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Advanced Techniques of Higher Performance Signal Processing
Partitioning Data Acquisition
Systems
Dave Kress
Legal Disclaimer
 Notice of proprietary information, Disclaimers and Exclusions Of Warranties
The ADI Presentation is the...
Today’s Agenda
The dilemmas of system architecture and partitioning
Analog vs. digital signal processing
The perils of ...
Analog to Electronic Signal Processing
SENSOR
(INPUT)
DIGITAL
PROCESSOR
AMP CONVERTER
ACTUATOR
(OUTPUT)
AMP CONVERTER
4
… in the Beginning …
There was a sensor, mechanical driver, stylus, recording medium,
playback stylus, and mechanical amp...
… and Then We Added Electronics …
6
Current Day Integrated Functions
Audio codecs
SoundMAX® computer audio
codecs
I/O ports
Mixed-signal front ends:
modem...
The Dilemmas of Partitioning
Why Digitize at All?
Analog vs. Digital Processing
 Filtering
 Linearization
 Detection
...
Analog and Digital Domains
Why Convert to Digital?
Analog signals are continuous and provide the entire signal
Digital s...
Analog vs. Digital Design
Analog Design Advantages
 Simpler and quicker to implement
 Lower power
 Analog systems don’...
Digital vs. Digital Design
FPGA vs. DSP
FPGA Pros
 Deliver higher performance through very high parallelism
 Flexible I...
The Costs of Digitizing Signals
You need to learn sampling theory
The input signal will be compromised – the goal is to ...
Many Types of Sampled Data Systems
Analog-to-Digital Converters
Digital-to-Analog Converters
Sample-and-Hold Amplifiers...
Sampled Data System: Sampling
and Quantization
LPF
OR
BPF
N-BIT
ADC
DSP
N-BIT
DAC
LPF
OR
BPF
fa
fs fs
t
AMPLITUDE
QUANTIZA...
RESOLUTION
N
2-bit
4-bit
6-bit
8-bit
10-bit
12-bit
14-bit
16-bit
18-bit
20-bit
22-bit
24-bit
2N
4
16
64
256
1,024
4,096
16...
Practical Resolution Needs for Data Converters
Instrumentation Measurements
 Sensor resolution/accuracy of 0.5% = 1/200
...
Ideal ADC Sampling
3 Different Frequencies, Sampled the Same
17
Ideal ADC Sampling
Once Sampled, Information Is Lost
18
Baseband Antialiasing Filter Requirements
A
DR
fs
fa fs - fa
fs
2
STOPBAND ATTENUATION = DR
TRANSITION BAND: fa to fs - fa...
A Key Partitioning Question—Where to Filter?
Analog Filtering
 Hardware oriented—generally fixed design
Digital Filteri...
Purposes of Filtering
Noise Reduction
 Typically low-pass
Discrimination and Selection
 RF detection – channel separat...
Types of Filters
Types of Analog filters
 Active
 More common at lower frequencies
 Passive
 More common at higher fr...
Comparing Analog and Digital Filters
Analog
 No computational limitations
to limit high frequency
operation
 Subject to...
Analog vs. Digital Filter Frequency
Response Comparison
Digital Filtering
Throughput Considerations for Digital Filters
A digital biquad is a second-order recursive linear filter containing
two p...
Comparison Between IIR and FIR Filters
Sigma-delta ADC -- the multi-purpose part
Sigma-delta ADCs span the analog and digital world
Provide customized filterin...
29
Sigma-Delta ADC - First-Order Modulator
∑ ∫ +
_
+VREF
–VREF
DIGITAL
FILTER
AND
DECIMATOR
+
_
CLOCK
Kfs
VIN
N-BITS
fs
fs...
Sampled Data System:
Sampling and Quantization
31
Simplified Frequency Domain Linearized Model
of a Sigma-Delta Modulator
∑
ANALOG FILTER
H(f) = 1
f
∑
X Y
+
_
X – Y
1
f
...
32
Oversampling, Digital Filtering,
Noise Shaping, and Decimation
fs
2
fs
Kfs
2
Kfs
KfsKfs
2
fs
2
fs
2
DIGITAL FILTER
REMO...
Data Acquisition Subsystem Configuration
Multiplexing
 Multiple preamps
 Multiple anti-alias filters
 Multiple ADCs
 ...
Data Acquisition Subsystem Configuration
Multiplexing
Multiplexing is done to reduce system cost by using fewer ADCs
 AD...
Sample-and-Hold Function
Required for Digitizing AC Signals
ADC
ENCODER
TIMING
SAMPLING
CLOCK
SW
CONTROL
ANALOG
INPUT
SAMP...
