or brick. For a reinforced concrete chimney,
formwork is set up, reinforcement bars are placed, and concrete is
poured to construct the shell in sections. For steel chimneys,
prefabricated sections are lifted and connected.
 Installation of Lining and Flue: Chimneys may require a lining
to protect the inner surface from the corrosive effects of flue
gases. The lining materials can be refractory bricks, acid-resistant
tiles, or special coatings. Additionally, a flue or duct system is
installed to guide the flue gases from the combustion source to
the top of the chimney.
Condi…..
14 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
 Platforms and Access Systems: To enable access for inspection,
maintenance, and repairs, platforms, ladders, and catwalks are
installed on the chimney's exterior. These systems provide safe
access to different levels and facilitate the installation and
operation of auxiliary equipment.
 Lightning Protection and Aviation Warning Systems:
Chimneys, being tall structures, require lightning protection
systems to safeguard against lightning strikes. Aviation warning
systems, such as beacons or aircraft warning lights, are also
installed to comply with aviation safety regulations.
 Testing and Commissioning: Once the construction is complete,
the chimney undergoes testing and commissioning. This includes
structural integrity checks, pressure tests, inspections of the
lining and flue systems, and verification of the proper functioning
of safety systems.
Construction Sequence in Sky Scrapers
15 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Condi…..
16 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
 Site Preparation: The construction process begins with site
preparation, which involves clearing the land, leveling the ground,
and ensuring proper drainage. Temporary facilities such as
construction offices, storage areas, and worker facilities are set
up.
 Foundation Construction: The foundation of a skyscraper is
typically deep and complex to support the immense weight and
counteract wind and seismic forces. The specific type of
foundation depends on factors such as soil conditions,
groundwater levels, and building design. Common foundation
types include piles, caissons, or mat foundations.
 Structural Core and Framing: The structural core, often made of
reinforced concrete or steel, provides the primary vertical
support for the skyscraper. It houses essential elements such as
elevators, stairwells, and utility shafts. The framing system,
comprising columns and beams, is constructed around the core to
form the building's skeletal structure.
Condi…..
17 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
 Floor-by-Floor Construction: Skyscrapers are typically
constructed floor-by-floor. Each floor consists of floor slabs
supported by the structural framework. As each floor is
completed, vertical elements such as walls or curtain walls are
installed, enclosing the space.
 Installation of Mechanical and Electrical Systems: Skyscrapers
require extensive mechanical and electrical systems to support
the building's functionality. This includes the installation of HVAC
(Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems, plumbing
systems, electrical wiring, lighting fixtures, and fire protection
systems. These systems are integrated into the building's design
during construction.
 Façade Installation: The exterior façade of a skyscraper is
typically made of materials such as glass, metal panels, or stone.
The façade installation process involves the attachment of the
chosen materials to the building's structural frame. This step
provides weather protection, energy efficiency, and aesthetic
appeal to the skyscraper.
Condi…..
18 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
 Interior Fit-out: Once the main structural and mechanical works are
completed, the interior fit-out phase begins. This includes the
installation of partitions, ceilings, flooring, and finishes. Other interior
elements such as elevators, escalators, and signage are also installed.
 Testing, Inspections, and Certification: Skyscrapers undergo rigorous
testing and inspections to ensure compliance with safety codes and
standards. This includes structural integrity tests, fire safety tests, and
tests for mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems. Upon successful
completion, the building receives certification for occupancy.
Construction Sequence in Bow String Bridges
19 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Condi…..
20 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
 Foundation Construction: The construction process starts with the
construction of the bridge's foundations. This involves excavating the
ground and constructing suitable foundations such as piers or
abutments. These foundations support the vertical and horizontal loads
of the bridge.
 Construction of Substructure: The substructure refers to the parts of
the bridge that support the superstructure. This includes piers,
abutments, and wing walls. They are typically constructed using
reinforced concrete or structural steel, depending on the design.
 Erection of the Bridge Superstructure: The superstructure of a bow
string bridge consists of the arch and the deck. The arch is usually
prefabricated off-site and lifted into position using cranes or hydraulic
jacks. Once the arch is in place, the deck, which may be precast concrete
or steel girders, is installed and connected to the arch.
Condi…..
21 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
 Cable Installation: Bow string bridges typically have cables that
provide additional support and help distribute the load evenly. These
cables are installed and tensioned to ensure the stability and structural
integrity of the bridge. The cables are anchored at the ends and may run
through the arch to enhance its strength.
 Deck Construction: Once the arch and cables are in place, the deck is
completed. This involves pouring concrete or installing precast concrete
panels or steel decking. The deck provides the riding surface for vehicles
or pedestrians and is designed to withstand the required loads.
 Finishing and Miscellaneous Works: After the main construction is
complete, finishing touches are applied. This includes installing
guardrails, lighting, and other safety features. The bridge may also
undergo surface treatments such as painting or water proofing to
enhance durability.
Construction Sequence in Cable Stayed Bridges
22 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Condi…..
23 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
 Foundation Construction: Similar to other bridge types, cable-stayed bridges
begin with foundation construction. Piers or towers are constructed to support
the bridge's weight and the tension forces from the cables. The type of
foundation depends on the soil conditions and local regulations.
 Construction of Towers: The towers of cable-stayed bridges are typically
constructed using reinforced concrete or structural steel. Formwork is used to
shape the tower's structure, and reinforcement bars are placed. Concrete is
poured into the formwork to create the tower sections. For steel towers,
prefabricated sections may be lifted and connected.
 Installation of Cables: Cable installation is a crucial phase in cable-stayed
bridge construction. The cables, which are made of high-strength steel, are
anchored at the top of the towers and extend downward to support the bridge
deck. The cables are arranged in a geometric pattern and tensioned to provide
the necessary support and load distribution.
Condi…..
24 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
 Construction of Bridge Deck: The bridge deck is constructed either
using precast concrete segments or steel girders. The deck segments are
lifted into position and connected to the cables and towers. The deck
provides the riding surface for vehicles or pedestrians.
 Installation of Diaphragms and Crossbeams: Diaphragms and
crossbeams are installed to connect the cables and provide additional
support to the bridge deck. These elements enhance the overall rigidity
and stability of the bridge.
 Finishing and Miscellaneous Works: The final stage involves applying
finishing touches to the bridge. This includes installing guardrails,
lighting systems, expansion joints, and other safety features. Surface
treatments such as painting or waterproofing may also be applied to
protect the bridge from corrosion and enhance its aesthetics.
LAUNCHING AND PUSHING OF BOX DECKS
25 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Launching and pushing of box decks is a method used in bridge
construction to move large, precast concrete or steel box-shaped
segments into position. This technique is often employed for constructing
box girder bridges or other types of bridge structures.
Launching and Pushing Process:
Site Preparation: Before the launching process begins, the construction
site needs to be prepared. This involves leveling the ground, constructing
temporary supports or launching piers, and ensuring a clear path for the
box decks to be moved.
LAUNCHING AND PUSHING OF BOX DECKS
26 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Segment Fabrication: The box decks are precast off-site or prefabricated
nearby the construction site. The segments are manufactured according to
the bridge design specifications, including reinforcement, formwork, and
any necessary utilities or services.
Assembly and Alignment: Once the box deck segments are ready, they are
transported to the construction site and positioned adjacent to each other.
Special care is taken to align the segments accurately, ensuring a seamless
connection.
LAUNCHING AND PUSHING OF BOX DECKS
27 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Temporary Supports: Temporary supports, such as launching girders or
piers, are installed beneath the box deck segments to provide stability during
the launching process. These supports may be constructed using steel beams,
hydraulic jacks, or other appropriate equipment.
Launching: The launching process involves sequentially moving the box deck
segments into their final position. This can be accomplished using hydraulic
jacks, pushing equipment, or a combination of both. The segments are
typically pushed along the temporary supports, allowing for controlled
movement.
LAUNCHING AND PUSHING OF BOX DECKS
28 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Post-Tensioning: Once a segment is pushed into its final position, post-
tensioning is performed to ensure structural integrity and to bond the
adjacent segments together. Post-tensioning involves placing steel tendons or
cables within the segments and applying tension to them. This helps in
distributing the loads and improving the overall strength of the bridge
structure.
Connection and Grouting: After the box deck segments are in place and
post-tensioning is completed, the connections between the segments are
finalized. The joints between the segments are grouted with high-strength
concrete or epoxy to provide a durable and watertight connection.
LAUNCHING AND PUSHING OF BOX DECKS
29 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Finishing and Integration: Once the box decks are securely in place, the
construction process continues with the integration of other components,
such as parapets, railings, expansion joints, and road surfacing. These
elements are added to complete the bridge structure and make it suitable for
vehicular or pedestrian traffic.
FUNCTIONS AND PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTING THE
JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES
30 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Jetties and breakwater structures serve important functions and purposes in
coastal areas.
