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  1. 1. Chapter 3Explaining Theories of Cognition andIntrapersonal Communication
  2. 2. BlackBoard Follow Up Introductions Who is Howard Gardner Changing Minds
  3. 3. Brian Solis http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b3hi0V13oag Social listening Talking to you and through you Investing in social capital
  4. 4. Cognitive Process Communication has early roots in psychology Cognitive scholars are concerned with themental processes that are used to processstimuli and generate particular effects Contrasts behavioral view that focuses solelyon external causes (or stimuli) and behavioraleffects
  5. 5. Cognitive/Intrapersonal Theories Message Design Logics Premise: Message Design Logics predictsthat people strategically design messagessent to others
  6. 6. Message Design Logics Three types of Design Expressive design Conventional design Rhetorical design
  7. 7. Message Design Logics Problems interacting with different MDL styles When individuals share the same MDL: they are more likely to acknowledgecommunication problems When individuals have different MDLs: they are more likely to blame their problemson the other’s bad intentions, mistaken beliefs,or undesirable personality characteristics
  8. 8. Cognitive/Intrapersonal Theories Message Design Logics Communication Accommodation Theory Uncertainty Reduction Theory Expectancy Violations Theory
  9. 9. Communication AccommodationTheory Giles & Coupland Premise: when individuals interact withothers, they will: accommodate their speech and languagepatterns by matching their partner’s speech by differentiating their speech and language use
  10. 10. Communication AccommodationTheory Individuals belong to a wide variety of socialgroups These groups shape each person’s collectiveidentity In-groups: social affiliations to which an individualfeels he or she belongs Out-groups: social affiliations to which a personfeels that he or she does not belong Language, speech, and nonverbal messages allcommunicate one’s in-group and out-group status
  11. 11. What In-groups are you part of? Social affiliations to which an individual feels heor she belongs What language, speech, and nonverbalmessages are you aware of?
  12. 12. What out-groups are you aware of? Social affiliations to which a person feels that heor she does not belong What language, speech, and nonverbalmessages did you observe?
  13. 13. Communication AccommodationTheory
  14. 14. Communication AccommodationTheory Individuals adjust their speech andconversational patterns either to assimilatewith or to deviate from others Convergence: altering your speech andbehavior so that it matches that of yourconversational partner Divergence: rather than match your partner’scommunication patterns, you seek to make yourspeech different
  15. 15. Communication AccommodationTheory Predictions When a person wants to be viewed as part of anin-group, s/he will accommodate by convergence When a persona wants to be viewed as distinctfrom a certain group, s/he will alter your speechthrough divergence In addition to expressing disagreement or rejectionof a speaker, divergence also illustrates one’scultural identity or differences in one’s status.
  16. 16. Communication AccommodationTheory Accommodation is not always appropriate oreffective When in doubt, individuals rely on socialnorms to inform their decision toaccommodate (or not)
  17. 17. Scenario #1
  18. 18. Convergence Pros  Cons
  19. 19. Divergence Pros  Cons
  20. 20. Communication AccommodationTheoryPositive Effects Increased attraction,social approval, andincreased persuasionNegative Effects Incorrect stereotypes ofout-group, perceivedcondescension, loss ofpersonal identity
  21. 21. Communication AccommodationTheoryPositive Effects Protects culturalidentity, asserts powerdifferences, andincreased sympathyNegative Effects Perceived disdain for out-group, perceived lack ofeffort, and increasedpsychological distance
  22. 22. Uncertainty ReductionTheory
  23. 23. Uncertainty Reduction Theory Berger & Calabrese Premise: URT explains and predict when,why, and how individuals use communicationto minimize their doubts when interacting withothers
  24. 24. Uncertainty Reduction Theory URT functions based on three assumptions Primary goal of communication is to minimizeuncertainties that we have about the world Individuals experience uncertainty regularly;the experience of uncertainty is unpleasant Communication is the primary vehicle forreducing uncertainty
  25. 25. Uncertainty Reduction Theory Reducing uncertainty 3 antecedent conditions: influence whetherwe have the motivation to reduce uncertainty Anticipation of future interaction Incentive value Deviance
  26. 26. Uncertainty Reduction Theory Two types of uncertainty Behavioral uncertainty Cognitive uncertainty
  27. 27. Uncertainty Reduction Theory8 Axioms Explaining the Uncertainty Reduction Process Axiom 1: Verbal communication Axiom 2: Welcoming nonverbal communication Axiom 3: Information-seeking behaviors Axiom 4: Intimacy Axiom 5: Reciprocal communication strategies Axiom 6: Perceived similarities Axiom 7: Liking Axiom 8: Shared communication networks
  28. 28. Uncertainty Reduction Theory Berger (1995, 1997) noted that much ofsocial interaction is goal driven; wecommunicate for a reason and we createplans to guide interaction Uncertainty reduction strategies Passive strategy Active strategy Interactive strategy
  29. 29. Expectancy ViolationsTheory
  30. 30. Expectancy Violations Theory Burgoon Premise: explains the meanings that peopleattribute to the violation of their personal spaceand predicts their response to such infringements Assumptions EVT builds on numerous axioms Primary assumption: humans have competingneeds for personal space and for affiliation
  31. 31. Expectancy Violations Theory EVT makes predictions as to how individualswill react to a given violation Reciprocate: match someone’s behavior Compensate: counteract by doing the oppositeof your partner’s behavior
  32. 32. Expectancy Violations Theory Core Concepts Expectancy Context of the behavior Relationship with the person in question Communicator’s characteristics
  33. 33. BlackBoard Questions What cultural differences have you observedrelated to any single theory we discussed?