Inside the Head:  Theories of Cognition andIntrapersonal Communication
 Communication has early roots in psychology Cognitive scholars are concerned with the mental  processes that are used t...
1.   Message Design Logics2.   Communication Accommodation Theory3.   Uncertainty Reduction Theory4.   Expectancy Violatio...
 O’Keefe Premise: Message Design Logics predicts that people strategically design messages sent to others
 Three types of Design  1. Expressive design  2. Conventional design  3. Rhetorical design
 Problems interacting with different MDL styles When individuals share the same MDL:   they are more likely to acknowle...
 Giles & Coupland Premise: when individuals interact with others, they will accommodate their speech and language patter...
 Individuals belong to a wide variety of social groups These groups shape each person’s collective identity   In-groups...
 Individuals adjust their speech and conversational  patterns either to assimilate with or to deviate from  others Conve...
 Predictions When a person wants to be viewed as part of an in-  group, s/he will accommodate by convergence When a per...
 Accommodation is not always appropriate or effective When in doubt, individuals rely on social norms to inform their de...
Positive Effects          Negative Effects Increased attraction,    Incorrect stereotypes of  social approval, and     o...
Positive Effects       Negative Effects Protects cultural     Perceived disdain for  identity, asserts     out-group, pe...
 Berger & Calabrese Premise: URT explains and predict when, why, and how individuals use communication to minimize their...
 URT functions based on three assumptions   Primary goal of communication is to minimize    uncertainties that we have a...
 Reducing uncertainty 3 antecedent conditions: influence whether we have the motivation to reduce uncertainty   Anticip...
 Two types of uncertainty   Behavioral uncertainty   Cognitive uncertainty
8 Axioms that research has established follow from the principles  of URT: Verbal communication reduces uncertainty Welc...
 Berger (1995, 1997) noted that much of social  interaction is goal driven; we communicate for a  reason and we create pl...
 Burgoon Premise: explains the meanings that people attribute  to the violation of their personal space and predicts  th...
 EVT makes predictions as to how individuals will react to a given violation   Reciprocate: match someone’s behavior   ...
 Core Concepts Expectancy   Context of the behavior   Relationship with the person in question   Communicator’s chara...
 Predicting reactions when expectations are violated Predictable patterns develop (VV +) + (CRV+) = reciprocate (VV -)...
Between People:Theories of Interpersonal Communication
 Interpersonal Communication: messages that occur  between two, interdependent persons, with a focus on  how interpersona...
1.   Politeness Theory2.   Social Exchange Theory3.   Dialectical Perspective4.   Communication Privacy Management Theory
 Brown and Levinson Premise: politeness theory explains how we manage our own and others’ identities through interaction...
 Assumption: all individuals are concerned with  maintaining face Face: desired self-image that you wish to present to  ...
 Assumptions Humans are rational and goal oriented with respect to achieving face needs   We have choices and make comm...
 Preserving Face   Preventive facework   Corrective facework
 Strategies for committing a FTA   Avoidance   Go off record   Negative politeness   Positive politeness   Bald on r...
 People choose their FTA strategy tactically Three factors influence strategy choice:   Prestige   Power   Risk
 Thibaut & Kelley Premise: Social exchange theory (SET) explains when and why individuals continue and develop some pers...
 Assumptions   Relationships are a function of comparing benefits    gained versus costs to attain benefits   People wa...
 Core Components   Outcome (O): ratio of rewards to costs in a given    relationship             Rewards – Costs = Outco...
 Predictions   Outcomes > CL = satisfied   Outcomes< CL = dissatisfied   Outcome > CLalt = stay   Outcome < CLalt = t...
 Baxter & Montgomery Premise: explains how individuals sustain relationships over time
 Assumptions   Praxis : Relationships have a dynamic trajectory   Change: Relationships change   Contradictions (diale...
 Internal dialectics: central tensions between partners   Autonomy<—>Connection   Openness<—>Closedness   Predictabili...
 External dialectics: central tensions that a dyad experiences when interacting with other people   Inclusion<—>Seclusio...
 Relationships are sustained, not maintained To sustain a relationship, dialectical tensions must be  managed Four prim...
 Petronio Premise: CPM’s explains why and how people make decisions about whether to reveal or conceal private informati...
 6 Major Principles   1.       Public<—>Private dialectical tension is central   2.       Private information: informatio...
 Major principles continued:   4.       Boundaries              Personal boundaries: contain individual information.    ...
My Way:Explaining Theories of Persuasion
 Persuasion: “human communication that is designed to influence others by modifying their beliefs, values, or attitudes” ...
