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CE3013 - ADVANCED CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES
Prepared By: Er. A A Kumar, M.E (STRUCT).,
(Ph.D).,
COURSE OBJECTIVE:
To study and understand the latest construction techniques applied to
engineering construction for sub structure, super structure, special
structures, rehabilitation and strengthening techniques and demolition
techniques.
Credit
SYLLABUS
2
 UNIT I SUB STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION 9
Construction Methodology - Box jacking - Pipe jacking - Under water
construction of diaphragm walls and basement - Tunneling techniques - Piling
techniques - Driving well and caisson - sinking cofferdam - cable anchoring and
grouting - Driving diaphragm walls, Sheet piles - Laying operations for built up
offshore system - Shoring for deep cutting - Large reservoir construction - well
points - Dewatering for underground open excavation.
 UNIT II SUPER STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION FOR BUILDINGS 9
Vacuum dewatering of concrete flooring – Concrete paving technology –
Techniques of construction for continuous concreting operation in tall buildings
of various shapes and varying sections – Erection techniques of tall structures,
Large span structures – launching techniques for heavy decks – in-situ
prestressing in high rise structures, Post tensioning of slab- aerial transporting –
Handling and erecting lightweight components on tall structures.
SYLLABUS (Condi..)
3
 UNIT III CONSTRUCTION OF SPECIAL STRUCTURES 9
Erection of lattice towers - Rigging of transmission line structures – Construction
sequence in cooling towers, Silos, chimney, sky scrapers - Bow string bridges,
Cable stayed bridges – Launching and pushing of box decks – Construction of
jetties and break water structures – Construction sequence and methods in
domes – Support structure for heavy equipment and machinery in heavy
industries – Erection of articulated structures and space decks.
 UNIT IV REHABILITATION AND STRENGTHENING TECHNIQUES 9
Seismic retrofitting - Strengthening of beams - Strengthening of columns -
Strengthening of slab - Strengthening of masonry wall, Protection methods of
structures, Mud jacking and grouting for foundation – Micro piling and
underpinning for strengthening floor and shallow profile - Sub grade water
proofing, Soil Stabilization techniques.
SYLLABUS (Condi..)
4
 UNIT V DEMOLITION 9
Demolition Techniques, Demolition by Machines, Demolition by Explosives,
Advanced techniques using Robotic Machines, Demolition Sequence, Dismantling
Techniques, Safety precaution in Demolition and Dismantling.
 COURSE OUTCOMES:
On completion of the course, the student is expected to be able to
CO1 Understand the modern construction techniques used in the sub structure
construction.
CO2 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the principles and concepts
relevant to super structure construction for buildings
CO3 Understand the concepts used in the construction of special structures
CO4 Knowledge on Various strengthening and repair methods for different
cases.
CO5 Identify the suitable demolition technique for demolishing a building.
References
5
1. Jerry Irvine, Advanced Construction Techniques, CA Rocket, 1984
2. Patrick Powers. J., Construction Dewatering: New Methods and Applications,
John Wiley & Sons, 1992.
3. Peter H.Emmons, “Concrete repair and maintenance illustrated”, Galgotia
Publications Pvt. Ltd., 2001.Press, 2008.
4. Robertwade Brown, Practical foundation engineering hand book, McGraw
Hill Publications, 1995.
5. Sankar, S.K. and Saraswati, S., Construction Technology, Oxford University,
New Delhi, 2008.
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
6
 INTRODUCTION
Substructure construction plays a vital role in the development of
various infrastructure projects, including bridges, buildings, and other
large-scale structures. It refers to the construction of the foundation
and supporting components that form the underlying structure and
provide stability and strength to the overall project. Substructure
construction involves meticulous planning, engineering expertise, and
the use of appropriate materials to ensure the durability and safety of
the entire structure.
1. BOX JACKING
7 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Box jacking, also known as jacking-in-a-box or sliding box method, is a
construction technique used for tunneling or creating underground
spaces without the need for extensive excavation. It involves the
construction of a precast concrete box or segment that is then pushed or
jacked into the ground using hydraulic jacks.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xZ30n72rW9Q https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UwvL8_-yNEg
Steps to be followed by box jacking
 Preparation
 Construction of box segments
 Excavation
 Jacking process
 Grouting and sealing
8
5 steps, Field view of box jacketing
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Steps to be followed by box jacking
(Condi..)
9
 Preparation: The site is prepared by removing any obstacles and
ensuring a stable ground for jacking.
 Construction of box segments: Precast concrete box segments are
manufactured off-site according to the required specifications. These
segments are typically rectangular in shape and can be reinforced with
steel.
 Excavation: A trench is excavated in the ground along the desired path
of the tunnel or underground space. The dimensions of the trench are
slightly larger than the box segments to allow for jacking.
 Jacking process: Hydraulic jacks are placed at the back of the first box
segment, and they push against a previously installed segment. The
force generated by the jacks gradually pushes the box forward,
incrementally installing new segments as the tunnel progresses.
 Grouting and sealing: Once a segment is pushed into position, it is
grouted and sealed to ensure stability and prevent water ingress.
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Problems - during box jacking
10
Ground conditions:
Unsuitable or unstable ground can make the jacking process difficult and
potentially cause ground settlement or collapse.
Utilities and obstructions:
The presence of existing utilities or obstructions underground can
hinder the jacking process and require careful planning and
coordination.
Alignment control:
Maintaining accurate alignment during jacking can be challenging,
especially in curved or complex tunnel routes.
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Types of box jacking and procedure
 Excavation
 Box segment installation
 Hydraulic jacking
 Grouting and sealing
 Repeat jacking and segment
installation
 Exit pit construction
11
Full-face box jacking Top-down box jacking
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
 Excavation
 Box segment installation
 Temporary support system
 Hydraulic jacking
 Grouting and sealing
 Repeat jacking and segment
installation
 Surface reinstatement
Box jacking
• Minimal disruption
• Faster construction
• Cost-effective
12
Advantages Disadvantages
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
• Limited to certain conditions
• Alignment challenges
• Size limitations
2. PIPE JACKING
13 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Pipe jacking is a construction technique used to install underground
pipes or conduits without the need for large-scale excavation. It involves
pushing or jacking precast concrete or steel pipes through the ground
along a predetermined path. Pipe jacking is commonly used for the
installation of utility pipelines, such as sewer, water, or drainage systems.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zjXYZAYUYi8
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pbPgoPQpbK8
Steps to be followed by pipe jacking
 Excavation of launch and
reception pits
 Placement of jacking rig
 Installation of pipe sections
 Soil excavation at the face
 Jacking process
 Continuous pipe installation
 Grouting and backfilling
14
7 steps, Installation of box jacketing
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Steps to be followed by pipe jacking
(Condi..)
