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TECHNIQUES FOR
REPAIR
OF STRUCTURES
What We Are Going To Learn
• Guniting
• Shotcreting
• Repair of cracks
• Shoring and Underpinning
• Repairs to overcome low member strength
Repair of structure
• The success of repair activity depends on the
identification of the root cause of the deterioration
of the concrete structures.
• If this cause is properly identified, satisfactory repairs
can be done for the improvement of strength and
durability, thus extending the life of the structure, is
not difficult to achieve.
General procedure for repair
• Support the structural members properly as
required.
• Remove all cracked, spalled and loose concrete.
• Clean the exposed concrete surfaces and steel
reinforcement.
• Provide additional reinforcing bars, if the loss in
reinforcement is more than 10%
• Apply shortcreting/polymer concrete for patch
repair work and grouting for
porous/honeycombed concrete.
• Apply protective coatings over the
exposed/repaired surface.
Guniting
• Guniting is mechanically applied material
consisting of cement, aggregates and water.
• The cement and sand are batched and mixed in
the usual way and conveyed through a hose pipe
with the help of compressed air.
• A separate pipe line brings water under pressure
and the water and cement aggregate mix are
passed through and intimately mixed in a special
manifold and then projected at high velocity to the
surface being repaired.
• In good quality work, a density around
2100kg/m3 is achieved. For effective guniting,
the nozzle should be kept at 60cm to 150cm from
the work normal to the surface.
• Before guniting is applied, the old concrete surface
is prepared properly, all the cracks treated and the
new reinforcement fixed in position.
• Cracks wider than about 0.5 mm should be cut out
and filled with hand-applied mortar or with gunite.
Techniques for various  structural repair
Techniques for various  structural repair
Shortcreting
• Mortar or concrete pneumatically projected at
high speed onto a surface”.
• Types of shorcrete:
i) Dry mix
ii) Wet mix
• Dry mix:
Dry cement, sand and coarse aggregate are premixed
with only sufficient water to reduce dusting.
• Wet mix:
The cement, sand and coarse aggregate are mixed
with water and the resulting concrete is then pumped
to the nozzle where compressed air propels the wet
mixture onto the surface.
Repair for cracks:
• Stitching
• Routing and sealing
• Resin injection
Techniques for various  structural repair
Stitching
• In this technique, the crack is bridged with U-shaped
metal units called stitching dogs before being repaired
with a rigid resin material.
• A non- shrink grout or an epoxy resin based adhesive
should be used to anchor the legs of the dogs.
• Stitching dogs should be of variable length and
orientation.
Techniques for various  structural repair
Routing and sealing
• It can be executed with relatively unskilled labor and
can be used to seal both fine pattern cracks and
larger isolated cracks.
• This involves enlarging the crack along its exposed
face and sealing it with crack fillers.
Techniques for various  structural repair
Resin injection
• Epoxies are rigid and not suitable for active cracks.
• This method is used to restore structural soundness
of members where cracks are dormant or can be
prevented from further movements.
Techniques for various  structural repair
Underpinning
• Underpinning is the process of strengthening
and stabilizing the foundation of an existing
building or other structure
• Foundation underpinning is a means of
transferring loads to deeper soils or bedrock.
Purpose of underpinning
• To obtain additional foundation capacity
• To modify the existing foundation system
• To create new foundations through which the
existing load may be wholly or partially transferred
into deeper soil
• To arrest the excessive settlement
• To improve the future performance of the existing
foundations
Methods used for underpinning
• Pit Underpinning
• Push Piers System
• Helical Pier System
• Pile Underpinning
• Other Methods
• Chemical Grouting
• Microfine Grouting
Micropiles
Pit underpinning
Techniques for various  structural repair
26
Helical pier system
Damaged Foundation Repaired Foundation
Fire Damage Repairs
• Timber structures may be repaired with new timbers or
composites of steel and timber members
• Steel structures are normally repaired with steel.
• Both concrete and masonry structural elements are
frequently repaired with fiber reinforced polymers (FRP).
• Concrete structures are occasionally repaired with
shortcrete.
Repair of leakage structure
This Presentation is Brought to you
by
An Civil Engineering Blog