1.   Social Judgment Theory2.   Elaboration Likelihood Model3.   Theory of Planned Behavior4.   Inoculation Theory
 Sherif & colleagues Premise: SJT focuses on peoples’ assessment of persuasive messages; people make evaluations about t...
 A person’s attitudes can be placed into one of three categories   Latitude of acceptance   Latitude of rejection   La...
 A person’s reaction to a persuasive message depends  on his or her stance Persuader must map receivers’ attitudes and e...
 Social judgment explains responses through two processes:   Contrast effect   Assimilation effect
 Petty & Caccipopo Premise: persuasion is a cognitive event; the targets of  persuasive messages use metal processes of ...
 Two Routes to Persuasion   Centrally routed messages   Peripherally routed messages
1.    Central Route:      Information, rational arguments, and evidence      Much more likely to create long-term change...
 Central route relies on strong arguments:   Strong arguments create a positive cognitive response   Neutral arguments ...
2.   Peripheral Route        When target’s motivation or ability is missing,         persuader can use the peripheral rou...
Seven Peripheral Cues (Strategies)  1.   Authority  2.   Commitment  3.   Contrast  4.   Liking  5.   Reciprocity  6.   Sc...
 Peripheral messages can be evaluated as:   Positive peripheral messages   Neutral peripheral messages   Negative peri...
 Fishbein & Ajzen Premise: all behavior is intentional, or goal-driven.  Attitudes and behavioral norms predict behavior...
 Attitudes: our sum of beliefs about something   Made of two components   One’s evaluation of the object   One’s belie...
 Evolution of a theory—   A third predictor has been added to the theory:   Perceived behavioral control is comprised o...
 McGuire Premise: explains how targets can resist persuasion
 People are more resistant to persuasion when an  inoculation process takes place Two major components to an inoculation...
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COM310-Week 2 Lecture Slides

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COM310-Week 2 Lecture Slides

  1. 1. Inside the Head: Theories of Cognition andIntrapersonal Communication
  2. 2.  Communication has early roots in psychology Cognitive scholars are concerned with the mental processes that are used to process stimuli and generate particular effects Contrasts behavioral view that focuses solely on external causes (or stimuli) and behavioral effects
  3. 3. 1. Message Design Logics2. Communication Accommodation Theory3. Uncertainty Reduction Theory4. Expectancy Violations Theory
  4. 4.  O’Keefe Premise: Message Design Logics predicts that people strategically design messages sent to others
  5. 5.  Three types of Design 1. Expressive design 2. Conventional design 3. Rhetorical design
  6. 6.  Problems interacting with different MDL styles When individuals share the same MDL:  they are more likely to acknowledge communication problems When individuals have different MDLs:  they are more likely to blame their problems on the other’s bad intentions, mistaken beliefs, or undesirable personality characteristics
  7. 7.  Giles & Coupland Premise: when individuals interact with others, they will accommodate their speech and language patterns, either by matching their partner’s speech or by differentiating their speech and language use
  8. 8.  Individuals belong to a wide variety of social groups These groups shape each person’s collective identity  In-groups: social affiliations to which an individual feels he or she belongs  Out-groups: social affiliations to which a person feels that he or she does not belong  Language, speech, and nonverbal messages all communicate one’s in-group and out-group status
  9. 9.  Individuals adjust their speech and conversational patterns either to assimilate with or to deviate from others Convergence: altering your speech and behavior so that it matches that of your conversational partner Divergence: rather than match your partner’s communication patterns, you seek to make your speech different
  10. 10.  Predictions When a person wants to be viewed as part of an in- group, s/he will accommodate by convergence When a persona wants to be viewed as distinct from a certain group, s/he will alter your speech through divergence  In addition to expressing disagreement or rejection of a speaker, divergence also illustrates one’s cultural identity or differences in one’s status.
