Expectancy theory addresses two questions about motivation. The first is on this slide and the second question is on the next slide. If an employee does not think that he or she is capable of performing at an adequate level even with maximum effort, motivation to perform at that level will be zero.
While need theories try to explain what motivates employees, expectancy theory focuses on how employees decide which specific behaviors to perform and how much effort to exert. In other words, expectancy theory is concerned with how employees make choices among alternate behaviors and levels of effort. This theory was developed by Victor Vroom in the 1960s. It assumes that employees are motivated to receive positive outcomes and to avoid negative outcomes. It assumes that employees are rational processors of information and that they use information about their jobs, abilities, and desires to decide what they will do on the job and how hard they will do it. Three major factors determine an employee’s motivation: valence, instrumentality, and expectancy. Valence and instrumentality can be positive or negative and vary in size or magnitude. They are measured on a scale of -1 to +1. An instrumentality of +1 means that an employee perceives that performance definitely will result in obtaining the outcome. Expectancy varies from 0 to 1 and reflects the chances that putting forth a certain amount of effort will result in a certain level of performance. An expectancy of 1 signifies that an employee is absolutely certain that his or her effort will lead to a certain level of performance.
NEED THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Thursday, December 17, 09
THE PROJECT <ul><li>Update on project </li></ul>
Course Outline <ul><li>Sr. | Chap|Final Exam Chapter Heading </li></ul><ul><li>No.|No. | Q. No. </li></ul><ul><li>1. 1 1 An Introduction to Motivational Concept (260909) </li></ul><ul><li>2. 2 2 Motivation in the History (101009) </li></ul><ul><li>3. 3 3 Darwinian Theory of Evolution and Motivation (171009) </li></ul><ul><li>4. 4 4 Instinct and Motivation (311009) </li></ul><ul><li>5. 5 5 The Effect of Frustration, Conflict and Stress (051109 & 071109) </li></ul><ul><li>6. 6 6 Need Theories of Motivation (051209) </li></ul><ul><li>7. 7 7 Reinforcement/Incentive Theories (171209) </li></ul><ul><li>8. 8 8 Expectancy Theories of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>9. 9 9 Motivation, Satisfaction, and Performance </li></ul><ul><li>10. 10 10 Motivation and Monetary Rewards </li></ul><ul><li>11. 11 11 Motivation Through MBO and Performance Appraisal </li></ul>Marks Distribution: Number of Quizzes attended + Midterm + Final assignment
DEVELOPMENT OF EXPECTANCY THEORY <ul><li>TOLMAN (1936) </li></ul><ul><li>LEWIN (1938) </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between Stimulus and response </li></ul><ul><li>“Motivation is a goal directed behavior involving an active process of evaluating the valence of outcomes and the expectancy of goal attainment” </li></ul>
Expectancy Theory <ul><ul><ul><li>Expectancy — belief that working hard will result in desired level of performance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumentality — belief that successful performance will be followed by rewards. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valence — value a person assigns to rewards and other work related outcomes. </li></ul></ul></ul>
THEORY OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION <ul><li>ATKINSON (1957, 1964) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Goal directed action tendency is a joint function of the strength of the motive and the expectancy of the goal attainment” </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation = Strength of motive+ expectancy of goal attainment </li></ul><ul><li>“ Achievement motivation is considered a function of motive, incentive and expectancy” </li></ul>
Vroom (1964) Expectancy theory states that the strength of an individual's motivation will depend on the extent to which they expect the results of their efforts to contribute towards their personal needs or goals. He suggested that the strength of an individual's motivation is the product of two factors. 1 . The strength of preference for a certain outcome - Vroom called this 'valence' stating that it could be positive, negative or zero - since outcomes might be desired, avoided or considered with indifference - 2 . The expectation that a particular outcome will result from certain behaviour - Vroom called this 'subjective probability' or 'expectancy', which refers to the individual's perception of the link between behaviour and outcome. It is represented by a number between 1 [probable] and 0 [no chance] -
Vroom – example 1 + 25 th December = V = Santa brings presents E = Christmas Day F = Good Behaviour
Vroom – example 1 + = V = reaching targets E = performance related pay agreement F = efficient working
How Expectancy Theory Works Expectancy Effort - Performance Link E=0 No matter how much effort you put in, probably not possible to memorise the text in 24 hours Instrumentality Performance - Rewards Link I=0 Your tutor does not look like someone who has £1 million Valence Rewards - Personal Goals Link V=1 There are a lot of wonderful things you could do with £1 million Your tutor offers you £1 million if you memorise the textbook by tomorrow morning. Conclusion: Though you value the reward, you will not be motivated to do this task.
Study Question 2: What are the process theories of motivation? <ul><li>Expectancy theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation (M), expectancy (E), instrumentality (I), and valence (V) are related to one another in a multiplicative fashion: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>M = E x I x V </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If either E, I, or V is low, motivation will be low. </li></ul></ul>
Needs (Internal stimuli) Incentive (External Stimuli) Perception EP PI IN Abilities and traits Motivation Satisfaction Perceived And Equitable Reward Performance Productivity MOTIVATION INPUTS BEHAVIOR MOTIVATION OUTPUTS Expectancy model of motivation EP: Effort performance, PI: Performance Incentive, IN: Incentive -Needs