Input Frequency Limitations of
Non-Sampling ADC (Encoder)
N-BIT
SAR ADC ENCODER
CONVERSION TIME = 8µs
EXAMPLE:
dv = 1 LSB ...
Simple ADC Multiplexing—AD7298
8 inputs plus temp sensor and single track/hold
37
TEMP
SENSOR
12-BIT
SUCCESSIVE
APPROXIMA...
Simultaneous Sampling—AD7606
8 Track/Hold Inputs Sampled Together
V1
V1GND
RFB1MΩ
1MΩ RFB
CLAMP
CLAMP
SECOND-
ORDER LPF
T/...
Full High Speed Dual Sampling—AD9643
2 Complete Sampling ADCs at 170 MHz
14
14
REFERENCE
SERIAL PORT
SCLK SDIO CSB CLK+ CL...
Positioning the Noise Reduction Filter to
Reduce the Effects of the Op Amp Noise
 ADCs often have very high input bandwid...
Where to Put the Gain?
Partitioning question about using PGA vs. high resolution ADC
PGA with wide-range gain steps can ...
ADC Multiplexing with Programmable Gain—
AD7194
16 inputs plus temp sensor and programmable gain amplifier
Accommodates ...
Special Analog Processing and Special Cases
Certain sensors require specialized analog processing to extract
precise meas...
Thermocouples
Thermocouples require cold-junction compensation
 Traditionally done with specialized amplifiers with inte...
High Accuracy Multichannel Thermocouple
Measurement Solution (CN0172)
45
Log Amplifiers
Signal compression
 Many applications must capture signals over a very wide dynamic range
 Radio antenna...
Log Amp Transfer Function
IDEAL
ACTUAL
SLOPE = VY
2VY
VY
IDEAL
ACTUAL
VYLOG (VIN/VX)
+
-
VIN=VX
VIN=10VX
VIN=100VX
INPUT O...
Log Amplifier Accuracy
5
4
3
2
1
–4
–5
500MHz
100MHz
10MHz
–3
–2
–1
0
–80 –70 –60 –50 –40 –30 –20 –10 0 10 20
ERROR(dB)
IN...
AD8307 six-decade RF power
measurement
TO
ANTENNA
VP
604Ω
100kΩ
1/2W
NC
2kΩ
VR1
2kΩ
INT ±3dB
51pF
51pF
0.1µF
NC
OUTPUT
LEA...
Oversampled SAR ADC with PGA
Achieving Greater Than 125 dB
Dynamic Range (CN0260)
Dynamic gain ranging
Faster than high-...
Oversampled SAR ADC with PGA Achieving
Greater Than 125 dB Dynamic Range
(CN0260)
51
Where to Put the Isolation?
Isolation is used to galvanically separate systems
 Safety in patient monitoring
 High-volt...
500 V Common-Mode Voltage Current Monitor
(CN0218)
53
AD8212
54
Bidirectional Isolated High-Side Current Sense
with 270 V Common-Mode Rejection (CN0240)
Novel Analog-to-Analog Isolator Using an
Isolated Sigma-Delta Modulator, Isolated
DC-to-DC Converter, and Active Filter (C...
Reverse Partitioning
Smarter peripheral devices sensing local conditions
Make local decisions to off-load main processor...
Reverse Partitioning—AD5755
Quad 16-bit DAC for 4–20 mA industrial signaling
Dynamic power control for thermal managemen...
Flexible 4-Channel Analog Front End for Wide
Dynamic Range Signal Conditioning (CN0251)
This circuit has it all
Multiple...
Flexible 4-Channel Analog Front End for Wide
Dynamic Range Signal Conditioning (CN0251)
59
D3V3
DGND
DGND AGND
–IN
IA
RGRG...
Tweet it out! @ADI_News #ADIDC13
What We Covered
The dilemmas of system architecture and partitioning
Analog vs. digital...
Tweet it out! @ADI_News #ADIDC13
Visit the Flexible 4-Channel Analog Front End
for Wide Dynamic Range Signal Conditioning
...
Tweet it out! @ADI_News #ADIDC13
FMComms1 Demo @ Exhibition Hall
New partitioning concepts for radio
Ubuntu Linux on ZC7...
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System Partitioning and Design - VE2013

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Acquired analog signals can be manipulated and processed by either the analog or digital portions of a system, for example, through filtering, multiplexing, and gain control. The analog portions of a system can typically provide reasonably simple processing at fairly low cost, power, and overhead. Digital processing can provide far greater analysis power and can alter the nature of the analysis without changing hardware. Sampling theory, however, must be taken into account. This session covers the signal chain basics from signal to sensor to amplifier to converter to digital processor and back out again.