15
 Excavation of launch and reception pits: Launch and reception pits
are excavated at the starting and ending points of the pipe jacking
operation, respectively. These pits provide access for the insertion and
extraction of the pipes.
 Placement of jacking rig: A jacking rig is set up within the launch pit.
It typically consists of hydraulic jacks, thrust blocks, and other
equipment needed for the jacking process.
 Installation of pipe sections: Pre-fabricated pipe sections are placed
within the launch pit and connected to form a continuous pipe string.
These pipe sections are designed to interlock or have sealing
mechanisms to maintain integrity during jacking.
 Soil excavation at the face: Excavation or removal of the soil at the
face of the tunnel is performed using manual or mechanical means.
This creates a void into which the pipes can be jacked.
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Steps to be followed by pipe jacking
(Condi..)
16
 Jacking process: The jacking rig exerts force on the rear end of the
pipe string, pushing it forward into the excavated void. The force is
transmitted through the pipes to progressively advance the tunnel.
 Continuous pipe installation: As the jacking progresses, new pipe
sections are added at the launch pit, and the process continues until
the entire pipe length is installed.
 Grouting and backfilling: Once the pipe jacking is complete, grouting
is performed to fill any gaps between the pipe and the surrounding
soil. The excavated void is then backfilled and compacted to provide
support and stability.
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Problems - during pipe jacking
17
Ground conditions:
Unstable or difficult ground conditions, such as rock or clay, can pose
challenges to the pipe jacking process, requiring additional support or
modifications.
Alignment control:
Maintaining accurate alignment of the pipe during jacking can be
challenging, especially in curved or complex projects. Monitoring and
adjustments are necessary to ensure proper alignment.
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Pipe jacking
• Minimal disruption
• Reduced environmental impact
• Faster installation
18
Advantages Disadvantages
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
• Limited to certain ground
conditions
• Diameter limitations
• Cost considerations
3. DIAPHRAGM WALL CONSTRUCTION
19 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Underwater construction of diaphragm walls and basements refers to the
process of building below-ground structures in areas that are
submerged or have a high water table. This technique is commonly used
in coastal areas, riverbanks, or areas with groundwater.
Diaphragm walls are reinforced concrete walls that act as retaining
structures to prevent water ingress and provide support for
underground excavations.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wUlQyiHfex0&t=98s
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=li6N6t09J-c
Construction Procedure
20 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Site
Logistic
and
Slurry
Plant
Setup
Pretren
ching
Guide
Wall
Constru
ction
Panel
Excavat
ion
(Vertical
Segmen
t)
Endstop
Placem
ent
Panel
Descen
ding
Reinforc
ing
Cage
Placem
ent
Tremie
Concrete
Diaphragm Wall Construction
Process
Application
21 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
 In areas with dense and historic urban infrastructure.
 Where very rigid earth retention system is required.
 They are used where noise and vibrations must be limited.
 Where dewatering is not possible.
 Where geology and ground water precludes use of conventional earth
retention system.
Compared to other wall types, Diaphragm walls are stiff with respect to
ground movement control. Diaphragm wall are often attractive in
granular soils with high ground water table, When low permeability
layer underlies granular soil. Diaphragm walls are terminated in
underlying low permeability layer which consist of soil/rock keying into
low permeability layer reduce ground water seepage below wall.
4. TUNNELING TECHNIQUES
22 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
 A tunnel construction is an underground passage provided beneath
earth surface or water.
 In most of the cases tunnel construction is expensive but it saves time
and provides comfort. Large excavation of soil or rock etc. is necessary
for a tunnel construction.
 Tunnels can be used for roadways, railways and even as waterways also.
 In many cities, underground metro rail networks work inside a tunnel.
Methods of Tunnel Construction
23
There are
various
types of
construction
techniques
developed
for
construction
of tunnels
which are
discussed.
 Cut and cover method
 Bored tunnel method
 Clay kicking method
 Shaft method
 Pipe jacking method
 Box jacking method
 Underwater tunnels
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Methods of Tunnel Construction (Condi…)
24
Cut and cover method
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Methods of Tunnel Construction (Condi…)
25
Bored tunnel method
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Methods of Tunnel Construction (Condi…)
26
Clay kicking method
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Methods of Tunnel Construction (Condi…)
27
Shaft method
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Methods of Tunnel Construction (Condi…)
28
Pipe jacking method
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Methods of Tunnel Construction (Condi…)
29
Box jacking method
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Methods of Tunnel Construction (Condi…)
30
Underwater tunnels
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
5. PILING TECHNIQUES
31 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Piling techniques, such as driving well and caisson, are commonly used
in construction to provide deep foundations and support structures in
areas with challenging soil conditions or where high load-bearing
capacity is required.
Driving well piling techniques
32 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
The driving well piling technique involves the installation of precast
concrete or steel piles into the ground by driving them using impact or
vibration methods. The purpose of driving well piling is to transfer the
load from the structure to a deeper, more stable layer of soil or rock. This
technique is typically used in cohesive soils, such as clay or silt.
Types
33 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
 Timber piles: Made of wood and are suitable for lightweight structures.
Types (Condi…)
34 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
 Concrete piles: Made of precast reinforced concrete and arecommonly
used in a variety of applications.
Types (Condi…)
35 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
 Steel piles: Made of steel and offer high load-bearing capacity, often
used for heavy structures or in corrosive environments.
Driving well pile
 Efficient and cost-effective
installation method.
 Ability to penetrate different
soil types.
 High load-bearing capacity.
 Suitable for a wide range of
soil conditions.
36
Advantages Disadvantages
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
 Noise and vibrations during
pile driving may cause
disturbances.
 Limited to certain soil
conditions and may not be
suitable for very
hard or rocky soils.
 Requires careful planning and
analysis of soil conditions to
ensure
proper pile design.
Caisson piling techniques
37 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Caisson piling involves the construction of large, watertight cylindrical
structures called caissons that are installed in the ground to provide
foundation support. The purpose of caisson piling is to create a stable,
dry working area for constructing structures below the water table or in
soft or unstable soils.
Types
38 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
 Open caissons: Constructed by excavating the soil or dredging the water
inside the caisson as it sinks into the ground. They are then filled with
concrete or other suitable material.
