5.7 Chapter 2


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MBA 612 Chapter 2

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5.7 Chapter 2

  1. 1. Chapter 2Theory Development
  2. 2. Theory-Research Link Inductive theory development: researchcomes before theory Deductive theory development: develop ahypothesis before research is conductedDeductiveTheory ResearchInductive
  3. 3. What is research? Defined: a disciplined inquiry that involves— Planned study of a given phenomenon Reporting it so that other inquirers canpotentially replicate the process
  4. 4. Types of Research Primary research: reported by the personwho conducted it. Secondary research: reported by someoneother than the person who conducted it.
  5. 5. Research Methods inCommunication Experiments Concerned with causation and control Only research method that allows researchersto conclude that one thing causes another Causality is determined because experimentsare controlled with variables (independent anddependent) Take place in either laboratories or in the field
  6. 6. Research Methods inCommunication Survey Research Concerned with perceptions and attitudes Only way to find out what people think, feel, orintend to behave Two types: interviews and questionnaires Key factors: Questioning (open-ended v. closed-ended) Sampling (examine small number of people in apopulation)
  7. 7. Research Your Environment Experiment Concerned withcausation and control Only research methodthat allows researchersto conclude that onething causes another Causality is determinedbecause experiments arecontrolled with variables(independent anddependent) Take place in eitherlaboratories or in the field Survey Concerned withperceptions and attitudes Only way to find out whatpeople think, feel, orintend to behave Two types: interviewsand questionnaires Key factors: Questioning (open-ended v. closed-ended) Sampling (examinesmall number of peoplein a population)
  8. 8. Research Methods inCommunication Textual Analysis Used to uncover the content, nature, or structureof messages or to evaluate messages, focusingon their strengths, weaknesses, or effectiveness Three forms: Rhetorical criticism Content analysis Interaction analysis
  9. 9. Research Methods inCommunication Ethnography Involves the researcher immersing her/himself intoa culture or context to understand communicationrules and meanings for that culture or context Three roles of ethnographers Complete participants Participant-observer Complete observers
  10. 10. Social Sciences and theHumanities Humanities Interpretation of meaning is central concern Meaning is presumed to be something that issubjective and unique to an individual Social Sciences Objectivity is a central feature Social scientists believe that through carefulstandardization, researchers can observe patternsof communication that hold true for most people,most of the time.
  11. 11. Social Sciences and theHumanities: Areas of Difference Beliefs about human nature Social scientists: take a deterministic stanceproposing that people in general tend to reactto situations as opposed to act. Humanists: believe that people have controlover their behavior. This is a pragmatist viewbecause they believe people are practical andplan behaviors.
  12. 12. Social Sciences and theHumanities: Areas of Difference Differing Goals of Theory Goals of Social Scientific Theory Interested in generalizations, the ability to predictis paramount Goals of Humanistic Theory Theories cannot predict how a person willbehave; all that can be done is to try tounderstand human communication
  13. 13. Social Sciences and theHumanities: Areas of Difference Process of theory development Social scientific approach is deductive Humanistic approach tends to be inductive
  14. 14. Social Sciences and theHumanities: Areas of Difference Focus of research Social scientific method requiresstandardization and control. Social sciencesstudy narrowly defined areas at a time. Humanists believe in looking at the big picture.This approach is called holism, or looking atthe situation in its entirety.
  15. 15. Social Sciences and theHumanities: Areas of Difference Research Methods Experimental methods are uniquely suited for thesocial sciences Ethnography is appropriate for humanistic theory Quantitative methods are associated with socialsciences because they rely on numbers andgeneralizations Qualitative methods are used more by humanistsbecause they reject the limitations on individualinterpretation that control requires
  16. 16. The Development and Change ofTheories Theories are not stagnant Continual study and developmentrefines, modifies, and extends the theory Growth by extension: adds more concepts andbuilds upon what was already established Growth by intension: gain a deeper and morenuanced understanding of the originalconcepts presented in the theory
  17. 17. Application: Case Study Case Study 2: The Development of AttributionTheory Do you believe attribution theory takes a socialscientific or a humanistic approach? What research method(s) could be used tostudy attribution theory? Explain how themethod(s) could be employed. Describe the process of developing attributiontheory. Do you see evidence of growth byextension or intension?
  18. 18. Due Next Week…Post: Introduce yourself on BlackBoard(program, interests, etc.) Read/Respond to classmates posts asappropriate Look for an additional discussion…Read: Dainton – Chapter 3 Begin Gardner Book