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System Partitioning and Design - VE2013

  1. 1. Advanced Techniques of Higher Performance Signal Processing Partitioning Data Acquisition Systems Dave Kress
  2. 2. Legal Disclaimer  Notice of proprietary information, Disclaimers and Exclusions Of Warranties The ADI Presentation is the property of ADI. All copyright, trademark, and other intellectual property and proprietary rights in the ADI Presentation and in the software, text, graphics, design elements, audio and all other materials originated or used by ADI herein (the "ADI Information") are reserved to ADI and its licensors. The ADI Information may not be reproduced, published, adapted, modified, displayed, distributed or sold in any manner, in any form or media, without the prior written permission of ADI. THE ADI INFORMATION AND THE ADI PRESENTATION ARE PROVIDED "AS IS". WHILE ADI INTENDS THE ADI INFORMATION AND THE ADI PRESENTATION TO BE ACCURATE, NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND ARE MADE WITH RESPECT TO THE ADI PRESENTATION AND THE ADI INFORMATION, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY WARRANTIES OF ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS. TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS AND OTHER INACCURACIES OR MISTAKES ARE POSSIBLE. ADI DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE ADI INFORMATION AND THE ADI PRESENTATION WILL MEET YOUR REQUIREMENTS, WILL BE ACCURATE, OR WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED OR ERROR FREE. ADI EXPRESSLY EXCLUDES AND DISCLAIMS ALL EXPRESS AND IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NON- INFRINGEMENT OF ANY THIRD PARTY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. ADI SHALL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE OR LOSS OF ANY KIND ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO YOUR USE OF THE ADI INFORMATION AND THE ADI PRESENTATION, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION DATA LOSS OR CORRUPTION, COMPUTER VIRUSES, ERRORS, OMISSIONS, INTERRUPTIONS, DEFECTS OR OTHER FAILURES, REGARDLESS OF WHETHER SUCH LIABILITY IS BASED IN TORT, CONTRACT OR OTHERWISE. USE OF ANY THIRD-PARTY SOFTWARE REFERENCED WILL BE GOVERNED BY THE APPLICABLE LICENSE AGREEMENT, IF ANY, WITH SUCH THIRD PARTY. 2
  3. 3. Today’s Agenda The dilemmas of system architecture and partitioning Analog vs. digital signal processing The perils of sampling Digital vs. digital Where to put all the processing functions  Gain  Sampling  Filtering  Multiplexing  Special analog processing  Isolation 3
  4. 4. Analog to Electronic Signal Processing SENSOR (INPUT) DIGITAL PROCESSOR AMP CONVERTER ACTUATOR (OUTPUT) AMP CONVERTER 4
  5. 5. … in the Beginning … There was a sensor, mechanical driver, stylus, recording medium, playback stylus, and mechanical amplifier – it worked 5
  6. 6. … and Then We Added Electronics … 6
  7. 7. Current Day Integrated Functions Audio codecs SoundMAX® computer audio codecs I/O ports Mixed-signal front ends: modems, communications, CCD imaging, flat panel displays Transmit and receive signal processors Direct conversion radio Energy metering Video encoders/decoders, codecs Touchscreen digitizers Analog microcontrollers (high performance ADCs, DACs, and ARM µP core and flash memory) Blackfin® DSPs with on-board ADCs and DACs Motion sensors with embedded ADCs 7
  8. 8. The Dilemmas of Partitioning Why Digitize at All? Analog vs. Digital Processing  Filtering  Linearization  Detection Multiplexing  Multiple amplifiers, filters, converters  Simultaneous sampling Signal Control  Gain ranging vs. high resolution  Compression  Filtering 8