Types (Condi…)
39 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
 Box Caissons: Constructed on land and floated to the desired location
before being sunk into place. They are then filled with concrete or other
suitable material.
Types (Condi…)
40 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
 Pneumatic Caissons: Similar to box caissons, but they have an airtight
chamber at the bottom. Compressed air is used to keep the water and
soil out during construction.
Purpose of driving well and caissons
41 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
The purpose of driving well and caissons is to provide deep foundation
support and create stable structures in areas with challenging soil
conditions or where high load-bearing capacity is required. These
techniques serve the following purposes:
Load Transfer
Stability
Water Table Control
Soil Improvement
Versatility
Driving caisson pile
 Ability to construct
foundations in waterlogged or
soft soil conditions.
 Offers a stable working area
below the water table.
 Provides high load-bearing
capacity.
 Can be used for both shallow
and deep foundations.
42
Advantages Disadvantages
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
 Complex and time-consuming
construction process.
 Requires specialized
equipment and skilled
personnel.
 Costlier compared to other
piling techniques.
 Potential challenges in
working in underwater or
submerged conditions.
6. SINKING COFFER DAM
43 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
A sinking cofferdam is a temporary structure used in construction to
create a dry working area below the water level. It involves the
controlled sinking of a watertight enclosure to exclude water and
facilitate construction activities in submerged or waterlogged
conditions.
Sinking cofferdams are commonly used in bridge construction, dam
construction, harbor works, and other projects that involve working in
or around water bodies.
SINKING COFFER DAM
44 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Purpose of a driving sinking cofferdam
45 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
The purpose of driving well and caissons is to provide deep foundation
support and create stable structures in areas with challenging soil
conditions or where high load-bearing capacity is required. These
techniques serve the following purposes:
Water Exclusion
Foundation
Construction
Excavation Support
Groundwater Control
Construction process
46 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Design and
Planning
Sheet Pile
Installation
Excavation and
Dewatering
Stabilization and
Bracing
Construction
Activities
Completion and
Demobilization
1
2
3
4
5
6
Sinking Coffer Dam
 Safe and Controlled Environment
 Efficient Construction
 Flexibility
 Versatility
 Cost-Effective
 Environmental Protection
47
Advantages
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
7. CABLE ANCHORING AND GROUTING
48
Cable anchoring and grouting are techniques used in construction to
enhance the stability and load-bearing capacity of structures by providing
additional support and reinforcement.
Cable Anchoring
Cable anchoring involves the installation of high-strength steel cables or
tendons into the ground or existing structures to provide additional
structural support. The cables are typically anchored to rock or other stable
formations to resist tensile forces or prevent movement. Cable anchoring is
commonly used in applications such as retaining walls, slope stabilization,
and deep foundation systems.
Process of cable anchoring
49 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Drilling
Cable
Placement
Grouting
Anchor
Placement
GROUTING
50
Grouting is a process used to fill voids, improve soil or rock strength, and
enhance the stability of structures. It involves injecting a fluid material,
known as grout, into the ground or existing structures to consolidate the soil
or rock mass and provide additional support. Grouting can be used for
various purposes, including soil improvement, water sealing, and structural
strengthening.
Grouting process
51 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Drilling
• Holes or boreholes are drilled into the ground or
existing structures where grout will be injected.
Grout
Injection
• Grout, which can be a cementitious or chemical-based
material, is injected into the holes under pressure.
Pressure
Monitoring
• During grout injection, pressure is monitored to
ensure proper filling and distribution of the grout.
Curing
• After injection, the grout is allowed to cure and
harden, providing increased stability and strength.
Benefits of cable anchoring and grouting
52 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
BENEFITS
1. Increased Stability
2. Load Transfer
3. Versatility
4. Cost-Effectiveness
8. DRIVING DIAPHRAGM WALLS
53
Driving diaphragm walls, also known as slurry walls, is a construction
technique used to create deep, watertight walls in soil or rock. It involves
excavating a trench, typically using a special hydraulic grab or clamshell
bucket, while maintaining the stability of the trench using a stabilizing
slurry. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tljy0YSDx2U
Process of driving diaphragm walls
54 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Driving Diaphragm Walls
 Basement Construction
 Deep Excavations
 Retaining Walls
 Dams and Levees
55
Applications Benefits
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
 Water tightness
 Structural Stability
 Versatility
 Efficiency
 Minimal Environmental Impact
9. DRIVING SHEET PILES
56
Driving sheet piles is a construction technique used to create retaining walls,
cofferdams, and other structures that provide lateral support and prevent
soil or water movement.
Sheet piles are long, interlocking steel or concrete elements that are driven
into the ground using impact hammers or vibratory hammers.
Process of driving sheet piles
57 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Driving Sheet Piles
 Retaining Walls
 Cofferdams
 Flood Protection
 Deep Excavations
 Erosion Control
58
Applications Benefits
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
 Efficient Installation
 Versatility
 Water tightness
 Space Saving
 Cost-Effective
10. OFFSHORE STRUCTURE
59
Offshore construction refers to the process of constructing various
structures and installations in bodies of water, typically in the ocean or sea.
These structures can serve a wide range of purposes, including oil and gas
exploration and production, renewable energy generation,
telecommunications, research, and environmental monitoring.
Laying operations for built up offshore system
60 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Preparing the
Site
Installation of
Piles
Installation of
Topsides
Installation of
Substructures
Installation of
Pipelines and
Cables
Hook-up and
Commissioning
Finalizing and
Handover
Purpose and Applications
61 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Oil and Gas Production
Renewable Energy Generation
Offshore Wind Farms
Subsea Pipelines
Telecommunication and Data
Transmission
Research and Exploration
Environmental Monitoring
11. SHORING FOR DEEP CUTTING
62
Shoring for deep cutting refers to the construction technique used to
provide temporary support and stability to excavations or deep cuts in the
ground. Deep cuts are often required for various construction projects, such
as building foundations, underground structures, tunnels, or utility
installations. Shoring systems are employed to prevent soil movement,
ensure worker safety, and facilitate the construction process.
Purpose of Shoring for Deep Cutting
63
Applications of Shoring for Deep Cutting
64
Basement
Construction
Tunnels and
Shafts
Pipeline and
Utility
Installations
Deep
Foundations
Soil
Retention
and Slope
Stabilization
Types
65 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
1. Soldier Pile and Lagging: Involves installing vertical steel piles
(soldier piles) along the excavation perimeter and placing horizontal
timber or steel lagging between the piles to support the soil.