  11. 11.  Accommodation is not always appropriate or effective When in doubt, individuals rely on social norms to inform their decision to accommodate (or not)
  12. 12. Positive Effects Negative Effects Increased attraction,  Incorrect stereotypes of social approval, and out-group, perceived increased persuasion condescension, loss of personal identity
  13. 13. Positive Effects Negative Effects Protects cultural  Perceived disdain for identity, asserts out-group, perceived power differences, lack of effort, and and increased increased psychological sympathy distance
  14. 14.  Berger & Calabrese Premise: URT explains and predict when, why, and how individuals use communication to minimize their doubts when interacting with others
  15. 15.  URT functions based on three assumptions  Primary goal of communication is to minimize uncertainties that we have about the world  Individuals experience uncertainty regularly; the experience of uncertainty is unpleasant  Communication is the primary vehicle for reducing uncertainty
  16. 16.  Reducing uncertainty 3 antecedent conditions: influence whether we have the motivation to reduce uncertainty  Anticipation of future interaction  Incentive value  Deviance
  17. 17.  Two types of uncertainty  Behavioral uncertainty  Cognitive uncertainty
  18. 18. 8 Axioms that research has established follow from the principles of URT: Verbal communication reduces uncertainty Welcoming nonverbal expressions reduce uncertainty The greater the uncertainty, the more information-seeking behaviors When uncertainty is high, intimacy is low High uncertainty leads to more reciprocal communication strategies Greater similarities between communicators reduces uncertainty As uncertainty decreases, liking increases Shared communication networks and ties reduce uncertainty
  19. 19.  Berger (1995, 1997) noted that much of social interaction is goal driven; we communicate for a reason and we create plans to guide interaction Uncertainty reduction strategies  Passive strategy  Active strategy  Interactive strategy
  20. 20.  Burgoon Premise: explains the meanings that people attribute to the violation of their personal space and predicts their response to such infringements Assumptions  EVT builds on numerous axioms  Primary assumption: humans have competing needs for personal space and for affiliation
  21. 21.  EVT makes predictions as to how individuals will react to a given violation  Reciprocate: match someone’s behavior  Compensate: counteract by doing the opposite of your partner’s behavior
  22. 22.  Core Concepts Expectancy  Context of the behavior  Relationship with the person in question  Communicator’s characteristics Violation valance (+/-) Communicator reward valence (+/-)
  23. 23.  Predicting reactions when expectations are violated Predictable patterns develop (VV +) + (CRV+) = reciprocate (VV -) + (CRV-) = reciprocate (VV -) + (CRV+) = compensate (VV +) + (CRV-) = reciprocate or compensate
  24. 24. Between People:Theories of Interpersonal Communication
  25. 25.  Interpersonal Communication: messages that occur between two, interdependent persons, with a focus on how interpersonal messages are offered to initiate, define, maintain, or further a relationship IPC refers to both content and quality of messages and the possibility of further relationship development
  26. 26. 1. Politeness Theory2. Social Exchange Theory3. Dialectical Perspective4. Communication Privacy Management Theory
  27. 27.  Brown and Levinson Premise: politeness theory explains how we manage our own and others’ identities through interaction, in particular, through the use of politeness strategies
  28. 28.  Assumption: all individuals are concerned with maintaining face Face: desired self-image that you wish to present to others; includes awareness that interactional partners have own face needs  Positive face  Negative face  It is difficult to achieve positive and negative face simultaneously
  29. 29.  Assumptions Humans are rational and goal oriented with respect to achieving face needs  We have choices and make communicative decisions to maintain face  “Everyone’s face depends on everyone else’s [face] being maintained” (Brown & Levinson, 1987, p.61). Some behaviors are fundamentally face threatening; inevitably we will hurt someone’s face  Face-threatening acts (FTAs)
  30. 30.  Preserving Face  Preventive facework  Corrective facework
  31. 31.  Strategies for committing a FTA  Avoidance  Go off record  Negative politeness  Positive politeness  Bald on record
  32. 32.  People choose their FTA strategy tactically Three factors influence strategy choice:  Prestige  Power  Risk
  33. 33.  Thibaut & Kelley Premise: Social exchange theory (SET) explains when and why individuals continue and develop some personal relationships while ending others
  34. 34.  Assumptions  Relationships are a function of comparing benefits gained versus costs to attain benefits  People want to make the most of the benefits, while lessening the costs (minimax principle)  By nature, humans are selfish; you tend to look out for yourself first and foremost.
  35. 35.  Core Components  Outcome (O): ratio of rewards to costs in a given relationship Rewards – Costs = Outcome  Comparison level (CL): what rewards do I expect to receive in this relationship?  Comparison level of alternatives (Clalt): what other options do I have?