  9. 9. Analog and Digital Domains Why Convert to Digital? Analog signals are continuous and provide the entire signal Digital signals capture only a portion of the signal Why digitize?  Improved signal analysis potential  More robust storage  More accurate transmission  Higher order filters implemented with less cost Development objective of sampled data systems is to minimize effect of the sampling process 9
  10. 10. Analog vs. Digital Design Analog Design Advantages  Simpler and quicker to implement  Lower power  Analog systems don’t crash and need reboot Disadvantages  Difficult to change once in production – or at a customer  Limited scale Digital Design Advantages  Changeable without hardware modification  More filtering capability and scale  Not sensitive to temperature Disadvantages  Initial software design takes longer  More complex hardware  Requires ADC that determines the SNR 10
  11. 11. Digital vs. Digital Design FPGA vs. DSP FPGA Pros  Deliver higher performance through very high parallelism  Flexible I/O to support high-speed analog interfaces  Low fixed costs  Quick design turns for hardware changes FPGA Cons  Higher power in redundant logic  Higher cost at volume DSP Pros  Programming is simpler – many libraries and third-party support companies  Higher speed for straight processing DSP Cons  Fixed hardware structure  Limited scale for parallel processing 11
  12. 12. The Costs of Digitizing Signals You need to learn sampling theory The input signal will be compromised – the goal is to determine what’s acceptable The input signal needs to be filtered Signal reconstruction will require another data converter 12
  13. 13. Many Types of Sampled Data Systems Analog-to-Digital Converters Digital-to-Analog Converters Sample-and-Hold Amplifiers Peak Detectors Comparators Switched Cap Filters Samples a Continuous Signal Domain Conversion  Analog to digital  Digital to analog  Continuous time to discrete time  Continuous frequency to discrete frequency Sampling Rate  Continuous, discontinuous 13
  14. 14. Sampled Data System: Sampling and Quantization LPF OR BPF N-BIT ADC DSP N-BIT DAC LPF OR BPF fa fs fs t AMPLITUDE QUANTIZATION DISCRETE TIME SAMPLING fa 1 fs ts= 14
  15. 15. RESOLUTION N 2-bit 4-bit 6-bit 8-bit 10-bit 12-bit 14-bit 16-bit 18-bit 20-bit 22-bit 24-bit 2N 4 16 64 256 1,024 4,096 16,384 65,536 262,144 1,048,576 4,194,304 16,777,216 VOLTAGE (10V FS) 2.5 V 625 mV 156 mV 39.1 mV 9.77 mV (10 mV) 2.44 mV 610 µV 153 µV 38 µV 9.54 µV (10 µV) 2.38 µV 596 nV* ppm FS 250,000 62,500 15,625 3,906 977 244 61 15 4 1 0.24 0.06 % FS 25 6.25 1.56 0.39 0.098 0.024 0.0061 0.0015 0.0004 0.0001 0.000024 0.000006 dB FS – 12 – 24 – 36 – 48 – 60 – 72 – 84 – 96 – 108 – 120 – 132 – 144 *600nV is the Johnson Noise in a 10kHz BW of a 2.2kΩ Resistor @ 25°C Remember: 10-bits and 10V FS yields an LSB of 10mV, 1000ppm, or 0.1%. All other values may be calculated by powers of 2. Quantization: The Size of a Least Significant Bit (LSB) 15
  16. 16. Practical Resolution Needs for Data Converters Instrumentation Measurements  Sensor resolution/accuracy of 0.5% = 1/200  8 bits equivalent to 1/256 -- digitizing will lose information  10x sensor resolution = 1/2000 -- 12 bits is 1/4096  Allows discrimination of small changes  Can also be driven by display requirements Dynamic Signal Measurements  Audio systems need better than 0.1% distortion at 5% of full scale  Equivalent to 1/20,000 -- 16 bits is 1/65,536 16
  17. 17. Ideal ADC Sampling 3 Different Frequencies, Sampled the Same 17
  18. 18. Ideal ADC Sampling Once Sampled, Information Is Lost 18
  19. 19. Baseband Antialiasing Filter Requirements A DR fs fa fs - fa fs 2 STOPBAND ATTENUATION = DR TRANSITION BAND: fa to fs - fa CORNER FREQUENCY: fa Antialias Filter Prevents Aliasing Contributes to Dynamic Range Antialias Filter Objectives  Brick Wall (Steep/Deep Rolloff)  Linear Passband  Linear Phase 19