Types (Condi…..)
66 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
2. Secant Pile Wall: Secant pile walls consist of interlocking reinforced
concrete piles that create a continuous wall. This method is suitable for
excavations in urban areas or when groundwater control is required.
Types (Condi…..)
67 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
3. Diaphragm Wall: Diaphragm walls are constructed by excavating
trenches and installing vertical concrete panels. The panels are then
reinforced and filled with concrete to form a structural wall.
Types (Condi…..)
68 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
4. Soil Nailing: Soil nailing involves the installation of steel reinforcing bars
(nails) into the soil at an angle. The nails provide reinforcement to the soil,
improving its stability and preventing collapse.
Shoring for Deep Cutting
 Ensures worker safety by preventing soil collapse and slope failures.
 Provides stability to the excavation walls, protecting adjacent structures.
 Facilitates efficient construction activities in deep excavations.
 Allows for the installation of foundations, utilities, and underground
structures.
 Can be customized to suit various soil conditions and project
requirements.
69
Advantages
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
12. LARGE RESERVOIR CONSTRUCTION
70
Large reservoir construction involves the creation of man-made water
storage facilities that store large volumes of water for various purposes,
such as water supply, irrigation, hydropower generation, flood control, and
recreational activities.
Points to Consider for Large Reservoir
Construction
71 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Feasibility Studies
Before embarking on large
reservoir construction,
extensive feasibility
studies are conducted.
Site Selection
Selecting the appropriate
site for the reservoir is
crucial.
Dam Design
It should consider factors such as
the height and length of the dam,
the type of dam (e.g., gravity
dam, arch dam, embankment
dam), and the materials to be
used (e.g., concrete, rock fill).
The dam design should be
structurally sound, taking into
account the anticipated loadings,
water pressures, seismic activity,
and long-term stability.
Points to Consider for Large Reservoir
Construction (Condi…)
72 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Environmental Considerations
Large reservoir
construction can have
significant
environmental impacts.
The potential effects on
ecosystems, habitats,
wildlife, and aquatic
resources must be
carefully evaluated.
Hydrological Analysis
Accurate hydrological
analysis is essential to
estimate the inflow and
outflow of water in the
reservoir.
Construction Techniques
Large reservoir construction
requires the use of
specialized construction
techniques. Excavation,
earthmoving, concrete
placement, and dam
compaction methods are
employed to build the dam
structure.
Points to Consider for Large Reservoir
Construction (Condi…)
73 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Safety and Risk Management
Safety considerations
are paramount in large
reservoir construction.
Risks related to dam
failure, flood events,
and seismic activity
must be thoroughly
assessed and managed.
Stakeholder Engagement
Large reservoir
construction projects
involve multiple
stakeholders, including
government agencies,
local communities,
indigenous groups, and
environmental
organizations.
Operation and Maintenance
Once the reservoir is
constructed, ongoing
operation and maintenance
are necessary to ensure its
functionality and longevity.
Purpose of Large Reservoir Construction
74 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Drought
Mitigati
on
Enviro
nment
al
Benefit
s
Water
Managem
ent and
Conservat
ion
Recrea
tion
and
Touris
m
Navigati
on and
Transpo
rtation
Flood
Control
Hydrop
ower
Genera
tion
Irrigati
on
Water
Supply
13. WELL POINTS
75
Well points are shallow wells that are used for dewatering purposes. They
are temporary systems designed to lower the groundwater level in
construction sites, excavations, or areas prone to flooding. Well points are
commonly used in construction, civil engineering, and geotechnical projects
to provide temporary drainage and create a dry working environment. They
are effective in removing excess water from the ground, allowing
construction activities to proceed efficiently.
Types
76 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
1. Jetted Well Points: Jetted well points are created by forcing water or
air under pressure through a nozzle at the bottom of a pipe. The high-
pressure water or air jets create a vacuum, drawing water and fine
sediments into the pipe and forming a well point. Jetted well points are
typically used in sandy or coarse soils.
Types (Condi…..)
77 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
2. Preformed Well Points: Preformed well points are manufactured units
consisting of a slotted or perforated screen attached to a riser pipe. They
are installed by driving or jetting them into the ground. Preformed well
points are commonly used in cohesive soils where jetting is not effective.
Types (Condi…..)
78 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
3.Combination Well Points: Combination well points combine the features
of both jetted and preformed well points. They consist of a screen with a
jetting nozzle attached to the bottom. Combination well points are versatile
and can be used in a variety of soil conditions.
Applications of Well Points
79 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Construction
Dewatering
Trench and
Excavation
Dewatering
Basement and
Underground
Construction
Coastal and Marine
Engineering
Soil Stabilization Remediation and
Environmental
Cleanup
Well Points
 dewatering shallow depths
and reducing groundwater
levels
 easy to install and can be
deployed quickly
 installed in various soil
conditions
 provide localized dewatering,
allowing for targeted water
removal.
 cost-effective compared to
other dewatering methods.
80
Advantages Limitations
Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
 Well points are typically
effective in shallow depths and
may not be suitable for deep
excavations or areas with
significant groundwater inflow.
 In highly permeable soils, the
dewatering capacity of well
points may be limited.
 Well points require continuous
operation and maintenance to
ensure optimal performance.
 They may be affected by
clogging due to sediment
accumulation, requiring periodic
cleaning or replacement.
13. DEWATERING FOR UNDERGROUND
OPEN EXCAVATION
81
Dewatering for underground open excavations refers to the process of
removing groundwater from below ground level to create a dry and safe
working environment. It is commonly employed in construction, mining, and
civil engineering projects where excavations are made below the water
table. Dewatering helps control groundwater seepage, stabilize the
excavation, and facilitate construction activities.
Methods
82 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Well point
method
Eductor
wells
Open sump
pumping
Deep well-
point method
Benefits
83 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
Enhance
d Safety
Improved
Producti
vity
Better
Ground
Conditio
ns
Cost
Savings
Environ
mental
Protectio
n
Increase
d
Construc
tion
Flexibilit
y
Summary…
84 Unit 1 – Sub Structure
Construction
The study encompasses a comprehensive exploration of various construction
methodologies, including box jacking and pipe jacking for underground installations,
underwater construction of diaphragm walls and basements, tunneling techniques,
piling methods for deep foundations, driving of wells and caissons, sinking cofferdams,
cable anchoring and grouting for structural stability, driving of diaphragm walls and
sheet piles for retaining walls, laying operations for offshore systems, shoring
techniques for deep excavations, large reservoir construction, implementation of well
points for dewatering, and effective methods for managing groundwater in
underground open excavations. This study serves as a valuable resource for
construction professionals, providing insights into innovative techniques that can
enhance project efficiency, overcome challenging site conditions, ensure structural
integrity, and contribute to the successful completion of diverse construction projects.

