Chapter 3Explaining Theories of Cognition andIntrapersonal Communication
BlackBoard Follow Up Introductions Who is Howard Gardner Changing Minds
Brian Solis http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b3hi0V13oag Social listening Talking to you and through you Investing in social capital
Cognitive Process Communication has early roots in psychology Cognitive scholars are concerned with themental processes that are used to processstimuli and generate particular effects Contrasts behavioral view that focuses solelyon external causes (or stimuli) and behavioraleffects
Cognitive/Intrapersonal Theories Message Design Logics Premise: Message Design Logics predictsthat people strategically design messagessent to others
Message Design Logics Three types of Design Expressive design Conventional design Rhetorical design
Message Design Logics Problems interacting with different MDL styles When individuals share the same MDL: they are more likely to acknowledgecommunication problems When individuals have different MDLs: they are more likely to blame their problemson the other’s bad intentions, mistaken beliefs,or undesirable personality characteristics
Cognitive/Intrapersonal Theories Message Design Logics Communication Accommodation Theory Uncertainty Reduction Theory Expectancy Violations Theory
Communication AccommodationTheory Giles & Coupland Premise: when individuals interact withothers, they will: accommodate their speech and languagepatterns by matching their partner’s speech by differentiating their speech and language use
Communication AccommodationTheory Individuals belong to a wide variety of socialgroups These groups shape each person’s collectiveidentity In-groups: social affiliations to which an individualfeels he or she belongs Out-groups: social affiliations to which a personfeels that he or she does not belong Language, speech, and nonverbal messages allcommunicate one’s in-group and out-group status
What In-groups are you part of? Social affiliations to which an individual feels heor she belongs What language, speech, and nonverbalmessages are you aware of?
What out-groups are you aware of? Social affiliations to which a person feels that heor she does not belong What language, speech, and nonverbalmessages did you observe?
Communication AccommodationTheory Individuals adjust their speech andconversational patterns either to assimilatewith or to deviate from others Convergence: altering your speech andbehavior so that it matches that of yourconversational partner Divergence: rather than match your partner’scommunication patterns, you seek to make yourspeech different
Communication AccommodationTheory Predictions When a person wants to be viewed as part of anin-group, s/he will accommodate by convergence When a persona wants to be viewed as distinctfrom a certain group, s/he will alter your speechthrough divergence In addition to expressing disagreement or rejectionof a speaker, divergence also illustrates one’scultural identity or differences in one’s status.
Communication AccommodationTheory Accommodation is not always appropriate oreffective When in doubt, individuals rely on socialnorms to inform their decision toaccommodate (or not)
Uncertainty Reduction Theory Berger & Calabrese Premise: URT explains and predict when,why, and how individuals use communicationto minimize their doubts when interacting withothers
Uncertainty Reduction Theory URT functions based on three assumptions Primary goal of communication is to minimizeuncertainties that we have about the world Individuals experience uncertainty regularly;the experience of uncertainty is unpleasant Communication is the primary vehicle forreducing uncertainty
Uncertainty Reduction Theory Reducing uncertainty 3 antecedent conditions: influence whetherwe have the motivation to reduce uncertainty Anticipation of future interaction Incentive value Deviance
Uncertainty Reduction Theory Two types of uncertainty Behavioral uncertainty Cognitive uncertainty
Uncertainty Reduction Theory Berger (1995, 1997) noted that much ofsocial interaction is goal driven; wecommunicate for a reason and we createplans to guide interaction Uncertainty reduction strategies Passive strategy Active strategy Interactive strategy
Expectancy Violations Theory Burgoon Premise: explains the meanings that peopleattribute to the violation of their personal spaceand predicts their response to such infringements Assumptions EVT builds on numerous axioms Primary assumption: humans have competingneeds for personal space and for affiliation
Expectancy Violations Theory EVT makes predictions as to how individualswill react to a given violation Reciprocate: match someone’s behavior Compensate: counteract by doing the oppositeof your partner’s behavior
Expectancy Violations Theory Core Concepts Expectancy Context of the behavior Relationship with the person in question Communicator’s characteristics
BlackBoard Questions What cultural differences have you observedrelated to any single theory we discussed?