  20. 20. A Key Partitioning Question—Where to Filter? Analog Filtering  Hardware oriented—generally fixed design Digital Filtering  Software oriented—offers more flexibility 20
  21. 21. Purposes of Filtering Noise Reduction  Typically low-pass Discrimination and Selection  RF detection – channel separation  Extracting small signals from noise Signal Enhancement  Music Filter Complexity Derives from the Requirement 21
  22. 22. Types of Filters Types of Analog filters  Active  More common at lower frequencies  Passive  More common at higher frequencies Types of Digital filters  IIR (infinite impulse response)  Based on analog filters  More computationally efficient  FIR (finite impulse response)  Can be linear phase  More computationally intensive  Can provide more power and flexibility Digital filtering requires digitizing—which requires an analog anti- aliasing filter before the analog-to-digital converter 22
  23. 23. Comparing Analog and Digital Filters Analog  No computational limitations to limit high frequency operation  Subject to component drift and accuracy  Simpler circuit  Unlimited dynamic range  Basically no latency Digital  Computations must be completed in sampling time— limits real-time operation  Not subject to component drift and accuracy  More complex circuit  Requires antialiasing filter, ADC, DSP, DAC, and reconstruction filter  Dynamic range limited by converter resolution  Much higher latency (delay)  Some filter functions can only be done digitally 23
  24. 24. Analog vs. Digital Filter Frequency Response Comparison
  25. 25. Digital Filtering
  26. 26. Throughput Considerations for Digital Filters A digital biquad is a second-order recursive linear filter containing two poles and two zeros Determine how many biquad sections (N) are required to realize the desired frequency response Multiply this by the number of instruction cycles per biquad for the DSP and add overhead cycles The result (plus overhead) is the minimum allowable sampling period (1 / fs) for real-time operation 26
  27. 27. Comparison Between IIR and FIR Filters
  28. 28. Sigma-delta ADC -- the multi-purpose part Sigma-delta ADCs span the analog and digital world Provide customized filtering and high-resolution data conversion The core of digital audio processing 28
  29. 29. 29 Sigma-Delta ADC - First-Order Modulator ∑ ∫ + _ +VREF –VREF DIGITAL FILTER AND DECIMATOR + _ CLOCK Kfs VIN N-BITS fs fs A B 1-BIT DATA STREAM1-BIT DAC LATCHED COMPARATOR (1-BIT ADC) 1-BIT, Kfs SIGMA-DELTA MODULATOR INTEGRATOR
  30. 30. Sampled Data System: Sampling and Quantization
  31. 31. 31 Simplified Frequency Domain Linearized Model of a Sigma-Delta Modulator ∑ ANALOG FILTER H(f) = 1 f ∑ X Y + _ X – Y 1 f ( X – Y ) Q = QUANTIZATION NOISE Y = 1 f ( X – Y ) + Q REARRANGING, SOLVING FOR Y: Y = X f + 1 + Q f f + 1 SIGNAL TERM NOISE TERM Y
  32. 32. 32 Oversampling, Digital Filtering, Noise Shaping, and Decimation fs 2 fs Kfs 2 Kfs KfsKfs 2 fs 2 fs 2 DIGITAL FILTER REMOVED NOISE REMOVED NOISE QUANTIZATION NOISE = q / 12 q = 1 LSBADC ADC DIGITAL FILTER Σ∆ MOD DIGITAL FILTER fs Kfs Kfs DEC fs Nyquist Operation Oversampling + Digital Filter + Decimation Oversampling + Noise Shaping + Digital Filter + Decimation A B C DEC fs
  33. 33. Data Acquisition Subsystem Configuration Multiplexing  Multiple preamps  Multiple anti-alias filters  Multiple ADCs  Gain  Adjustable gain per channel  PGA vs. high resolution ADC Simultaneous Sampling  Multiple signals correlated in time Noise Reduction/Antialiasing Filter Placement Special Analog Processing Isolation 33