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Sub Structure Construction.pptx

  • 1. CE3013 - ADVANCED CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES Prepared By: Er. A A Kumar, M.E (STRUCT)., (Ph.D)., COURSE OBJECTIVE: To study and understand the latest construction techniques applied to engineering construction for sub structure, super structure, special structures, rehabilitation and strengthening techniques and demolition techniques. Credit
  • 2. SYLLABUS 2  UNIT I SUB STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION 9 Construction Methodology - Box jacking - Pipe jacking - Under water construction of diaphragm walls and basement - Tunneling techniques - Piling techniques - Driving well and caisson - sinking cofferdam - cable anchoring and grouting - Driving diaphragm walls, Sheet piles - Laying operations for built up offshore system - Shoring for deep cutting - Large reservoir construction - well points - Dewatering for underground open excavation.  UNIT II SUPER STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION FOR BUILDINGS 9 Vacuum dewatering of concrete flooring – Concrete paving technology – Techniques of construction for continuous concreting operation in tall buildings of various shapes and varying sections – Erection techniques of tall structures, Large span structures – launching techniques for heavy decks – in-situ prestressing in high rise structures, Post tensioning of slab- aerial transporting – Handling and erecting lightweight components on tall structures.
  • 3. SYLLABUS (Condi..) 3  UNIT III CONSTRUCTION OF SPECIAL STRUCTURES 9 Erection of lattice towers - Rigging of transmission line structures – Construction sequence in cooling towers, Silos, chimney, sky scrapers - Bow string bridges, Cable stayed bridges – Launching and pushing of box decks – Construction of jetties and break water structures – Construction sequence and methods in domes – Support structure for heavy equipment and machinery in heavy industries – Erection of articulated structures and space decks.  UNIT IV REHABILITATION AND STRENGTHENING TECHNIQUES 9 Seismic retrofitting - Strengthening of beams - Strengthening of columns - Strengthening of slab - Strengthening of masonry wall, Protection methods of structures, Mud jacking and grouting for foundation – Micro piling and underpinning for strengthening floor and shallow profile - Sub grade water proofing, Soil Stabilization techniques.
  • 4. SYLLABUS (Condi..) 4  UNIT V DEMOLITION 9 Demolition Techniques, Demolition by Machines, Demolition by Explosives, Advanced techniques using Robotic Machines, Demolition Sequence, Dismantling Techniques, Safety precaution in Demolition and Dismantling.  COURSE OUTCOMES: On completion of the course, the student is expected to be able to CO1 Understand the modern construction techniques used in the sub structure construction. CO2 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the principles and concepts relevant to super structure construction for buildings CO3 Understand the concepts used in the construction of special structures CO4 Knowledge on Various strengthening and repair methods for different cases. CO5 Identify the suitable demolition technique for demolishing a building.
  • 5. References 5 1. Jerry Irvine, Advanced Construction Techniques, CA Rocket, 1984 2. Patrick Powers. J., Construction Dewatering: New Methods and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, 1992. 3. Peter H.Emmons, “Concrete repair and maintenance illustrated”, Galgotia Publications Pvt. Ltd., 2001.Press, 2008. 4. Robertwade Brown, Practical foundation engineering hand book, McGraw Hill Publications, 1995. 5. Sankar, S.K. and Saraswati, S., Construction Technology, Oxford University, New Delhi, 2008.
  • 6. Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction 6  INTRODUCTION Substructure construction plays a vital role in the development of various infrastructure projects, including bridges, buildings, and other large-scale structures. It refers to the construction of the foundation and supporting components that form the underlying structure and provide stability and strength to the overall project. Substructure construction involves meticulous planning, engineering expertise, and the use of appropriate materials to ensure the durability and safety of the entire structure.
  • 7. 1. BOX JACKING 7 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Box jacking, also known as jacking-in-a-box or sliding box method, is a construction technique used for tunneling or creating underground spaces without the need for extensive excavation. It involves the construction of a precast concrete box or segment that is then pushed or jacked into the ground using hydraulic jacks. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xZ30n72rW9Q https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UwvL8_-yNEg
  • 8. Steps to be followed by box jacking  Preparation  Construction of box segments  Excavation  Jacking process  Grouting and sealing 8 5 steps, Field view of box jacketing Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 9. Steps to be followed by box jacking (Condi..) 9  Preparation: The site is prepared by removing any obstacles and ensuring a stable ground for jacking.  Construction of box segments: Precast concrete box segments are manufactured off-site according to the required specifications. These segments are typically rectangular in shape and can be reinforced with steel.  Excavation: A trench is excavated in the ground along the desired path of the tunnel or underground space. The dimensions of the trench are slightly larger than the box segments to allow for jacking.  Jacking process: Hydraulic jacks are placed at the back of the first box segment, and they push against a previously installed segment. The force generated by the jacks gradually pushes the box forward, incrementally installing new segments as the tunnel progresses.  Grouting and sealing: Once a segment is pushed into position, it is grouted and sealed to ensure stability and prevent water ingress. Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 10. Problems - during box jacking 10 Ground conditions: Unsuitable or unstable ground can make the jacking process difficult and potentially cause ground settlement or collapse. Utilities and obstructions: The presence of existing utilities or obstructions underground can hinder the jacking process and require careful planning and coordination. Alignment control: Maintaining accurate alignment during jacking can be challenging, especially in curved or complex tunnel routes. Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 11. Types of box jacking and procedure  Excavation  Box segment installation  Hydraulic jacking  Grouting and sealing  Repeat jacking and segment installation  Exit pit construction 11 Full-face box jacking Top-down box jacking Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction  Excavation  Box segment installation  Temporary support system  Hydraulic jacking  Grouting and sealing  Repeat jacking and segment installation  Surface reinstatement
  • 12. Box jacking • Minimal disruption • Faster construction • Cost-effective 12 Advantages Disadvantages Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction • Limited to certain conditions • Alignment challenges • Size limitations
  • 13. 2. PIPE JACKING 13 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Pipe jacking is a construction technique used to install underground pipes or conduits without the need for large-scale excavation. It involves pushing or jacking precast concrete or steel pipes through the ground along a predetermined path. Pipe jacking is commonly used for the installation of utility pipelines, such as sewer, water, or drainage systems. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zjXYZAYUYi8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pbPgoPQpbK8
