Theory-Research Link Inductive theory development: researchcomes before theory Deductive theory development: develop ahypothesis before research is conductedDeductiveTheory ResearchInductive
What is research? Defined: a disciplined inquiry that involves— Planned study of a given phenomenon Reporting it so that other inquirers canpotentially replicate the process
Types of Research Primary research: reported by the personwho conducted it. Secondary research: reported by someoneother than the person who conducted it.
Research Methods inCommunication Experiments Concerned with causation and control Only research method that allows researchersto conclude that one thing causes another Causality is determined because experimentsare controlled with variables (independent anddependent) Take place in either laboratories or in the field
Research Methods inCommunication Survey Research Concerned with perceptions and attitudes Only way to find out what people think, feel, orintend to behave Two types: interviews and questionnaires Key factors: Questioning (open-ended v. closed-ended) Sampling (examine small number of people in apopulation)
Research Your Environment Experiment Concerned withcausation and control Only research methodthat allows researchersto conclude that onething causes another Causality is determinedbecause experiments arecontrolled with variables(independent anddependent) Take place in eitherlaboratories or in the field Survey Concerned withperceptions and attitudes Only way to find out whatpeople think, feel, orintend to behave Two types: interviewsand questionnaires Key factors: Questioning (open-ended v. closed-ended) Sampling (examinesmall number of peoplein a population)
Research Methods inCommunication Textual Analysis Used to uncover the content, nature, or structureof messages or to evaluate messages, focusingon their strengths, weaknesses, or effectiveness Three forms: Rhetorical criticism Content analysis Interaction analysis
Research Methods inCommunication Ethnography Involves the researcher immersing her/himself intoa culture or context to understand communicationrules and meanings for that culture or context Three roles of ethnographers Complete participants Participant-observer Complete observers
Social Sciences and theHumanities Humanities Interpretation of meaning is central concern Meaning is presumed to be something that issubjective and unique to an individual Social Sciences Objectivity is a central feature Social scientists believe that through carefulstandardization, researchers can observe patternsof communication that hold true for most people,most of the time.
Social Sciences and theHumanities: Areas of Difference Beliefs about human nature Social scientists: take a deterministic stanceproposing that people in general tend to reactto situations as opposed to act. Humanists: believe that people have controlover their behavior. This is a pragmatist viewbecause they believe people are practical andplan behaviors.
Social Sciences and theHumanities: Areas of Difference Differing Goals of Theory Goals of Social Scientific Theory Interested in generalizations, the ability to predictis paramount Goals of Humanistic Theory Theories cannot predict how a person willbehave; all that can be done is to try tounderstand human communication
Social Sciences and theHumanities: Areas of Difference Process of theory development Social scientific approach is deductive Humanistic approach tends to be inductive
Social Sciences and theHumanities: Areas of Difference Focus of research Social scientific method requiresstandardization and control. Social sciencesstudy narrowly defined areas at a time. Humanists believe in looking at the big picture.This approach is called holism, or looking atthe situation in its entirety.
Social Sciences and theHumanities: Areas of Difference Research Methods Experimental methods are uniquely suited for thesocial sciences Ethnography is appropriate for humanistic theory Quantitative methods are associated with socialsciences because they rely on numbers andgeneralizations Qualitative methods are used more by humanistsbecause they reject the limitations on individualinterpretation that control requires
The Development and Change ofTheories Theories are not stagnant Continual study and developmentrefines, modifies, and extends the theory Growth by extension: adds more concepts andbuilds upon what was already established Growth by intension: gain a deeper and morenuanced understanding of the originalconcepts presented in the theory
Application: Case Study Case Study 2: The Development of AttributionTheory Do you believe attribution theory takes a socialscientific or a humanistic approach? What research method(s) could be used tostudy attribution theory? Explain how themethod(s) could be employed. Describe the process of developing attributiontheory. Do you see evidence of growth byextension or intension?
Due Next Week…Post: Introduce yourself on BlackBoard(program, interests, etc.) Read/Respond to classmates posts asappropriate Look for an additional discussion…Read: Dainton – Chapter 3 Begin Gardner Book