  34. 34. Data Acquisition Subsystem Configuration Multiplexing Multiplexing is done to reduce system cost by using fewer ADCs  ADC is fast enough to handle all channels in sequence  ADC errors are the same for all channels Multiplexing issues  Settling time after switching channels  Multiplexer impedance may compromise signal  Final buffer amplifier may be needed  Multiplexer switching transients Correlated sampling may require a faster solution  How close in time sampling needs to be done  Nyquist theory determines how often each signal needs to be sampled  Total signal throughput rate  Simultaneous sampling at lower rates  Simultaneous conversion at higher rates 34
  35. 35. Sample-and-Hold Function Required for Digitizing AC Signals ADC ENCODER TIMING SAMPLING CLOCK SW CONTROL ANALOG INPUT SAMPLE HOLD SAMPLE C ENCODER CONVERTS DURING HOLD TIME SW CONTROL N
  36. 36. Input Frequency Limitations of Non-Sampling ADC (Encoder) N-BIT SAR ADC ENCODER CONVERSION TIME = 8µs EXAMPLE: dv = 1 LSB = q dt = 8µs N = 12, 2N = 4096 fmax = 9.7 Hz v(t) = 2N 2 sin (2π f t ) dv dt 2N 2 2π f cos (2π f t )= dv dt max = 2(N–1) 2π f dv dt max 2(N–1) 2π q fmax = fs = 100 kSPS ANALOG INPUT N dv dt max qπ 2N fmax = q q q
  37. 37. Simple ADC Multiplexing—AD7298 8 inputs plus temp sensor and single track/hold 37 TEMP SENSOR 12-BIT SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATION ADC INPUT MUX T/H VDD GND PD/RST SCLK DOUT DIN CS VDRIVE VIN7 VIN0 CONTROL LOGIC SEQUENCER VREF BUFREF AD7298 08754-001 TSENSE_BUSY
  38. 38. Simultaneous Sampling—AD7606 8 Track/Hold Inputs Sampled Together V1 V1GND RFB1MΩ 1MΩ RFB CLAMP CLAMP SECOND- ORDER LPF T/H V2 V2GND RFB1MΩ 1MΩ RFB CLAMP CLAMP SECOND- ORDER LPF T/H V3 V3GND RFB1MΩ 1MΩ RFB CLAMP CLAMP SECOND- ORDER LPF T/H V4 V4GND RFB1MΩ 1MΩ RFB CLAMP CLAMP SECOND- ORDER LPF T/H V5 V5GND RFB1MΩ 1MΩ RFB CLAMP CLAMP SECOND- ORDER LPF T/H V6 V6GND RFB1MΩ 1MΩ RFB CLAMP CLAMP SECOND- ORDER LPF T/H V7 V7GND RFB1MΩ 1MΩ RFB CLAMP CLAMP SECOND- ORDER LPF T/H V8 V8GND RFB1MΩ 1MΩ RFB CLAMP CLAMP SECOND- ORDER LPF T/H 8:1 MUX AGND BUSY FRSTDATA CONVST A CONVST B RESET RANGE CONTROL INPUTS CLK OSC REFIN/REFOUT REF SELECT AGND OS 2 OS 1 OS 0 DOUTA DOUTB RD/SCLK CS PAR/SER/BYTE SEL VDRIVE 16-BIT SAR DIGITAL FILTER PARALLEL/ SERIAL INTERFACE 2.5V REF REFCAPB REFCAPA SERIAL PARALLEL REGCAP 2.5V LDO REGCAP 2.5V LDO AVCCAVCC DB[15:0] AD7606 08479-001 38
  39. 39. Full High Speed Dual Sampling—AD9643 2 Complete Sampling ADCs at 170 MHz 14 14 REFERENCE SERIAL PORT SCLK SDIO CSB CLK+ CLK– SYNC 1 TO 8 CLOCK DIVIDER AD9643 VIN+A D0± D13± DCO± OR± PDWN OEB VIN–A VIN+B VCM VIN–B NOTES 1. THE D0± TO D13± PINS REPRESENT BOTH THE CHANNEL A AND CHANNEL B LVDS OUTPUT DATA. AVDD AGND DRVDD 09636-001 . . . . . PARALLEL DDR LVDS AND DRIVERS PIPELINE 14-BIT ADC PIPELINE 14-BIT ADC 39
  40. 40. Positioning the Noise Reduction Filter to Reduce the Effects of the Op Amp Noise  ADCs often have very high input bandwidths, usually greater than fs/2  Low distortion drive amplifiers typically have high bandwidths  Placing a simple LPF or BPF placed between the amp and the ADC is an excellent noise reduction technique  Filter output impedance must be able to drive ADC  The output capacitor of the filter absorbs some of the ADC input transient currents. 2.40 fFILTER AMP AMP LPF OR BPF LPF OR BPF ADC ADC fFILTER fs fs fCL fCL fADC fADC (A) (B) Amp noise integrated over amp BW or ADC BW, whichever is less Amp noise integrated over filter noise bandwidth only
  41. 41. Where to Put the Gain? Partitioning question about using PGA vs. high resolution ADC PGA with wide-range gain steps can extend effective resolution of ADC  Provides fine resolution  Not an exact solution unless gain ranges are perfectly matched  Nonlinearity induced between ranges Not as popular with advent of higher resolution ADCs Still useful in certain applications 41