Jetties Structures
FUNCTIONS AND PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTING THE
JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES
31 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Jetties Structures
A jetty is a structure that extends from the shore into the water, and is
typically constructed to protect a channel or harbor entrance from silting and
erosion. Jetties can be made from a variety of materials—including rock,
concrete, steel or even a combination of materials.
Navigation Aid: Jetties provide a clear and defined path for vessels entering
or exiting ports, harbors, and channels. They help guide vessels safely by
marking the navigable channel and preventing ships from straying into
shallow or hazardous areas.
FUNCTIONS AND PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTING THE
JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES
32 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Berthing Facilities: Jetties create protected areas where vessels can berth
and load or unload cargo. They provide a stable platform for vessels to moor
alongside, facilitating efficient and safe loading and unloading operations.
Sheltered Waters: Jetties form sheltered areas by reducing the impact of
waves and currents. These calm waters provide a more secure environment
for vessels to maneuver, reducing the risk of damage caused by rough seas.
Erosion Control: Jetties can help mitigate shoreline erosion by interrupting
the natural long-shore sediment transport. They act as barriers, trapping
sediment and preventing its movement along the coast. This helps maintain
or build up beaches and protects adjacent coastal areas from erosion.
FUNCTIONS AND PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTING THE
JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES
33 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Waterfront Development: Jetties often serve as focal points for waterfront
development. They provide opportunities for the construction of marinas,
promenades, recreational facilities, and other amenities that enhance tourism
and economic activities in coastal areas.
FUNCTIONS AND PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTING THE
JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES
34 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Breakwater Structures
FUNCTIONS AND PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTING THE
JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES
35 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Breakwater Structures
It usually consist of large pieces of rock (granite) weighing up to 10–15
tonnes each, or rubble-mound. Their design is influenced by the angle of wave
approach and other environmental parameters. Breakwater construction can
be either parallel or perpendicular to the coast, depending on the shoreline
requirements.
Wave Protection: Breakwaters are designed to reduce the energy of
incoming waves, providing a sheltered area behind them. They act as barriers
that dissipate wave energy, reducing the impact of waves on shorelines,
harbors, and infrastructure.
FUNCTIONS AND PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTING THE
JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES
36 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Shoreline Stabilization: Breakwaters help mitigate coastal erosion by
interrupting the longshore transport of sediment. They provide a barrier that
prevents sediment from being carried away by waves, protecting beaches,
coastal dunes, and adjacent properties from erosion.
Harbor Protection: Breakwaters are often constructed to create calm waters
within harbors or ports. They shield these areas from the effects of wave action,
reducing turbulence and ensuring safer navigation and mooring conditions for
vessels.
Sediment Control: Breakwaters help control sediment deposition by creating
a relatively calm area behind them. This prevents sediment from accumulating
in navigation channels, maintaining sufficient water depths for vessel traffic.
FUNCTIONS AND PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTING THE
JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES
37 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Habitat Creation: Breakwaters can provide habitat for marine organisms by
creating artificial reefs or structures that attract marine life. They can enhance
biodiversity and provide valuable habitats for fish, corals, and other marine
species.
CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER
STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES
38 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
The construction of jetties and breakwater structures plays a vital role in
coastal engineering to provide safe and efficient navigation and protect
shorelines from erosion. Here's a brief explanation of the construction process
and the difficulties encountered during their construction:
Construction of Jetties
CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER
STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES
39 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Design and Planning: The construction of jetties begins with detailed design
and planning, considering factors such as wave conditions, water depth,
sediment transport, and vessel traffic. The design aims to create a structure
that provides a sheltered area for vessels to berth and minimizes sediment
accumulation.
Foundation Preparation: The construction site is prepared by dredging or
excavating the area where the jetty will be built. The foundation is prepared by
removing loose or unstable soil and creating a stable base for the jetty
structure.
CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER
STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES
40 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Piling and Sheet Pile Installation: Piles are driven into the ground to provide
a stable foundation for the jetty. These piles can be made of steel, concrete, or
timber. Sheet piles may also be installed to retain the surrounding soil and
prevent erosion.
Superstructure Construction: Once the foundation is prepared, the
superstructure of the jetty is constructed. This involves building the deck,
support beams, and any necessary amenities such as mooring facilities,
fenders, and access points.
CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER
STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES
41 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Construction Materials: The materials used for jetty construction depend on
various factors, including the design specifications, wave conditions, and
budget. Common materials include concrete, steel, timber, or a combination of
these materials.
Difficulties in Jetty Construction
Construction in Water: Construction in the marine environment presents
challenges such as tides, currents, and wave action. These factors can make it
difficult to carry out construction activities, especially during adverse weather
conditions.
CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER
STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES
42 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Sedimentation: Jetties are subject to sedimentation, which can reduce the
navigational depth around the structure. Dredging and sediment management
strategies are often required to maintain the desired water depth.
Wave Forces: Jetties are exposed to wave forces, especially during storms and
high-energy wave conditions. Designing the structure to withstand these forces
is crucial to ensure its durability and stability.
Environmental Impact: Construction activities in coastal areas can have
significant environmental impacts, including disturbance to marine habitats,
sedimentation, and changes in water flow patterns. Appropriate environmental
assessments and mitigation measures need to be implemented to minimize
these impacts.
CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER
STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES
43 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Construction of Breakwater Structures
CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER
STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES
44 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Construction of Breakwater Structures
CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER
STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES
45 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Design and Planning: Similar to jetties, the construction of breakwater
structures requires detailed design and planning. The design considers wave
conditions, sediment transport, shoreline stability, and coastal processes. The
goal is to provide protection against wave energy and minimize shoreline
erosion.
Foundation Preparation: The construction site is prepared by dredging or
excavating the area where the breakwater will be built. The foundation is
prepared to create a stable base for the structure.
CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER
STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES
46 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Armor Unit Placement: Breakwater structures are typically constructed using
armor units, such as concrete blocks or rock armor. These units are placed
strategically to dissipate wave energy and provide stability to the structure.
The armor units are often placed in layers, ensuring proper interlocking and
stability.
Core Filling: In some cases, breakwater structures may have a core filling to
enhance stability. This involves placing additional material, such as rock or
concrete, in the central part of the structure to increase its mass and resistance
against wave forces.
CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER
STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES
47 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Difficulties in Breakwater Construction
Construction in Challenging Environments: Building breakwater structures
often involves working in exposed coastal areas, which can be challenging due
to harsh weather conditions, waves, and tidal fluctuations. These factors can
affect construction activities and require careful planning and implementation.
Material Availability: Finding suitable and available materials for breakwater
construction, such as rock or concrete armor units, can be a challenge. Sourcing
these materials in large quantities and transporting them to the construction
site can add logistical complexities and cost considerations.
CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER
STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES
48 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Maintenance and Monitoring: Breakwater structures require regular
maintenance and monitoring to ensure their continued effectiveness. This
includes monitoring wave conditions, sediment accumulation, and structural
integrity. Implementing appropriate maintenance strategies can be demanding
due to the offshore location and access limitations.
The construction of jetties and breakwater structures requires expertise in
coastal engineering, thorough planning, and careful consideration of site-
specific factors. Overcoming the difficulties associated with construction in the
marine environment is essential to ensure the longevity, functionality, and
environmental sustainability of these structures.
Functions and purpose of constructing the jetties and
break water structures
49 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Functions and purpose of constructing the jetties structures
Navigation Aid: Jetties provide a clear and defined path for vessels entering
or exiting ports, harbors, and channels. They help guide vessels safely by
marking the navigable channel and preventing ships from straying into
shallow or hazardous areas.
Berthing Facilities: Jetties create protected areas where vessels can berth
and load or unload cargo. They provide a stable platform for vessels to moor
alongside, facilitating efficient and safe loading and unloading operations.
Functions and purpose of constructing the jetties and
break water structures
50 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Sheltered Waters: Jetties form sheltered areas by reducing the impact of
waves and currents. These calm waters provide a more secure environment
for vessels to maneuver, reducing the risk of damage caused by rough seas.
Erosion Control: Jetties can help mitigate shoreline erosion by interrupting
the natural long-shore sediment transport. They act as barriers, trapping
sediment and preventing its movement along the coast. This helps maintain
or build up beaches and protects adjacent coastal areas from erosion.
Waterfront Development: Jetties often serve as focal points for waterfront
development. They provide opportunities for the construction of marinas,
promenades, recreational facilities, and other amenities that enhance
tourism and economic activities in coastal areas.
Functions and purpose of constructing the jetties and
break water structures
51 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Functions and purpose of constructing the break water structures
Wave Protection: Breakwaters are designed to reduce the energy of
incoming waves, providing a sheltered area behind them. They act as barriers
that dissipate wave energy, reducing the impact of waves on shorelines,
harbors, and infrastructure.
Shoreline Stabilization: Breakwaters help mitigate coastal erosion by
interrupting the longshore transport of sediment. They provide a barrier that
prevents sediment from being carried away by waves, protecting beaches,
coastal dunes, and adjacent properties from erosion.