  • 14. Steps to be followed by pipe jacking  Excavation of launch and reception pits  Placement of jacking rig  Installation of pipe sections  Soil excavation at the face  Jacking process  Continuous pipe installation  Grouting and backfilling 14 7 steps, Installation of box jacketing Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 15. Steps to be followed by pipe jacking (Condi..) 15  Excavation of launch and reception pits: Launch and reception pits are excavated at the starting and ending points of the pipe jacking operation, respectively. These pits provide access for the insertion and extraction of the pipes.  Placement of jacking rig: A jacking rig is set up within the launch pit. It typically consists of hydraulic jacks, thrust blocks, and other equipment needed for the jacking process.  Installation of pipe sections: Pre-fabricated pipe sections are placed within the launch pit and connected to form a continuous pipe string. These pipe sections are designed to interlock or have sealing mechanisms to maintain integrity during jacking.  Soil excavation at the face: Excavation or removal of the soil at the face of the tunnel is performed using manual or mechanical means. This creates a void into which the pipes can be jacked. Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 16. Steps to be followed by pipe jacking (Condi..) 16  Jacking process: The jacking rig exerts force on the rear end of the pipe string, pushing it forward into the excavated void. The force is transmitted through the pipes to progressively advance the tunnel.  Continuous pipe installation: As the jacking progresses, new pipe sections are added at the launch pit, and the process continues until the entire pipe length is installed.  Grouting and backfilling: Once the pipe jacking is complete, grouting is performed to fill any gaps between the pipe and the surrounding soil. The excavated void is then backfilled and compacted to provide support and stability. Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 17. Problems - during pipe jacking 17 Ground conditions: Unstable or difficult ground conditions, such as rock or clay, can pose challenges to the pipe jacking process, requiring additional support or modifications. Alignment control: Maintaining accurate alignment of the pipe during jacking can be challenging, especially in curved or complex projects. Monitoring and adjustments are necessary to ensure proper alignment. Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 18. Pipe jacking • Minimal disruption • Reduced environmental impact • Faster installation 18 Advantages Disadvantages Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction • Limited to certain ground conditions • Diameter limitations • Cost considerations
  • 19. 3. DIAPHRAGM WALL CONSTRUCTION 19 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Underwater construction of diaphragm walls and basements refers to the process of building below-ground structures in areas that are submerged or have a high water table. This technique is commonly used in coastal areas, riverbanks, or areas with groundwater. Diaphragm walls are reinforced concrete walls that act as retaining structures to prevent water ingress and provide support for underground excavations. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wUlQyiHfex0&t=98s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=li6N6t09J-c
  • 20. Construction Procedure 20 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Site Logistic and Slurry Plant Setup Pretren ching Guide Wall Constru ction Panel Excavat ion (Vertical Segmen t) Endstop Placem ent Panel Descen ding Reinforc ing Cage Placem ent Tremie Concrete Diaphragm Wall Construction Process
  • 21. Application 21 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction  In areas with dense and historic urban infrastructure.  Where very rigid earth retention system is required.  They are used where noise and vibrations must be limited.  Where dewatering is not possible.  Where geology and ground water precludes use of conventional earth retention system. Compared to other wall types, Diaphragm walls are stiff with respect to ground movement control. Diaphragm wall are often attractive in granular soils with high ground water table, When low permeability layer underlies granular soil. Diaphragm walls are terminated in underlying low permeability layer which consist of soil/rock keying into low permeability layer reduce ground water seepage below wall.
  • 22. 4. TUNNELING TECHNIQUES 22 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction  A tunnel construction is an underground passage provided beneath earth surface or water.  In most of the cases tunnel construction is expensive but it saves time and provides comfort. Large excavation of soil or rock etc. is necessary for a tunnel construction.  Tunnels can be used for roadways, railways and even as waterways also.  In many cities, underground metro rail networks work inside a tunnel.
  • 23. Methods of Tunnel Construction 23 There are various types of construction techniques developed for construction of tunnels which are discussed.  Cut and cover method  Bored tunnel method  Clay kicking method  Shaft method  Pipe jacking method  Box jacking method  Underwater tunnels Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 24. Methods of Tunnel Construction (Condi…) 24 Cut and cover method Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 25. Methods of Tunnel Construction (Condi…) 25 Bored tunnel method Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 26. Methods of Tunnel Construction (Condi…) 26 Clay kicking method Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 27. Methods of Tunnel Construction (Condi…) 27 Shaft method Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 28. Methods of Tunnel Construction (Condi…) 28 Pipe jacking method Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 29. Methods of Tunnel Construction (Condi…) 29 Box jacking method Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 30. Methods of Tunnel Construction (Condi…) 30 Underwater tunnels Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 31. 5. PILING TECHNIQUES 31 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Piling techniques, such as driving well and caisson, are commonly used in construction to provide deep foundations and support structures in areas with challenging soil conditions or where high load-bearing capacity is required.
  • 32. Driving well piling techniques 32 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction The driving well piling technique involves the installation of precast concrete or steel piles into the ground by driving them using impact or vibration methods. The purpose of driving well piling is to transfer the load from the structure to a deeper, more stable layer of soil or rock. This technique is typically used in cohesive soils, such as clay or silt.
  • 33. Types 33 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction  Timber piles: Made of wood and are suitable for lightweight structures.
  • 34. Types (Condi…) 34 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction  Concrete piles: Made of precast reinforced concrete and arecommonly used in a variety of applications.
  • 35. Types (Condi…) 35 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction  Steel piles: Made of steel and offer high load-bearing capacity, often used for heavy structures or in corrosive environments.
  • 36. Driving well pile  Efficient and cost-effective installation method.  Ability to penetrate different soil types.  High load-bearing capacity.  Suitable for a wide range of soil conditions. 36 Advantages Disadvantages Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction  Noise and vibrations during pile driving may cause disturbances.  Limited to certain soil conditions and may not be suitable for very hard or rocky soils.  Requires careful planning and analysis of soil conditions to ensure proper pile design.
  • 37. Caisson piling techniques 37 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Caisson piling involves the construction of large, watertight cylindrical structures called caissons that are installed in the ground to provide foundation support. The purpose of caisson piling is to create a stable, dry working area for constructing structures below the water table or in soft or unstable soils.
  • 38. Types 38 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction  Open caissons: Constructed by excavating the soil or dredging the water inside the caisson as it sinks into the ground. They are then filled with concrete or other suitable material.