  42. 42. ADC Multiplexing with Programmable Gain— AD7194 16 inputs plus temp sensor and programmable gain amplifier Accommodates sensors with widely varying signal levels 42 DVDD DGND REFIN1(+) REFIN1(–) AIN1/P3 AIN2/P2 AIN3/P1/REFIN2(+) AIN4/P0/REFIN2(–) AINCOM AD7194 SERIAL INTERFACE AND CONTROL LOGIC REFERENCE DETECT TEMP SENSOR DOUT/RDY DIN SCLK CS MCLK1 MCLK2 CLOCK CIRCUITRY AVDD AGND AIN5 AIN16 Σ-Δ ADC PGA MUX 08566-001 AVDD AGND
  43. 43. Special Analog Processing and Special Cases Certain sensors require specialized analog processing to extract precise measurements  Thermocouples—cold-junction compensation  Wide-dynamic-range photodiodes—signal compression  Linearization Some sensors require precision tuning per unit—others can be tuned together Calibration and replacement issues Digital options—store adjustment coefficients in software Isolation  Analog or digital  Power isolation 43
  44. 44. Thermocouples Thermocouples require cold-junction compensation  Traditionally done with specialized amplifiers with internal temperature sensors  Newer techniques use high-accuracy temperature sensors and A-D converters to allow compensation at the processor Thermocouple non-linearity is non-linear  Difficult to construct analog compensation  Digital systems use look-up tables Detailed analysis in the Low-Level Signal Acquisition session 44
  45. 45. High Accuracy Multichannel Thermocouple Measurement Solution (CN0172) 45
  46. 46. Log Amplifiers Signal compression  Many applications must capture signals over a very wide dynamic range  Radio antennas capturing broadcast signals  Photomultipliers and photodiodes capture light signals over a very wide range  To process and use these signals, they need to be compressed to a much smaller range Logarithmic amplifiers  Log amplifiers compress signals over ranges of as much as 120db – a million to one -- to a normal range of 1 to 10 volts  Accuracy is typically 0.1 to 0.5 dB -- 1 to 5% Digital compression alternative  Programmable gain amplifier combined with high-resolution ADC  Can achieve range out to 120dB  Limited at very high frequencies
  47. 47. Log Amp Transfer Function IDEAL ACTUAL SLOPE = VY 2VY VY IDEAL ACTUAL VYLOG (VIN/VX) + - VIN=VX VIN=10VX VIN=100VX INPUT ON LOG SCALE VOUT = VY log10 0 VIN VX IDEAL ACTUAL SLOPE = VY 2VY VY IDEAL ACTUAL VYLOG (VIN/VX) + - VIN=VX VIN=10VX VIN=100VX INPUT ON LOG SCALE VOUT = VY log10 0 VIN VX
  48. 48. Log Amplifier Accuracy 5 4 3 2 1 –4 –5 500MHz 100MHz 10MHz –3 –2 –1 0 –80 –70 –60 –50 –40 –30 –20 –10 0 10 20 ERROR(dB) INPUT LEVEL (dBm) AD8307 covers 80dB with 0.5dB accuracy
  49. 49. AD8307 six-decade RF power measurement TO ANTENNA VP 604Ω 100kΩ 1/2W NC 2kΩ VR1 2kΩ INT ±3dB 51pF 51pF 0.1µF NC OUTPUT LEAD- THROUGH CAPACITORS, 1nF 1nF NC = NO CONNECT +5V VOUT AD8307 INP VPS ENB INT INM COM OFS OUT 8 7 6 5 2 3 41 50Ω INPUT FROM P.A. 1µW TO 1kW 22Ω
  50. 50. Oversampled SAR ADC with PGA Achieving Greater Than 125 dB Dynamic Range (CN0260) Dynamic gain ranging Faster than high-resolution sigma delta Sampling rate up to 2.5MSPS 50
  51. 51. Oversampled SAR ADC with PGA Achieving Greater Than 125 dB Dynamic Range (CN0260) 51
  52. 52. Where to Put the Isolation? Isolation is used to galvanically separate systems  Safety in patient monitoring  High-voltage systems  Remove high common-mode noise Most commonly done at the digital level  ADC converter signal to digital  Transmitted across digital isolators Providing power to isolated circuits needed High-voltage amplifiers suitable in some motor control or power control systems More detail in the Data and Power Isolation session 52
  53. 53. 500 V Common-Mode Voltage Current Monitor (CN0218) 53 AD8212
  54. 54. 54 Bidirectional Isolated High-Side Current Sense with 270 V Common-Mode Rejection (CN0240)