Functions and purpose of constructing the jetties and
break water structures
52 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Harbor Protection: Breakwaters are often constructed to create calm
waters within harbors or ports. They shield these areas from the effects of
wave action, reducing turbulence and ensuring safer navigation and mooring
conditions for vessels.
Sediment Control: Breakwaters help control sediment deposition by
creating a relatively calm area behind them. This prevents sediment from
accumulating in navigation channels, maintaining sufficient water depths for
vessel traffic.
Functions and purpose of constructing the jetties and
break water structures
53 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
Habitat Creation: Breakwaters can provide habitat for marine organisms by
creating artificial reefs or structures that attract marine life. They can
enhance biodiversity and provide valuable habitats for fish, corals, and other
marine species.
The construction of jetties and breakwater structures aims to improve
navigational safety, protect coastal areas from erosion, enhance waterfront
development, and promote sustainable coastal management. These
structures play a crucial role in supporting maritime activities, preserving
coastal ecosystems, and ensuring the resilience and stability of coastal
communities.
CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE AND METHODS IN DOMES
54 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE AND METHODS IN DOMES
55 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Design and Planning: The construction of domes begins with detailed
design and planning, taking into account factors such as the desired
shape, size, structural integrity, and architectural requirements. The
design may incorporate different materials, such as concrete, steel, or
timber, depending on the specific project.
Foundation Preparation: The construction site is prepared by
excavating and leveling the ground to create a stable foundation for the
dome structure. The foundation is designed to distribute the load evenly
and provide support for the dome's weight.
Formwork and Reinforcement: Formwork is constructed to create the
shape of the dome. This can be done using various materials, such as
plywood, steel, or prefabricated panels. Reinforcement, such as steel bars
or mesh, is added to provide strength and structural stability to the
dome.
CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE AND METHODS IN DOMES
56 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Concrete Placement: Concrete is typically used as the primary
construction material for domes. It is poured or sprayed onto the formwork,
ensuring proper compaction and consolidation. Special attention is given to
achieving a smooth and uniform finish on the interior and exterior surfaces
of the dome.
Curing: After the concrete is placed, it undergoes a curing process to
achieve its full strength and durability. Curing involves maintaining
appropriate temperature and moisture conditions for a specific period,
allowing the concrete to harden and gain strength gradually.
Formwork Removal: Once the concrete has sufficiently cured, the
formwork is removed. This reveals the finished dome structure. Careful
removal of the formwork is essential to avoid damaging the concrete and to
ensure the desired shape and finish of the dome.
CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE AND METHODS IN DOMES
57 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Finishing and Waterproofing: Various finishing techniques can be
applied to the dome, depending on the desired aesthetics and functional
requirements. This may include surface treatments, such as polishing,
painting, or applying protective coatings. Waterproofing measures are
also implemented to prevent moisture penetration and ensure the
longevity of the dome.
Integration of Services: Electrical, plumbing, HVAC, and other services
may need to be integrated into the dome structure. This involves the
installation of conduits, wiring, pipes, and fixtures in a way that
complements the dome's design and maintains its structural integrity.
Interior and Exterior Finishes: The interior and exterior of the dome
are finished according to the design specifications. This may involve
applying wall finishes, flooring, insulation, and any architectural or
decorative elements that enhance the functionality and aesthetics of the
dome.
CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE AND METHODS IN DOMES
58 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Construction methods in domes can vary depending on the specific
design and construction techniques employed. Some common methods
include:
Monolithic Construction: In this method, the dome is constructed as a
single, continuous structure using a formwork system. This allows for a
seamless, curved surface without any joints or seams.
Panelized Construction: Panels or segments of the dome are
prefabricated off-site and then assembled on-site to form the complete
dome structure. This method can reduce construction time and improve
accuracy.
Inflatable Formwork: In some cases, an inflatable formwork system is
used to create the shape of the dome. Fabric or membrane materials are
inflated and coated with a layer of concrete to form the dome structure.
CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE AND METHODS IN DOMES
59 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Geodesic Domes: Geodesic domes are constructed using interconnected
triangular or polygonal elements. This method utilizes lightweight
materials, such as steel or aluminum, to create a self-supporting structure
with excellent structural efficiency.
The construction sequence and methods for domes require careful
planning, skilled craftsmanship, and adherence to safety and quality
standards. The specific approach may vary depending on the design,
materials, and complexity of the dome structure.
SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND
MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES
60 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
In heavy industries, where large and heavy equipment and machinery are
used, it is essential to have robust support structures to ensure their
stability and safety.
The support structures for heavy equipment and machinery typically
involve the following elements:
Foundation: The foundation is the base on which the support structure
rests. It must be designed to provide a stable and level platform that can
withstand the weight and vibrations generated by the equipment. The
foundation may consist of reinforced concrete footings or deep pile
foundations, depending on the size and load requirements of the
equipment.
SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND
MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES
61 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Steel or Concrete Columns: Columns are vertical load-bearing members
that support the weight of the equipment. They are often made of steel or
reinforced concrete and provide vertical stability and load distribution
from the equipment to the foundation.
Beams and Girders: Beams and girders are horizontal members that
connect and distribute loads from the equipment to the columns. They
help in transferring the weight and forces generated by the equipment to
the support structure. These members are usually made of steel or
reinforced concrete to provide sufficient strength and stiffness.
Bracing and Cross-Bracing: Bracing elements, such as diagonal beams or
trusses, are installed to increase the rigidity and stability of the support
structure. They help resist lateral forces, such as wind or seismic loads,
and prevent excessive movement or deformation of the structure during
operation.
SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND
MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES
62 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Base Plates and Anchor Bolts: Base plates are used to connect the
equipment or machinery to the support structure. They are usually made
of steel and are securely bolted to the foundation. Anchor bolts are
embedded in the foundation and provide a secure connection between the
foundation and the equipment.
Vibration Isolation: In some cases, heavy equipment generates
significant vibrations during operation. To mitigate these vibrations and
protect the support structure, vibration isolation techniques are
employed. This may include the use of resilient mounts, isolators, or
damping systems to reduce the transmission of vibrations to the
surrounding structure.
Safety Features: Safety considerations are crucial in heavy industries.
Additional safety features, such as guardrails, handrails, access platforms,
and equipment-specific safety measures, may be incorporated into the
support structure to ensure safe operation and maintenance of the
equipment.
SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND
MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES
63 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Key considerations and elements involved in designing and
constructing support structures for heavy equipment
SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND
MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES
64 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Load Capacity: The support structure must be designed to withstand the
weight and loads imposed by the equipment. This includes the static
weight of the equipment itself as well as dynamic loads generated during
operation, such as vibrations, impact forces, and heavy loads being lifted or
moved. Structural engineers carefully analyze the weight distribution and
loading patterns to determine the required load capacity of the support
structure.
Foundation: A strong and stable foundation is essential to support heavy
equipment. The foundation should be designed based on soil analysis and
geotechnical considerations to ensure it can bear the weight of the
equipment and transfer the loads safely to the ground. The foundation may
consist of reinforced concrete footings, pile foundations, or specialized
foundation systems depending on the soil conditions and load
requirements.
SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND
MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES
65 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Structural Material: Support structures for heavy equipment are typically
made of steel due to its high strength and load-bearing capacity. Steel
provides the necessary stiffness and rigidity to withstand heavy loads and
dynamic forces. The structural members, such as beams, columns, and
trusses, are designed and fabricated to meet the specific load requirements
and structural integrity of the equipment.
Stability and Bracing: Stability is crucial in supporting heavy equipment.
Adequate bracing and cross-bracing elements are incorporated into the
support structure to resist lateral forces, such as wind loads and seismic
forces. Diagonal bracing, trusses, and moment frames are commonly used
to increase the rigidity and stability of the support structure, preventing
excessive movement or deformation during operation.
SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND
MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES
66 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Vibration Control: Some heavy equipment generates significant
vibrations during operation. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to
the support structure and surrounding areas, vibration isolation
techniques may be employed. This can include the use of vibration
isolators, resilient mounts, or specialized damping systems to reduce the
impact of vibrations on the support structure and ensure smooth and safe
operation of the equipment.
Safety Features: Safety considerations are paramount in supporting heavy
equipment. The support structure may incorporate safety features such as
guardrails, handrails, non-slip surfaces, access platforms, and safety gates
to ensure safe access for operators and maintenance personnel.
Equipment-specific safety measures, such as emergency stop systems or
lockout/tag-out mechanisms, should also be integrated into the support
structure.
SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND
MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES
67 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Maintenance and Accessibility: Adequate provisions should be made in
the support structure for equipment maintenance and servicing. This
includes providing sufficient clearance and access points for routine
maintenance, inspection, and repairs. Access platforms, catwalks, and
ladders are often incorporated to ensure safe and convenient access to
various parts of the equipment.
Designing and constructing support structures for heavy
equipment require a comprehensive understanding of the equipment
specifications, load dynamics, and structural engineering principles.