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Traffic Engineering-MODULE-1 vtu syllabus.pptx
 

Techniques for various structural repair

  • 2. What We Are Going To Learn • Guniting • Shotcreting • Repair of cracks • Shoring and Underpinning • Repairs to overcome low member strength
  • 3. Repair of structure • The success of repair activity depends on the identification of the root cause of the deterioration of the concrete structures. • If this cause is properly identified, satisfactory repairs can be done for the improvement of strength and durability, thus extending the life of the structure, is not difficult to achieve.
  • 4. General procedure for repair • Support the structural members properly as required. • Remove all cracked, spalled and loose concrete. • Clean the exposed concrete surfaces and steel reinforcement.
  • 5. • Provide additional reinforcing bars, if the loss in reinforcement is more than 10% • Apply shortcreting/polymer concrete for patch repair work and grouting for porous/honeycombed concrete. • Apply protective coatings over the exposed/repaired surface.
  • 6. Guniting • Guniting is mechanically applied material consisting of cement, aggregates and water. • The cement and sand are batched and mixed in the usual way and conveyed through a hose pipe with the help of compressed air.
  • 7. • A separate pipe line brings water under pressure and the water and cement aggregate mix are passed through and intimately mixed in a special manifold and then projected at high velocity to the surface being repaired. • In good quality work, a density around 2100kg/m3 is achieved. For effective guniting, the nozzle should be kept at 60cm to 150cm from the work normal to the surface.
  • 8. • Before guniting is applied, the old concrete surface is prepared properly, all the cracks treated and the new reinforcement fixed in position. • Cracks wider than about 0.5 mm should be cut out and filled with hand-applied mortar or with gunite.
  • 11. Shortcreting • Mortar or concrete pneumatically projected at high speed onto a surface”. • Types of shorcrete: i) Dry mix ii) Wet mix
  • 12. • Dry mix: Dry cement, sand and coarse aggregate are premixed with only sufficient water to reduce dusting. • Wet mix: The cement, sand and coarse aggregate are mixed with water and the resulting concrete is then pumped to the nozzle where compressed air propels the wet mixture onto the surface.
  • 13. Repair for cracks: • Stitching • Routing and sealing • Resin injection
  • 15. Stitching • In this technique, the crack is bridged with U-shaped metal units called stitching dogs before being repaired with a rigid resin material. • A non- shrink grout or an epoxy resin based adhesive should be used to anchor the legs of the dogs. • Stitching dogs should be of variable length and orientation.
  • 17. Routing and sealing • It can be executed with relatively unskilled labor and can be used to seal both fine pattern cracks and larger isolated cracks. • This involves enlarging the crack along its exposed face and sealing it with crack fillers.
  • 19. Resin injection • Epoxies are rigid and not suitable for active cracks. • This method is used to restore structural soundness of members where cracks are dormant or can be prevented from further movements.
  • 21. Underpinning • Underpinning is the process of strengthening and stabilizing the foundation of an existing building or other structure • Foundation underpinning is a means of transferring loads to deeper soils or bedrock.
  • 22. Purpose of underpinning • To obtain additional foundation capacity • To modify the existing foundation system • To create new foundations through which the existing load may be wholly or partially transferred into deeper soil • To arrest the excessive settlement • To improve the future performance of the existing foundations
  • 23. Methods used for underpinning • Pit Underpinning • Push Piers System • Helical Pier System • Pile Underpinning • Other Methods • Chemical Grouting • Microfine Grouting Micropiles
  • 26. 26 Helical pier system Damaged Foundation Repaired Foundation
  • 27. Fire Damage Repairs • Timber structures may be repaired with new timbers or composites of steel and timber members • Steel structures are normally repaired with steel. • Both concrete and masonry structural elements are frequently repaired with fiber reinforced polymers (FRP). • Concrete structures are occasionally repaired with shortcrete.
  • 28. Repair of leakage structure
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