  55. 55. Novel Analog-to-Analog Isolator Using an Isolated Sigma-Delta Modulator, Isolated DC-to-DC Converter, and Active Filter (CN0185) 55
  56. 56. Reverse Partitioning Smarter peripheral devices sensing local conditions Make local decisions to off-load main processor Reduce programming load Automatic gain control Power control 56
  57. 57. Reverse Partitioning—AD5755 Quad 16-bit DAC for 4–20 mA industrial signaling Dynamic power control for thermal management On-chip diagnostics 57 AD5755 AVSS –15V AGND AVDD +15V AVCC 5.0V DVDD DGND LDAC CLEAR SCLK SDIN SYNC SDO FAULT DC-TO-DC CONVERTER POWER CONTROL INPUT SHIFT REGISTER AND CONTROL STATUS REGISTER POWER-ON RESET REFERENCE BUFFERS DAC REG A INPUT REG A VREF WATCHDOG TIMER (SPI ACTIVITY) ALERT REFOUT REFIN AD1 AD0 DAC A 1616 SWA VBOOST_A GAIN REG A OFFSET REG A R1 R2 R3 RSET_A VOUT_A IOUT_B, IOUT_C, IOUT_D RSET_B, RSET_C, RSET_D +VSENSE_B, +VSENSE_C, +VSENSE_D VOUT_B, VOUT_C, VOUT_D IOUT_A +VSENSE_A –VSENSE_A DAC CHANNEL B DAC CHANNEL A DAC CHANNEL C DAC CHANNEL D SWB, SWC, SWD VBOOST_B, VBOOST_C, VBOOST_D 7.4V TO 29.5V REG VSEN1 VSEN2 + 07304-001 VOUT RANGE SCALING 30kΩ
  58. 58. Flexible 4-Channel Analog Front End for Wide Dynamic Range Signal Conditioning (CN0251) This circuit has it all Multiplexing front-end Multiplexer buffer Instrumentation amplifier for CMRR Anti-alias filter Funnel amplifier to fit ADC range Internal programmable gain amplifier  Gain ranges trimmed and matched Sigma-delta ADC provides noise shaping 58
  59. 59. Flexible 4-Channel Analog Front End for Wide Dynamic Range Signal Conditioning (CN0251) 59 D3V3 DGND DGND AGND –IN IA RGRG* *OMIT RG FOR G = 1 RG +IN +VS VOUT REF –VS AD8226 ADP1720 –OUT VN VP +OUT NC +IN 0.4x –IN 0.8x +IN 0.8x –IN 0.4x –VS +VS 1kΩ 1.25kΩ 100Ω 100kΩ 100Ω1.25kΩ 1kΩ AD8475 1.25kΩ 1.25kΩ MCLK1 NC MCLK2 P0/REFIN2(–) P1/REFIN2(+) DVDD DGND REFIN1(+) REFIN1(–) AIN2 AIN1 AIN3 AIN4 AINCOM BPDSW AGND AD7192 TEMP SENSOR AVDD AGND DOUT/RDY DIN SCLK CS SYNC P3 P2 AVDDAGND Σ-Δ ADC MUX DOUT DIN SCLK CS SYNC P3 P2 ADG1409 S1A S4B DA 1nF IN OUT GND 1nF 10nF 4.02kΩ 4.02kΩ DB S4A S1B VS1A VS4B VS4A VS1B 1-OF-4 DECODER A0GND A1 VDD +15VA EN VSS –15VA –15VA +5VA 330µH @ 100MHz A4V096 +5VA +15VA 0.1µF 10nF 10nF 1µF 0.1µF 0.1µF 10µF 0.1µF +15VA +5VA VOCM VOCM ADR444 AD8475 VIN VOUT GND +15VA A4V096 PGA D3V3 D3V3 DGND 1µF 0.1µF 0.1µF SERIAL INTERFACE AND CONTROL LOGIC CLOCK CIRCUITRY 10351-001 2 1 1 2 7 6 4 5 8 3 4 10 12 18 19 15 16 23 24 3 4 5 6 17 9 1 2 7 8 25 2120 11 13 14 10 9 8 3 7 5 6
  60. 60. Tweet it out! @ADI_News #ADIDC13 What We Covered The dilemmas of system architecture and partitioning Analog vs. digital signal processing The perils of sampling Digital vs. digital Where to put all the processing functions  Gain  Sampling  Filtering  Multiplexing  Special analog processing  Isolation 60
  61. 61. Tweet it out! @ADI_News #ADIDC13 Visit the Flexible 4-Channel Analog Front End for Wide Dynamic Range Signal Conditioning (CN0251) in the Exhibition Room This flexible signal conditioning circuit is for processing signals of wide dynamic range, varying from several mV p-p to 20 V p-p. The circuit provides the necessary conditioning and level shifting and achieves the dynamic range using the internal programmable gain amplifier (PGA) of the high resolution analog-to-digital converter (ADC). 61 Image of demo/board This demo board is available for purchase: www.analog.com/DC13-hardware
  62. 62. Tweet it out! @ADI_News #ADIDC13 FMComms1 Demo @ Exhibition Hall New partitioning concepts for radio Ubuntu Linux on ZC702 FMComms1 on FMC HDMI Display and USB Keyboard/Mouse Full Transmit and Receive 62 Image of demo/board This demo board is available for purchase: www.analog.com/DC13hardware

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