Collaboration between structural engineers, equipment manufacturers,
and construction professionals is crucial to ensure a well-designed and
robust support structure that meets the safety and operational
requirements of the heavy equipment
SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND
MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES
68 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Key considerations and elements involved in designing and
constructing support structures for machinery in heavy industries
SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND
MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES
69 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Load Capacity: The support structure must be designed to withstand the
weight and loads imposed by the machinery. This includes the static weight
of the machinery itself as well as dynamic loads generated during
operation, such as vibrations, impact forces, and the forces exerted by the
machinery's operation. Engineers carefully analyze the weight distribution
and loading patterns to determine the required load capacity of the
support structure.
Foundation: A strong and stable foundation is essential for supporting
machinery. The foundation should be designed based on soil analysis and
geotechnical considerations to ensure it can bear the weight of the
machinery and transfer the loads safely to the ground. The foundation may
consist of reinforced concrete footings, deep pile foundations, or other
specialized foundation systems depending on the soil conditions and load
requirements.
SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND
MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES
70 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Structural Material: Support structures for machinery in heavy industries
are typically made of steel due to its high strength and load-bearing
capacity. Steel provides the necessary stiffness and rigidity to withstand
heavy loads and dynamic forces. The structural members, such as beams,
columns, and trusses, are designed and fabricated to meet the specific load
requirements and structural integrity of the machinery.
Stability and Bracing: Stability is crucial in supporting machinery.
Adequate bracing and cross-bracing elements are incorporated into the
support structure to resist lateral forces, such as wind loads and seismic
forces. Diagonal bracing, trusses, and moment frames are commonly used
to increase the rigidity and stability of the support structure, preventing
excessive movement or deformation during machinery operation.
SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND
MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES
71 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Vibration Control: Many machinery in heavy industries generate
vibrations during operation. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to
the support structure and surrounding areas, vibration control measures
may be employed. This can include the use of vibration isolators, resilient
mounts, or specialized damping systems to reduce the impact of vibrations
on the support structure and ensure smooth and safe machinery operation.
Safety Features: Safety considerations are paramount in supporting
machinery. The support structure may incorporate safety features such as
guardrails, handrails, non-slip surfaces, access platforms, and safety gates
to ensure safe access for operators and maintenance personnel.
Equipment-specific safety measures, such as emergency stop systems or
lockout/tag-out mechanisms, should also be integrated into the support
structure.
SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND
MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES
72 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Maintenance and Accessibility: Adequate provisions should be made in
the support structure for machinery maintenance and servicing. This
includes providing sufficient clearance and access points for routine
maintenance, inspection, and repairs. Access platforms, catwalks, and
ladders are often incorporated to ensure safe and convenient access to
various parts of the machinery.
Designing and constructing support structures for machinery in
heavy industries require a comprehensive understanding of the machinery
specifications, load dynamics, and structural engineering principles.
Collaboration between structural engineers, machinery manufacturers,
and construction professionals is crucial to ensure a well-designed and
robust support structure that meets the safety and operational
requirements of the machinery.
ERECTION OF ARTICULATED STRUCTURES AND SPACE DECKS
73 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
The erection of articulated structures and space decks involves the
assembly and installation of complex structural systems that are capable of
movement and flexibility. These structures are often used in various applications,
such as aerospace, architecture, and infrastructure projects. Here is a detailed
explanation of the erection process for articulated structures and space decks:
ERECTION OF ARTICULATED STRUCTURES AND SPACE DECKS
74 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Erection procedure
Preparatory Work: Before the actual erection process begins, thorough planning
and preparation are essential. This includes reviewing the design and specifications
of the articulated structure or space deck, coordinating with the project team, and
ensuring that all necessary equipment, tools, and materials are available on-site.
Component Fabrication: The individual components of the articulated structure
or space deck, such as trusses, beams, nodes, and connectors, are fabricated off-site
according to the design specifications. These components may be made of steel,
aluminum, composite materials, or a combination of different materials depending
on the project requirements.
Site Preparation: The construction site is prepared by clearing the area, leveling
the ground, and ensuring a stable foundation. The foundation may consist of
concrete footings, piles, or other specialized systems, depending on the specific
design and load requirements of the articulated structure or space deck.
ERECTION OF ARTICULATED STRUCTURES AND SPACE DECKS
75 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Assembly and Alignment: The components of the articulated structure or space
deck are transported to the construction site and assembled according to the
design plans. This involves carefully aligning and connecting the individual
elements to ensure proper fit and functionality. Bolts, welds, or other suitable
connection methods are used to secure the components together.
Erection and Installation: The assembled structure is then erected into its final
position. Depending on the size and complexity of the structure, cranes, hoists, or
other lifting equipment may be used to hoist and position the components. Precise
engineering calculations and techniques are employed to ensure the safe and
accurate installation of the structure.
Adjustment and Alignment: Once the structure is in place, adjustments and
alignments may be necessary to achieve the desired configuration and
performance. This includes checking for proper alignment, plumbness, and
levelness of the components, and making any necessary adjustments to ensure the
structural integrity and functionality of the articulated structure or space deck.
ERECTION OF ARTICULATED STRUCTURES AND SPACE DECKS
76 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
Connection and Integration: After the components are properly aligned and
adjusted, the connections between different elements are reinforced. This may
involve welding, bolting, or other connection methods to enhance the structural
stability and integrity of the articulated structure or space deck. Integration of
other systems, such as mechanical, electrical, or plumbing, may also be carried out
during this phase.
Testing and Commissioning: Once the erection and integration are completed,
thorough testing and commissioning procedures are performed to verify the
performance and functionality of the articulated structure or space deck. This
includes load testing, dynamic analysis, and functionality tests to ensure that the
structure meets the required standards and specifications.
Finishing and Maintenance: Finally, the articulated structure or space deck is
finished according to the project requirements. This may involve applying
protective coatings, aesthetic finishes, or other surface treatments. Ongoing
maintenance and inspection protocols are established to ensure the long-term
integrity and safety of the structure.
Summary
77 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
The construction and assembly of various structures involve
specialized techniques and sequences tailored to their unique designs
and purposes. From lattice towers to cooling towers, silos, and
skyscrapers, each project follows a distinct construction process. Bow
string and cable-stayed bridges require precise cable tensioning and
tower construction, while box decks are positioned using launching or
pushing methods. Coastal structures like jetties demand careful
planning for erosion control. Domes are constructed with a centering
framework, and heavy industries rely on robust support structures for
machinery. Articulated structures require precision assembly, and
space decks in aerospace facilities demand intricate methodologies and
stringent safety measures. These construction sequences adapt to
factors such as design, materials, and safety, ensuring the structural
integrity and functionality of the final product.

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Construction of Special Structures.pptx

  • 1. CE3013 - ADVANCED CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES Prepared By: Er. A A Kumar, M.E (STRUCT)., (Ph.D)., COURSE OBJECTIVE: To study and understand the latest construction techniques applied to engineering construction for sub structure, super structure, special structures, rehabilitation and strengthening techniques and demolition techniques. Credit
  • 2. SYLLABUS 2 UNIT III CONSTRUCTION OF SPECIAL STRUCTURES Erection of lattice towers - Rigging of transmission line structures – Construction sequence in cooling towers, Silos, chimney, sky scrapers - Bow string bridges, Cable stayed bridges – Launching and pushing of box decks – Construction of jetties and break water structures – Construction sequence and methods in domes – Support structure for heavy equipment and machinery in heavy industries – Erection of articulated structures and space decks.
  • 3. Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures 3  INTRODUCTION Construction of special structures involves the design, planning, and construction of unique and complex structures that go beyond the scope of typical buildings or infrastructure projects. These structures often require specialized engineering knowledge, advanced construction techniques, and innovative approaches to overcome specific challenges and achieve extraordinary outcomes. Special structures encompass a wide range of projects, including iconic and landmarks, sports stadiums, airports, bridges, dams, tunnels, high-rise buildings, and cultural or religious monuments. They are characterized by their exceptional architectural design, demanding structural requirements, and the need for extraordinary construction methods.