  • 39. Types (Condi…) 39 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction  Box Caissons: Constructed on land and floated to the desired location before being sunk into place. They are then filled with concrete or other suitable material.
  • 40. Types (Condi…) 40 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction  Pneumatic Caissons: Similar to box caissons, but they have an airtight chamber at the bottom. Compressed air is used to keep the water and soil out during construction.
  • 41. Purpose of driving well and caissons 41 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction The purpose of driving well and caissons is to provide deep foundation support and create stable structures in areas with challenging soil conditions or where high load-bearing capacity is required. These techniques serve the following purposes: Load Transfer Stability Water Table Control Soil Improvement Versatility
  • 42. Driving caisson pile  Ability to construct foundations in waterlogged or soft soil conditions.  Offers a stable working area below the water table.  Provides high load-bearing capacity.  Can be used for both shallow and deep foundations. 42 Advantages Disadvantages Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction  Complex and time-consuming construction process.  Requires specialized equipment and skilled personnel.  Costlier compared to other piling techniques.  Potential challenges in working in underwater or submerged conditions.
  • 43. 6. SINKING COFFER DAM 43 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction A sinking cofferdam is a temporary structure used in construction to create a dry working area below the water level. It involves the controlled sinking of a watertight enclosure to exclude water and facilitate construction activities in submerged or waterlogged conditions. Sinking cofferdams are commonly used in bridge construction, dam construction, harbor works, and other projects that involve working in or around water bodies.
  • 44. SINKING COFFER DAM 44 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 45. Purpose of a driving sinking cofferdam 45 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction The purpose of driving well and caissons is to provide deep foundation support and create stable structures in areas with challenging soil conditions or where high load-bearing capacity is required. These techniques serve the following purposes: Water Exclusion Foundation Construction Excavation Support Groundwater Control
  • 46. Construction process 46 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Design and Planning Sheet Pile Installation Excavation and Dewatering Stabilization and Bracing Construction Activities Completion and Demobilization 1 2 3 4 5 6
  • 47. Sinking Coffer Dam  Safe and Controlled Environment  Efficient Construction  Flexibility  Versatility  Cost-Effective  Environmental Protection 47 Advantages Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 48. 7. CABLE ANCHORING AND GROUTING 48 Cable anchoring and grouting are techniques used in construction to enhance the stability and load-bearing capacity of structures by providing additional support and reinforcement. Cable Anchoring Cable anchoring involves the installation of high-strength steel cables or tendons into the ground or existing structures to provide additional structural support. The cables are typically anchored to rock or other stable formations to resist tensile forces or prevent movement. Cable anchoring is commonly used in applications such as retaining walls, slope stabilization, and deep foundation systems.
  • 49. Process of cable anchoring 49 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Drilling Cable Placement Grouting Anchor Placement
  • 50. GROUTING 50 Grouting is a process used to fill voids, improve soil or rock strength, and enhance the stability of structures. It involves injecting a fluid material, known as grout, into the ground or existing structures to consolidate the soil or rock mass and provide additional support. Grouting can be used for various purposes, including soil improvement, water sealing, and structural strengthening.
  • 51. Grouting process 51 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Drilling • Holes or boreholes are drilled into the ground or existing structures where grout will be injected. Grout Injection • Grout, which can be a cementitious or chemical-based material, is injected into the holes under pressure. Pressure Monitoring • During grout injection, pressure is monitored to ensure proper filling and distribution of the grout. Curing • After injection, the grout is allowed to cure and harden, providing increased stability and strength.
  • 52. Benefits of cable anchoring and grouting 52 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction BENEFITS 1. Increased Stability 2. Load Transfer 3. Versatility 4. Cost-Effectiveness
  • 53. 8. DRIVING DIAPHRAGM WALLS 53 Driving diaphragm walls, also known as slurry walls, is a construction technique used to create deep, watertight walls in soil or rock. It involves excavating a trench, typically using a special hydraulic grab or clamshell bucket, while maintaining the stability of the trench using a stabilizing slurry. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tljy0YSDx2U
  • 54. Process of driving diaphragm walls 54 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 55. Driving Diaphragm Walls  Basement Construction  Deep Excavations  Retaining Walls  Dams and Levees 55 Applications Benefits Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction  Water tightness  Structural Stability  Versatility  Efficiency  Minimal Environmental Impact
  • 56. 9. DRIVING SHEET PILES 56 Driving sheet piles is a construction technique used to create retaining walls, cofferdams, and other structures that provide lateral support and prevent soil or water movement. Sheet piles are long, interlocking steel or concrete elements that are driven into the ground using impact hammers or vibratory hammers.
  • 57. Process of driving sheet piles 57 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 58. Driving Sheet Piles  Retaining Walls  Cofferdams  Flood Protection  Deep Excavations  Erosion Control 58 Applications Benefits Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction  Efficient Installation  Versatility  Water tightness  Space Saving  Cost-Effective
  • 59. 10. OFFSHORE STRUCTURE 59 Offshore construction refers to the process of constructing various structures and installations in bodies of water, typically in the ocean or sea. These structures can serve a wide range of purposes, including oil and gas exploration and production, renewable energy generation, telecommunications, research, and environmental monitoring.
  • 60. Laying operations for built up offshore system 60 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Preparing the Site Installation of Piles Installation of Topsides Installation of Substructures Installation of Pipelines and Cables Hook-up and Commissioning Finalizing and Handover
  • 61. Purpose and Applications 61 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Oil and Gas Production Renewable Energy Generation Offshore Wind Farms Subsea Pipelines Telecommunication and Data Transmission Research and Exploration Environmental Monitoring
  • 62. 11. SHORING FOR DEEP CUTTING 62 Shoring for deep cutting refers to the construction technique used to provide temporary support and stability to excavations or deep cuts in the ground. Deep cuts are often required for various construction projects, such as building foundations, underground structures, tunnels, or utility installations. Shoring systems are employed to prevent soil movement, ensure worker safety, and facilitate the construction process.
  • 63. Purpose of Shoring for Deep Cutting 63
  • 64. Applications of Shoring for Deep Cutting 64 Basement Construction Tunnels and Shafts Pipeline and Utility Installations Deep Foundations Soil Retention and Slope Stabilization
  • 65. Types 65 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction 1. Soldier Pile and Lagging: Involves installing vertical steel piles (soldier piles) along the excavation perimeter and placing horizontal timber or steel lagging between the piles to support the soil.