  36. 36.  Predictions  Outcomes > CL = satisfied  Outcomes< CL = dissatisfied  Outcome > CLalt = stay  Outcome < CLalt = terminate
  37. 37.  Baxter & Montgomery Premise: explains how individuals sustain relationships over time
  38. 38.  Assumptions  Praxis : Relationships have a dynamic trajectory  Change: Relationships change  Contradictions (dialectics): Partners have essential but different needs  Totality: Change in one partner will affect the other
  39. 39.  Internal dialectics: central tensions between partners  Autonomy<—>Connection  Openness<—>Closedness  Predictability<—>Novelty
  40. 40.  External dialectics: central tensions that a dyad experiences when interacting with other people  Inclusion<—>Seclusion  Revelation<—>Concealment  Conventionality<—>Uniqueness
  41. 41.  Relationships are sustained, not maintained To sustain a relationship, dialectical tensions must be managed Four primary strategies 1. Selection strategy 2. Cyclic alteration 3. Segmentation 4. Integration
  42. 42.  Petronio Premise: CPM’s explains why and how people make decisions about whether to reveal or conceal private information based on specific rules
  43. 43.  6 Major Principles 1. Public<—>Private dialectical tension is central 2. Private information: information that is inaccessible to others  Possession is central feature  We make choices about sharing private information: to whom, what, when, where, and how we share 3. Privacy Rules: guide sharing of private information  Cultural criteria  Gender criteria  Motivational criteria  Contextual criteria  Risk-benefit criteria
  44. 44.  Major principles continued: 4. Boundaries  Personal boundaries: contain individual information.  Collective boundaries: contain shared information. 5. Boundary Coordination: maintaining collective boundaries  Boundary linkage—alliances between the owners of the information  Boundary ownership—rights and responsibilities bourn by the owners of the information  Boundary permeability—how easily information is passed through the boundary 6. Boundary Turbulence: occurs when the rules for privacy management are not clear
  45. 45. My Way:Explaining Theories of Persuasion
  46. 46.  Persuasion: “human communication that is designed to influence others by modifying their beliefs, values, or attitudes” (Simons, 1976, p. 21). (NOTE: What happened to actions?)  Requirements for message to be considered persuasive: 1. Goal-driven sender 2. Communication is the means to achieve goal 3. Receiver must have free will
  47. 47. 1. Social Judgment Theory2. Elaboration Likelihood Model3. Theory of Planned Behavior4. Inoculation Theory
  48. 48.  Sherif & colleagues Premise: SJT focuses on peoples’ assessment of persuasive messages; people make evaluations about the content of messages based on their anchors, or stance, on a particular topic message
  49. 49.  A person’s attitudes can be placed into one of three categories  Latitude of acceptance  Latitude of rejection  Latitude of noncommitment
  50. 50.  A person’s reaction to a persuasive message depends on his or her stance Persuader must map receivers’ attitudes and ego- involvement toward a topic  Highly ego involved =  Larger latitude of rejection  Smaller latitude of noncommitment.
  51. 51.  Social judgment explains responses through two processes:  Contrast effect  Assimilation effect
  52. 52.  Petty & Caccipopo Premise: persuasion is a cognitive event; the targets of persuasive messages use metal processes of motivation and reasoning to accept or reject persuasive messages
  53. 53.  Two Routes to Persuasion  Centrally routed messages  Peripherally routed messages
  54. 54. 1. Central Route:  Information, rational arguments, and evidence  Much more likely to create long-term change  Succeed only when two factors are met:  Motivated target  Able target
  55. 55.  Central route relies on strong arguments:  Strong arguments create a positive cognitive response  Neutral arguments create a noncommittal cognitive response  Weak arguments create a negative cognitive response
  56. 56. 2. Peripheral Route  When target’s motivation or ability is missing, persuader can use the peripheral route  Peripheral messages rely on a target’s emotional involvement  Persuade through superficial means  Lead to only short-term changes, if any change at all
  57. 57. Seven Peripheral Cues (Strategies) 1. Authority 2. Commitment 3. Contrast 4. Liking 5. Reciprocity 6. Scarcity 7. Social proof
  58. 58.  Peripheral messages can be evaluated as:  Positive peripheral messages  Neutral peripheral messages  Negative peripheral messages
  59. 59.  Fishbein & Ajzen Premise: all behavior is intentional, or goal-driven. Attitudes and behavioral norms predict behavioral intention.
  60. 60.  Attitudes: our sum of beliefs about something  Made of two components  One’s evaluation of the object  One’s belief strength Normative beliefs: perceptions about what others in your social network expect you to do
  61. 61.  Evolution of a theory—  A third predictor has been added to the theory:  Perceived behavioral control is comprised of two elements:  Self-efficiency  Controllability
  62. 62.  McGuire Premise: explains how targets can resist persuasion
  63. 63.  People are more resistant to persuasion when an inoculation process takes place Two major components to an inoculation message: 1. Threat 2. Refutational preemption (See Table 7.1)

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