  • 4. 3.4. CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE IN COOLING TOWERS, SILOS, CHIMNEY, SKY SCRAPERS, BOW STRING BRIDGES, CABLE STAYED BRIDGES CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE IN COOLING TOWERS 4 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures 1. CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE IN COOLING TOWERS
  • 5. Condi….. 5 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
  • 6. Condi….. 6  Site Preparation: The construction process begins with site preparation, which involves clearing the land, leveling the ground, and setting up temporary facilities such as construction offices, storage areas, and worker facilities.  Foundation Construction: The foundation is a critical element of cooling tower construction. The type of foundation depends on the tower's design and soil conditions. It could be a concrete raft foundation, piles, or deep foundations. The foundation provides stability and ensures the tower can withstand the loads imposed on it.  Construction of the Tower Shell: The tower shell is constructed using reinforced concrete or structural steel. The construction typically starts from the bottom, and formwork is used to shape the tower's walls. Reinforcement bars are installed, and concrete is poured to create the shell sections. This process continues vertically until the desired height is reached. Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
  • 7. Condi….. 7  Installation of Cooling Tower Components: Once the tower shell is complete, various components are installed. This includes the installation of fill material, drift eliminators, louvers, fan systems, water distribution systems, and structural supports. These components are critical for the tower's performance in heat dissipation and efficient cooling.  Mechanical and Electrical Installations: Cooling towers require mechanical and electrical systems for operation. This includes the installation of pumps, piping systems, valves, motors, electrical panels, and control systems. These systems ensure the efficient circulation of water and the operation of the tower's fan systems.  Testing and Commissioning: Once the construction is complete, the cooling tower undergoes testing and commissioning. This includes checking the functionality of mechanical and electrical systems, conducting pressure tests, and ensuring proper water distribution. Performance tests are conducted to verify the tower's capacity to cool water efficiently. Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
  • 8. Condi….. 8  Finishing and External Works: The final stage involves finishing touches and external works. This includes applying protective coatings or paints on the tower's exterior, landscaping the surrounding area, installing access platforms and ladders, and ensuring safety measures are in place. Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
  • 9. Construction Sequence in Silos 9 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
  • 10. Condi….. 10 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures  Excavation and Foundation: The construction of a silo begins with excavation and foundation work. The ground is prepared, and the foundation is constructed. The type of foundation varies depending on factors such as the soil conditions and the size of the silo. Common foundation types include shallow foundations or deep pile foundations.  Construction of Walls: The walls of the silo are typically constructed using reinforced concrete. Formwork is set up to shape the walls, and reinforcement bars are placed within the formwork. Concrete is poured into the formwork to create the walls. This process continues vertically until the desired height is reached.  Roof Construction: Once the walls are complete, the roof of the silo is constructed. The roof can be a flat slab, a domed structure, or a cone-shaped structure depending on the specific requirements. The roof is typically made of reinforced concrete or steel.
  • 11. Condi….. 11 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures  Installation of Conveyors and Augers: Silos are often used for storing and dispensing bulk materials such as grain or cement. Therefore, conveyors, augers, or other material handling systems are installed within the silo for efficient loading and unloading of the stored materials.  Ventilation and Access Systems: Silos require proper ventilation to prevent moisture buildup and maintain the quality of stored materials. Ventilation systems, such as fans or vents, are installed. Access systems such as ladders, platforms, and catwalks are also constructed to enable safe access to different levels of the silo for inspection and maintenance.  Testing and Commissioning: Once the construction is complete, the silo undergoes testing and commissioning. This includes checking the structural integrity, conducting pressure tests, and ensuring the proper functioning of material handling systems and ventilation.
  • 12. Construction Sequence in Chimneys 12 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
  • 13. Condi….. 13 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures  Foundation Construction: Chimneys require a solid foundation to support their weight and withstand wind loads. The foundation is constructed based on engineering calculations and site-specific conditions. It may involve deep foundations such as piles or caissons or shallow foundations such as reinforced concrete footings.  Construction of Chimney Shell: The construction of the chimney shell depends on the material used, which can be reinforced concrete, steel, or brick. For a reinforced concrete chimney, formwork is set up, reinforcement bars are placed, and concrete is poured to construct the shell in sections. For steel chimneys, prefabricated sections are lifted and connected.  Installation of Lining and Flue: Chimneys may require a lining to protect the inner surface from the corrosive effects of flue gases. The lining materials can be refractory bricks, acid-resistant tiles, or special coatings. Additionally, a flue or duct system is installed to guide the flue gases from the combustion source to the top of the chimney.
  • 14. Condi….. 14 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures  Platforms and Access Systems: To enable access for inspection, maintenance, and repairs, platforms, ladders, and catwalks are installed on the chimney's exterior. These systems provide safe access to different levels and facilitate the installation and operation of auxiliary equipment.  Lightning Protection and Aviation Warning Systems: Chimneys, being tall structures, require lightning protection systems to safeguard against lightning strikes. Aviation warning systems, such as beacons or aircraft warning lights, are also installed to comply with aviation safety regulations.  Testing and Commissioning: Once the construction is complete, the chimney undergoes testing and commissioning. This includes structural integrity checks, pressure tests, inspections of the lining and flue systems, and verification of the proper functioning of safety systems.
  • 15. Construction Sequence in Sky Scrapers 15 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
  • 16. Condi….. 16 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures  Site Preparation: The construction process begins with site preparation, which involves clearing the land, leveling the ground, and ensuring proper drainage. Temporary facilities such as construction offices, storage areas, and worker facilities are set up.  Foundation Construction: The foundation of a skyscraper is typically deep and complex to support the immense weight and counteract wind and seismic forces. The specific type of foundation depends on factors such as soil conditions, groundwater levels, and building design. Common foundation types include piles, caissons, or mat foundations.  Structural Core and Framing: The structural core, often made of reinforced concrete or steel, provides the primary vertical support for the skyscraper. It houses essential elements such as elevators, stairwells, and utility shafts. The framing system, comprising columns and beams, is constructed around the core to form the building's skeletal structure.
  • 17. Condi….. 17 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures  Floor-by-Floor Construction: Skyscrapers are typically constructed floor-by-floor. Each floor consists of floor slabs supported by the structural framework. As each floor is completed, vertical elements such as walls or curtain walls are installed, enclosing the space.  Installation of Mechanical and Electrical Systems: Skyscrapers require extensive mechanical and electrical systems to support the building's functionality. This includes the installation of HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems, plumbing systems, electrical wiring, lighting fixtures, and fire protection systems. These systems are integrated into the building's design during construction.  Façade Installation: The exterior façade of a skyscraper is typically made of materials such as glass, metal panels, or stone. The façade installation process involves the attachment of the chosen materials to the building's structural frame. This step provides weather protection, energy efficiency, and aesthetic appeal to the skyscraper.
  • 18. Condi….. 18 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures  Interior Fit-out: Once the main structural and mechanical works are completed, the interior fit-out phase begins. This includes the installation of partitions, ceilings, flooring, and finishes. Other interior elements such as elevators, escalators, and signage are also installed.  Testing, Inspections, and Certification: Skyscrapers undergo rigorous testing and inspections to ensure compliance with safety codes and standards. This includes structural integrity tests, fire safety tests, and tests for mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems. Upon successful completion, the building receives certification for occupancy.
  • 19. Construction Sequence in Bow String Bridges 19 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
  • 20. Condi….. 20 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures  Foundation Construction: The construction process starts with the construction of the bridge's foundations. This involves excavating the ground and constructing suitable foundations such as piers or abutments. These foundations support the vertical and horizontal loads of the bridge.  Construction of Substructure: The substructure refers to the parts of the bridge that support the superstructure. This includes piers, abutments, and wing walls. They are typically constructed using reinforced concrete or structural steel, depending on the design.  Erection of the Bridge Superstructure: The superstructure of a bow string bridge consists of the arch and the deck. The arch is usually prefabricated off-site and lifted into position using cranes or hydraulic jacks. Once the arch is in place, the deck, which may be precast concrete or steel girders, is installed and connected to the arch.
  • 21. Condi….. 21 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures  Cable Installation: Bow string bridges typically have cables that provide additional support and help distribute the load evenly. These cables are installed and tensioned to ensure the stability and structural integrity of the bridge. The cables are anchored at the ends and may run through the arch to enhance its strength.  Deck Construction: Once the arch and cables are in place, the deck is completed. This involves pouring concrete or installing precast concrete panels or steel decking. The deck provides the riding surface for vehicles or pedestrians and is designed to withstand the required loads.  Finishing and Miscellaneous Works: After the main construction is complete, finishing touches are applied. This includes installing guardrails, lighting, and other safety features. The bridge may also undergo surface treatments such as painting or water proofing to enhance durability.
  • 22. Construction Sequence in Cable Stayed Bridges 22 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures
  • 23. Condi….. 23 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures  Foundation Construction: Similar to other bridge types, cable-stayed bridges begin with foundation construction. Piers or towers are constructed to support the bridge's weight and the tension forces from the cables. The type of foundation depends on the soil conditions and local regulations.  Construction of Towers: The towers of cable-stayed bridges are typically constructed using reinforced concrete or structural steel. Formwork is used to shape the tower's structure, and reinforcement bars are placed. Concrete is poured into the formwork to create the tower sections. For steel towers, prefabricated sections may be lifted and connected.  Installation of Cables: Cable installation is a crucial phase in cable-stayed bridge construction. The cables, which are made of high-strength steel, are anchored at the top of the towers and extend downward to support the bridge deck. The cables are arranged in a geometric pattern and tensioned to provide the necessary support and load distribution.