  • 66. Types (Condi…..) 66 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction 2. Secant Pile Wall: Secant pile walls consist of interlocking reinforced concrete piles that create a continuous wall. This method is suitable for excavations in urban areas or when groundwater control is required.
  • 67. Types (Condi…..) 67 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction 3. Diaphragm Wall: Diaphragm walls are constructed by excavating trenches and installing vertical concrete panels. The panels are then reinforced and filled with concrete to form a structural wall.
  • 68. Types (Condi…..) 68 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction 4. Soil Nailing: Soil nailing involves the installation of steel reinforcing bars (nails) into the soil at an angle. The nails provide reinforcement to the soil, improving its stability and preventing collapse.
  • 69. Shoring for Deep Cutting  Ensures worker safety by preventing soil collapse and slope failures.  Provides stability to the excavation walls, protecting adjacent structures.  Facilitates efficient construction activities in deep excavations.  Allows for the installation of foundations, utilities, and underground structures.  Can be customized to suit various soil conditions and project requirements. 69 Advantages Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction
  • 70. 12. LARGE RESERVOIR CONSTRUCTION 70 Large reservoir construction involves the creation of man-made water storage facilities that store large volumes of water for various purposes, such as water supply, irrigation, hydropower generation, flood control, and recreational activities.
  • 71. Points to Consider for Large Reservoir Construction 71 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Feasibility Studies Before embarking on large reservoir construction, extensive feasibility studies are conducted. Site Selection Selecting the appropriate site for the reservoir is crucial. Dam Design It should consider factors such as the height and length of the dam, the type of dam (e.g., gravity dam, arch dam, embankment dam), and the materials to be used (e.g., concrete, rock fill). The dam design should be structurally sound, taking into account the anticipated loadings, water pressures, seismic activity, and long-term stability.
  • 72. Points to Consider for Large Reservoir Construction (Condi…) 72 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Environmental Considerations Large reservoir construction can have significant environmental impacts. The potential effects on ecosystems, habitats, wildlife, and aquatic resources must be carefully evaluated. Hydrological Analysis Accurate hydrological analysis is essential to estimate the inflow and outflow of water in the reservoir. Construction Techniques Large reservoir construction requires the use of specialized construction techniques. Excavation, earthmoving, concrete placement, and dam compaction methods are employed to build the dam structure.
  • 73. Points to Consider for Large Reservoir Construction (Condi…) 73 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Safety and Risk Management Safety considerations are paramount in large reservoir construction. Risks related to dam failure, flood events, and seismic activity must be thoroughly assessed and managed. Stakeholder Engagement Large reservoir construction projects involve multiple stakeholders, including government agencies, local communities, indigenous groups, and environmental organizations. Operation and Maintenance Once the reservoir is constructed, ongoing operation and maintenance are necessary to ensure its functionality and longevity.
  • 74. Purpose of Large Reservoir Construction 74 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Drought Mitigati on Enviro nment al Benefit s Water Managem ent and Conservat ion Recrea tion and Touris m Navigati on and Transpo rtation Flood Control Hydrop ower Genera tion Irrigati on Water Supply
  • 75. 13. WELL POINTS 75 Well points are shallow wells that are used for dewatering purposes. They are temporary systems designed to lower the groundwater level in construction sites, excavations, or areas prone to flooding. Well points are commonly used in construction, civil engineering, and geotechnical projects to provide temporary drainage and create a dry working environment. They are effective in removing excess water from the ground, allowing construction activities to proceed efficiently.
  • 76. Types 76 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction 1. Jetted Well Points: Jetted well points are created by forcing water or air under pressure through a nozzle at the bottom of a pipe. The high- pressure water or air jets create a vacuum, drawing water and fine sediments into the pipe and forming a well point. Jetted well points are typically used in sandy or coarse soils.
  • 77. Types (Condi…..) 77 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction 2. Preformed Well Points: Preformed well points are manufactured units consisting of a slotted or perforated screen attached to a riser pipe. They are installed by driving or jetting them into the ground. Preformed well points are commonly used in cohesive soils where jetting is not effective.
  • 78. Types (Condi…..) 78 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction 3.Combination Well Points: Combination well points combine the features of both jetted and preformed well points. They consist of a screen with a jetting nozzle attached to the bottom. Combination well points are versatile and can be used in a variety of soil conditions.
  • 79. Applications of Well Points 79 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Construction Dewatering Trench and Excavation Dewatering Basement and Underground Construction Coastal and Marine Engineering Soil Stabilization Remediation and Environmental Cleanup
  • 80. Well Points  dewatering shallow depths and reducing groundwater levels  easy to install and can be deployed quickly  installed in various soil conditions  provide localized dewatering, allowing for targeted water removal.  cost-effective compared to other dewatering methods. 80 Advantages Limitations Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction  Well points are typically effective in shallow depths and may not be suitable for deep excavations or areas with significant groundwater inflow.  In highly permeable soils, the dewatering capacity of well points may be limited.  Well points require continuous operation and maintenance to ensure optimal performance.  They may be affected by clogging due to sediment accumulation, requiring periodic cleaning or replacement.
  • 81. 13. DEWATERING FOR UNDERGROUND OPEN EXCAVATION 81 Dewatering for underground open excavations refers to the process of removing groundwater from below ground level to create a dry and safe working environment. It is commonly employed in construction, mining, and civil engineering projects where excavations are made below the water table. Dewatering helps control groundwater seepage, stabilize the excavation, and facilitate construction activities.
  • 82. Methods 82 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Well point method Eductor wells Open sump pumping Deep well- point method
  • 83. Benefits 83 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction Enhance d Safety Improved Producti vity Better Ground Conditio ns Cost Savings Environ mental Protectio n Increase d Construc tion Flexibilit y
  • 84. Summary… 84 Unit 1 – Sub Structure Construction The study encompasses a comprehensive exploration of various construction methodologies, including box jacking and pipe jacking for underground installations, underwater construction of diaphragm walls and basements, tunneling techniques, piling methods for deep foundations, driving of wells and caissons, sinking cofferdams, cable anchoring and grouting for structural stability, driving of diaphragm walls and sheet piles for retaining walls, laying operations for offshore systems, shoring techniques for deep excavations, large reservoir construction, implementation of well points for dewatering, and effective methods for managing groundwater in underground open excavations. This study serves as a valuable resource for construction professionals, providing insights into innovative techniques that can enhance project efficiency, overcome challenging site conditions, ensure structural integrity, and contribute to the successful completion of diverse construction projects.