  • 24. Condi….. 24 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures  Construction of Bridge Deck: The bridge deck is constructed either using precast concrete segments or steel girders. The deck segments are lifted into position and connected to the cables and towers. The deck provides the riding surface for vehicles or pedestrians.  Installation of Diaphragms and Crossbeams: Diaphragms and crossbeams are installed to connect the cables and provide additional support to the bridge deck. These elements enhance the overall rigidity and stability of the bridge.  Finishing and Miscellaneous Works: The final stage involves applying finishing touches to the bridge. This includes installing guardrails, lighting systems, expansion joints, and other safety features. Surface treatments such as painting or waterproofing may also be applied to protect the bridge from corrosion and enhance its aesthetics.
  • 25. LAUNCHING AND PUSHING OF BOX DECKS 25 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Launching and pushing of box decks is a method used in bridge construction to move large, precast concrete or steel box-shaped segments into position. This technique is often employed for constructing box girder bridges or other types of bridge structures. Launching and Pushing Process: Site Preparation: Before the launching process begins, the construction site needs to be prepared. This involves leveling the ground, constructing temporary supports or launching piers, and ensuring a clear path for the box decks to be moved.
  • 26. LAUNCHING AND PUSHING OF BOX DECKS 26 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Segment Fabrication: The box decks are precast off-site or prefabricated nearby the construction site. The segments are manufactured according to the bridge design specifications, including reinforcement, formwork, and any necessary utilities or services. Assembly and Alignment: Once the box deck segments are ready, they are transported to the construction site and positioned adjacent to each other. Special care is taken to align the segments accurately, ensuring a seamless connection.
  • 27. LAUNCHING AND PUSHING OF BOX DECKS 27 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Temporary Supports: Temporary supports, such as launching girders or piers, are installed beneath the box deck segments to provide stability during the launching process. These supports may be constructed using steel beams, hydraulic jacks, or other appropriate equipment. Launching: The launching process involves sequentially moving the box deck segments into their final position. This can be accomplished using hydraulic jacks, pushing equipment, or a combination of both. The segments are typically pushed along the temporary supports, allowing for controlled movement.
  • 28. LAUNCHING AND PUSHING OF BOX DECKS 28 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Post-Tensioning: Once a segment is pushed into its final position, post- tensioning is performed to ensure structural integrity and to bond the adjacent segments together. Post-tensioning involves placing steel tendons or cables within the segments and applying tension to them. This helps in distributing the loads and improving the overall strength of the bridge structure. Connection and Grouting: After the box deck segments are in place and post-tensioning is completed, the connections between the segments are finalized. The joints between the segments are grouted with high-strength concrete or epoxy to provide a durable and watertight connection.
  • 29. LAUNCHING AND PUSHING OF BOX DECKS 29 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Finishing and Integration: Once the box decks are securely in place, the construction process continues with the integration of other components, such as parapets, railings, expansion joints, and road surfacing. These elements are added to complete the bridge structure and make it suitable for vehicular or pedestrian traffic.
  • 30. FUNCTIONS AND PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTING THE JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES 30 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Jetties and breakwater structures serve important functions and purposes in coastal areas. Jetties Structures
  • 31. FUNCTIONS AND PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTING THE JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES 31 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Jetties Structures A jetty is a structure that extends from the shore into the water, and is typically constructed to protect a channel or harbor entrance from silting and erosion. Jetties can be made from a variety of materials—including rock, concrete, steel or even a combination of materials. Navigation Aid: Jetties provide a clear and defined path for vessels entering or exiting ports, harbors, and channels. They help guide vessels safely by marking the navigable channel and preventing ships from straying into shallow or hazardous areas.
  • 32. FUNCTIONS AND PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTING THE JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES 32 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Berthing Facilities: Jetties create protected areas where vessels can berth and load or unload cargo. They provide a stable platform for vessels to moor alongside, facilitating efficient and safe loading and unloading operations. Sheltered Waters: Jetties form sheltered areas by reducing the impact of waves and currents. These calm waters provide a more secure environment for vessels to maneuver, reducing the risk of damage caused by rough seas. Erosion Control: Jetties can help mitigate shoreline erosion by interrupting the natural long-shore sediment transport. They act as barriers, trapping sediment and preventing its movement along the coast. This helps maintain or build up beaches and protects adjacent coastal areas from erosion.
  • 33. FUNCTIONS AND PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTING THE JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES 33 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Waterfront Development: Jetties often serve as focal points for waterfront development. They provide opportunities for the construction of marinas, promenades, recreational facilities, and other amenities that enhance tourism and economic activities in coastal areas.
  • 34. FUNCTIONS AND PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTING THE JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES 34 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Breakwater Structures
  • 35. FUNCTIONS AND PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTING THE JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES 35 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Breakwater Structures It usually consist of large pieces of rock (granite) weighing up to 10–15 tonnes each, or rubble-mound. Their design is influenced by the angle of wave approach and other environmental parameters. Breakwater construction can be either parallel or perpendicular to the coast, depending on the shoreline requirements. Wave Protection: Breakwaters are designed to reduce the energy of incoming waves, providing a sheltered area behind them. They act as barriers that dissipate wave energy, reducing the impact of waves on shorelines, harbors, and infrastructure.
  • 36. FUNCTIONS AND PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTING THE JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES 36 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Shoreline Stabilization: Breakwaters help mitigate coastal erosion by interrupting the longshore transport of sediment. They provide a barrier that prevents sediment from being carried away by waves, protecting beaches, coastal dunes, and adjacent properties from erosion. Harbor Protection: Breakwaters are often constructed to create calm waters within harbors or ports. They shield these areas from the effects of wave action, reducing turbulence and ensuring safer navigation and mooring conditions for vessels. Sediment Control: Breakwaters help control sediment deposition by creating a relatively calm area behind them. This prevents sediment from accumulating in navigation channels, maintaining sufficient water depths for vessel traffic.
  • 37. FUNCTIONS AND PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTING THE JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES 37 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Habitat Creation: Breakwaters can provide habitat for marine organisms by creating artificial reefs or structures that attract marine life. They can enhance biodiversity and provide valuable habitats for fish, corals, and other marine species.
  • 38. CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES 38 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures The construction of jetties and breakwater structures plays a vital role in coastal engineering to provide safe and efficient navigation and protect shorelines from erosion. Here's a brief explanation of the construction process and the difficulties encountered during their construction: Construction of Jetties
  • 39. CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES 39 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Design and Planning: The construction of jetties begins with detailed design and planning, considering factors such as wave conditions, water depth, sediment transport, and vessel traffic. The design aims to create a structure that provides a sheltered area for vessels to berth and minimizes sediment accumulation. Foundation Preparation: The construction site is prepared by dredging or excavating the area where the jetty will be built. The foundation is prepared by removing loose or unstable soil and creating a stable base for the jetty structure.
  • 40. CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES 40 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Piling and Sheet Pile Installation: Piles are driven into the ground to provide a stable foundation for the jetty. These piles can be made of steel, concrete, or timber. Sheet piles may also be installed to retain the surrounding soil and prevent erosion. Superstructure Construction: Once the foundation is prepared, the superstructure of the jetty is constructed. This involves building the deck, support beams, and any necessary amenities such as mooring facilities, fenders, and access points.
  • 41. CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES 41 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Construction Materials: The materials used for jetty construction depend on various factors, including the design specifications, wave conditions, and budget. Common materials include concrete, steel, timber, or a combination of these materials. Difficulties in Jetty Construction Construction in Water: Construction in the marine environment presents challenges such as tides, currents, and wave action. These factors can make it difficult to carry out construction activities, especially during adverse weather conditions.
  • 42. CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES 42 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Sedimentation: Jetties are subject to sedimentation, which can reduce the navigational depth around the structure. Dredging and sediment management strategies are often required to maintain the desired water depth. Wave Forces: Jetties are exposed to wave forces, especially during storms and high-energy wave conditions. Designing the structure to withstand these forces is crucial to ensure its durability and stability. Environmental Impact: Construction activities in coastal areas can have significant environmental impacts, including disturbance to marine habitats, sedimentation, and changes in water flow patterns. Appropriate environmental assessments and mitigation measures need to be implemented to minimize these impacts.
  • 43. CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES 43 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Construction of Breakwater Structures
  • 44. CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES 44 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Construction of Breakwater Structures
  • 45. CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES 45 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Design and Planning: Similar to jetties, the construction of breakwater structures requires detailed design and planning. The design considers wave conditions, sediment transport, shoreline stability, and coastal processes. The goal is to provide protection against wave energy and minimize shoreline erosion. Foundation Preparation: The construction site is prepared by dredging or excavating the area where the breakwater will be built. The foundation is prepared to create a stable base for the structure.
  • 46. CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES 46 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Armor Unit Placement: Breakwater structures are typically constructed using armor units, such as concrete blocks or rock armor. These units are placed strategically to dissipate wave energy and provide stability to the structure. The armor units are often placed in layers, ensuring proper interlocking and stability. Core Filling: In some cases, breakwater structures may have a core filling to enhance stability. This involves placing additional material, such as rock or concrete, in the central part of the structure to increase its mass and resistance against wave forces.
  • 47. CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES 47 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Difficulties in Breakwater Construction Construction in Challenging Environments: Building breakwater structures often involves working in exposed coastal areas, which can be challenging due to harsh weather conditions, waves, and tidal fluctuations. These factors can affect construction activities and require careful planning and implementation. Material Availability: Finding suitable and available materials for breakwater construction, such as rock or concrete armor units, can be a challenge. Sourcing these materials in large quantities and transporting them to the construction site can add logistical complexities and cost considerations.
  • 48. CONSTRUCTION OF JETTIES AND BREAK WATER STRUCTURES AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES 48 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Maintenance and Monitoring: Breakwater structures require regular maintenance and monitoring to ensure their continued effectiveness. This includes monitoring wave conditions, sediment accumulation, and structural integrity. Implementing appropriate maintenance strategies can be demanding due to the offshore location and access limitations. The construction of jetties and breakwater structures requires expertise in coastal engineering, thorough planning, and careful consideration of site- specific factors. Overcoming the difficulties associated with construction in the marine environment is essential to ensure the longevity, functionality, and environmental sustainability of these structures.
  • 49. Functions and purpose of constructing the jetties and break water structures 49 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Functions and purpose of constructing the jetties structures Navigation Aid: Jetties provide a clear and defined path for vessels entering or exiting ports, harbors, and channels. They help guide vessels safely by marking the navigable channel and preventing ships from straying into shallow or hazardous areas. Berthing Facilities: Jetties create protected areas where vessels can berth and load or unload cargo. They provide a stable platform for vessels to moor alongside, facilitating efficient and safe loading and unloading operations.
  • 50. Functions and purpose of constructing the jetties and break water structures 50 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Sheltered Waters: Jetties form sheltered areas by reducing the impact of waves and currents. These calm waters provide a more secure environment for vessels to maneuver, reducing the risk of damage caused by rough seas. Erosion Control: Jetties can help mitigate shoreline erosion by interrupting the natural long-shore sediment transport. They act as barriers, trapping sediment and preventing its movement along the coast. This helps maintain or build up beaches and protects adjacent coastal areas from erosion. Waterfront Development: Jetties often serve as focal points for waterfront development. They provide opportunities for the construction of marinas, promenades, recreational facilities, and other amenities that enhance tourism and economic activities in coastal areas.
  • 51. Functions and purpose of constructing the jetties and break water structures 51 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Functions and purpose of constructing the break water structures Wave Protection: Breakwaters are designed to reduce the energy of incoming waves, providing a sheltered area behind them. They act as barriers that dissipate wave energy, reducing the impact of waves on shorelines, harbors, and infrastructure. Shoreline Stabilization: Breakwaters help mitigate coastal erosion by interrupting the longshore transport of sediment. They provide a barrier that prevents sediment from being carried away by waves, protecting beaches, coastal dunes, and adjacent properties from erosion.
  • 52. Functions and purpose of constructing the jetties and break water structures 52 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Harbor Protection: Breakwaters are often constructed to create calm waters within harbors or ports. They shield these areas from the effects of wave action, reducing turbulence and ensuring safer navigation and mooring conditions for vessels. Sediment Control: Breakwaters help control sediment deposition by creating a relatively calm area behind them. This prevents sediment from accumulating in navigation channels, maintaining sufficient water depths for vessel traffic.
  • 53. Functions and purpose of constructing the jetties and break water structures 53 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Strcutures Habitat Creation: Breakwaters can provide habitat for marine organisms by creating artificial reefs or structures that attract marine life. They can enhance biodiversity and provide valuable habitats for fish, corals, and other marine species. The construction of jetties and breakwater structures aims to improve navigational safety, protect coastal areas from erosion, enhance waterfront development, and promote sustainable coastal management. These structures play a crucial role in supporting maritime activities, preserving coastal ecosystems, and ensuring the resilience and stability of coastal communities.
  • 54. CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE AND METHODS IN DOMES 54 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures
  • 55. CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE AND METHODS IN DOMES 55 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Design and Planning: The construction of domes begins with detailed design and planning, taking into account factors such as the desired shape, size, structural integrity, and architectural requirements. The design may incorporate different materials, such as concrete, steel, or timber, depending on the specific project. Foundation Preparation: The construction site is prepared by excavating and leveling the ground to create a stable foundation for the dome structure. The foundation is designed to distribute the load evenly and provide support for the dome's weight. Formwork and Reinforcement: Formwork is constructed to create the shape of the dome. This can be done using various materials, such as plywood, steel, or prefabricated panels. Reinforcement, such as steel bars or mesh, is added to provide strength and structural stability to the dome.
  • 56. CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE AND METHODS IN DOMES 56 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Concrete Placement: Concrete is typically used as the primary construction material for domes. It is poured or sprayed onto the formwork, ensuring proper compaction and consolidation. Special attention is given to achieving a smooth and uniform finish on the interior and exterior surfaces of the dome. Curing: After the concrete is placed, it undergoes a curing process to achieve its full strength and durability. Curing involves maintaining appropriate temperature and moisture conditions for a specific period, allowing the concrete to harden and gain strength gradually. Formwork Removal: Once the concrete has sufficiently cured, the formwork is removed. This reveals the finished dome structure. Careful removal of the formwork is essential to avoid damaging the concrete and to ensure the desired shape and finish of the dome.
  • 57. CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE AND METHODS IN DOMES 57 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Finishing and Waterproofing: Various finishing techniques can be applied to the dome, depending on the desired aesthetics and functional requirements. This may include surface treatments, such as polishing, painting, or applying protective coatings. Waterproofing measures are also implemented to prevent moisture penetration and ensure the longevity of the dome. Integration of Services: Electrical, plumbing, HVAC, and other services may need to be integrated into the dome structure. This involves the installation of conduits, wiring, pipes, and fixtures in a way that complements the dome's design and maintains its structural integrity. Interior and Exterior Finishes: The interior and exterior of the dome are finished according to the design specifications. This may involve applying wall finishes, flooring, insulation, and any architectural or decorative elements that enhance the functionality and aesthetics of the dome.
  • 58. CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE AND METHODS IN DOMES 58 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Construction methods in domes can vary depending on the specific design and construction techniques employed. Some common methods include: Monolithic Construction: In this method, the dome is constructed as a single, continuous structure using a formwork system. This allows for a seamless, curved surface without any joints or seams. Panelized Construction: Panels or segments of the dome are prefabricated off-site and then assembled on-site to form the complete dome structure. This method can reduce construction time and improve accuracy. Inflatable Formwork: In some cases, an inflatable formwork system is used to create the shape of the dome. Fabric or membrane materials are inflated and coated with a layer of concrete to form the dome structure.
  • 59. CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE AND METHODS IN DOMES 59 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Geodesic Domes: Geodesic domes are constructed using interconnected triangular or polygonal elements. This method utilizes lightweight materials, such as steel or aluminum, to create a self-supporting structure with excellent structural efficiency. The construction sequence and methods for domes require careful planning, skilled craftsmanship, and adherence to safety and quality standards. The specific approach may vary depending on the design, materials, and complexity of the dome structure.
  • 60. SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES 60 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures In heavy industries, where large and heavy equipment and machinery are used, it is essential to have robust support structures to ensure their stability and safety. The support structures for heavy equipment and machinery typically involve the following elements: Foundation: The foundation is the base on which the support structure rests. It must be designed to provide a stable and level platform that can withstand the weight and vibrations generated by the equipment. The foundation may consist of reinforced concrete footings or deep pile foundations, depending on the size and load requirements of the equipment.
  • 61. SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES 61 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Steel or Concrete Columns: Columns are vertical load-bearing members that support the weight of the equipment. They are often made of steel or reinforced concrete and provide vertical stability and load distribution from the equipment to the foundation. Beams and Girders: Beams and girders are horizontal members that connect and distribute loads from the equipment to the columns. They help in transferring the weight and forces generated by the equipment to the support structure. These members are usually made of steel or reinforced concrete to provide sufficient strength and stiffness. Bracing and Cross-Bracing: Bracing elements, such as diagonal beams or trusses, are installed to increase the rigidity and stability of the support structure. They help resist lateral forces, such as wind or seismic loads, and prevent excessive movement or deformation of the structure during operation.
  • 62. SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES 62 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Base Plates and Anchor Bolts: Base plates are used to connect the equipment or machinery to the support structure. They are usually made of steel and are securely bolted to the foundation. Anchor bolts are embedded in the foundation and provide a secure connection between the foundation and the equipment. Vibration Isolation: In some cases, heavy equipment generates significant vibrations during operation. To mitigate these vibrations and protect the support structure, vibration isolation techniques are employed. This may include the use of resilient mounts, isolators, or damping systems to reduce the transmission of vibrations to the surrounding structure. Safety Features: Safety considerations are crucial in heavy industries. Additional safety features, such as guardrails, handrails, access platforms, and equipment-specific safety measures, may be incorporated into the support structure to ensure safe operation and maintenance of the equipment.
  • 63. SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES 63 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Key considerations and elements involved in designing and constructing support structures for heavy equipment
  • 64. SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES 64 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Load Capacity: The support structure must be designed to withstand the weight and loads imposed by the equipment. This includes the static weight of the equipment itself as well as dynamic loads generated during operation, such as vibrations, impact forces, and heavy loads being lifted or moved. Structural engineers carefully analyze the weight distribution and loading patterns to determine the required load capacity of the support structure. Foundation: A strong and stable foundation is essential to support heavy equipment. The foundation should be designed based on soil analysis and geotechnical considerations to ensure it can bear the weight of the equipment and transfer the loads safely to the ground. The foundation may consist of reinforced concrete footings, pile foundations, or specialized foundation systems depending on the soil conditions and load requirements.
  • 65. SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES 65 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Structural Material: Support structures for heavy equipment are typically made of steel due to its high strength and load-bearing capacity. Steel provides the necessary stiffness and rigidity to withstand heavy loads and dynamic forces. The structural members, such as beams, columns, and trusses, are designed and fabricated to meet the specific load requirements and structural integrity of the equipment. Stability and Bracing: Stability is crucial in supporting heavy equipment. Adequate bracing and cross-bracing elements are incorporated into the support structure to resist lateral forces, such as wind loads and seismic forces. Diagonal bracing, trusses, and moment frames are commonly used to increase the rigidity and stability of the support structure, preventing excessive movement or deformation during operation.
  • 66. SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES 66 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Vibration Control: Some heavy equipment generates significant vibrations during operation. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the support structure and surrounding areas, vibration isolation techniques may be employed. This can include the use of vibration isolators, resilient mounts, or specialized damping systems to reduce the impact of vibrations on the support structure and ensure smooth and safe operation of the equipment. Safety Features: Safety considerations are paramount in supporting heavy equipment. The support structure may incorporate safety features such as guardrails, handrails, non-slip surfaces, access platforms, and safety gates to ensure safe access for operators and maintenance personnel. Equipment-specific safety measures, such as emergency stop systems or lockout/tag-out mechanisms, should also be integrated into the support structure.
  • 67. SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES 67 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Maintenance and Accessibility: Adequate provisions should be made in the support structure for equipment maintenance and servicing. This includes providing sufficient clearance and access points for routine maintenance, inspection, and repairs. Access platforms, catwalks, and ladders are often incorporated to ensure safe and convenient access to various parts of the equipment. Designing and constructing support structures for heavy equipment require a comprehensive understanding of the equipment specifications, load dynamics, and structural engineering principles. Collaboration between structural engineers, equipment manufacturers, and construction professionals is crucial to ensure a well-designed and robust support structure that meets the safety and operational requirements of the heavy equipment
  • 68. SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES 68 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Key considerations and elements involved in designing and constructing support structures for machinery in heavy industries
  • 69. SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES 69 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Load Capacity: The support structure must be designed to withstand the weight and loads imposed by the machinery. This includes the static weight of the machinery itself as well as dynamic loads generated during operation, such as vibrations, impact forces, and the forces exerted by the machinery's operation. Engineers carefully analyze the weight distribution and loading patterns to determine the required load capacity of the support structure. Foundation: A strong and stable foundation is essential for supporting machinery. The foundation should be designed based on soil analysis and geotechnical considerations to ensure it can bear the weight of the machinery and transfer the loads safely to the ground. The foundation may consist of reinforced concrete footings, deep pile foundations, or other specialized foundation systems depending on the soil conditions and load requirements.
  • 70. SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES 70 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Structural Material: Support structures for machinery in heavy industries are typically made of steel due to its high strength and load-bearing capacity. Steel provides the necessary stiffness and rigidity to withstand heavy loads and dynamic forces. The structural members, such as beams, columns, and trusses, are designed and fabricated to meet the specific load requirements and structural integrity of the machinery. Stability and Bracing: Stability is crucial in supporting machinery. Adequate bracing and cross-bracing elements are incorporated into the support structure to resist lateral forces, such as wind loads and seismic forces. Diagonal bracing, trusses, and moment frames are commonly used to increase the rigidity and stability of the support structure, preventing excessive movement or deformation during machinery operation.
  • 71. SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES 71 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Vibration Control: Many machinery in heavy industries generate vibrations during operation. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the support structure and surrounding areas, vibration control measures may be employed. This can include the use of vibration isolators, resilient mounts, or specialized damping systems to reduce the impact of vibrations on the support structure and ensure smooth and safe machinery operation. Safety Features: Safety considerations are paramount in supporting machinery. The support structure may incorporate safety features such as guardrails, handrails, non-slip surfaces, access platforms, and safety gates to ensure safe access for operators and maintenance personnel. Equipment-specific safety measures, such as emergency stop systems or lockout/tag-out mechanisms, should also be integrated into the support structure.
  • 72. SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR HEAVY EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY IN HEAVY INDUSTRIES 72 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Maintenance and Accessibility: Adequate provisions should be made in the support structure for machinery maintenance and servicing. This includes providing sufficient clearance and access points for routine maintenance, inspection, and repairs. Access platforms, catwalks, and ladders are often incorporated to ensure safe and convenient access to various parts of the machinery. Designing and constructing support structures for machinery in heavy industries require a comprehensive understanding of the machinery specifications, load dynamics, and structural engineering principles. Collaboration between structural engineers, machinery manufacturers, and construction professionals is crucial to ensure a well-designed and robust support structure that meets the safety and operational requirements of the machinery.
  • 73. ERECTION OF ARTICULATED STRUCTURES AND SPACE DECKS 73 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures The erection of articulated structures and space decks involves the assembly and installation of complex structural systems that are capable of movement and flexibility. These structures are often used in various applications, such as aerospace, architecture, and infrastructure projects. Here is a detailed explanation of the erection process for articulated structures and space decks:
  • 74. ERECTION OF ARTICULATED STRUCTURES AND SPACE DECKS 74 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Erection procedure Preparatory Work: Before the actual erection process begins, thorough planning and preparation are essential. This includes reviewing the design and specifications of the articulated structure or space deck, coordinating with the project team, and ensuring that all necessary equipment, tools, and materials are available on-site. Component Fabrication: The individual components of the articulated structure or space deck, such as trusses, beams, nodes, and connectors, are fabricated off-site according to the design specifications. These components may be made of steel, aluminum, composite materials, or a combination of different materials depending on the project requirements. Site Preparation: The construction site is prepared by clearing the area, leveling the ground, and ensuring a stable foundation. The foundation may consist of concrete footings, piles, or other specialized systems, depending on the specific design and load requirements of the articulated structure or space deck.
  • 75. ERECTION OF ARTICULATED STRUCTURES AND SPACE DECKS 75 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Assembly and Alignment: The components of the articulated structure or space deck are transported to the construction site and assembled according to the design plans. This involves carefully aligning and connecting the individual elements to ensure proper fit and functionality. Bolts, welds, or other suitable connection methods are used to secure the components together. Erection and Installation: The assembled structure is then erected into its final position. Depending on the size and complexity of the structure, cranes, hoists, or other lifting equipment may be used to hoist and position the components. Precise engineering calculations and techniques are employed to ensure the safe and accurate installation of the structure. Adjustment and Alignment: Once the structure is in place, adjustments and alignments may be necessary to achieve the desired configuration and performance. This includes checking for proper alignment, plumbness, and levelness of the components, and making any necessary adjustments to ensure the structural integrity and functionality of the articulated structure or space deck.
  • 76. ERECTION OF ARTICULATED STRUCTURES AND SPACE DECKS 76 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures Connection and Integration: After the components are properly aligned and adjusted, the connections between different elements are reinforced. This may involve welding, bolting, or other connection methods to enhance the structural stability and integrity of the articulated structure or space deck. Integration of other systems, such as mechanical, electrical, or plumbing, may also be carried out during this phase. Testing and Commissioning: Once the erection and integration are completed, thorough testing and commissioning procedures are performed to verify the performance and functionality of the articulated structure or space deck. This includes load testing, dynamic analysis, and functionality tests to ensure that the structure meets the required standards and specifications. Finishing and Maintenance: Finally, the articulated structure or space deck is finished according to the project requirements. This may involve applying protective coatings, aesthetic finishes, or other surface treatments. Ongoing maintenance and inspection protocols are established to ensure the long-term integrity and safety of the structure.
  • 77. Summary 77 Unit 3 – Construction of Special Structures The construction and assembly of various structures involve specialized techniques and sequences tailored to their unique designs and purposes. From lattice towers to cooling towers, silos, and skyscrapers, each project follows a distinct construction process. Bow string and cable-stayed bridges require precise cable tensioning and tower construction, while box decks are positioned using launching or pushing methods. Coastal structures like jetties demand careful planning for erosion control. Domes are constructed with a centering framework, and heavy industries rely on robust support structures for machinery. Articulated structures require precision assembly, and space decks in aerospace facilities demand intricate methodologies and stringent safety measures. These construction sequences adapt to factors such as design, materials, and safety, ensuring the structural integrity and functionality of the final product.