GENERAL CHARACTERESTICS• The canines are distal to the lateral incisors and are the third teeth from the 13 12 11 midline.• They are often referred to as cuspids.• The four canines are justifiably termed cornerstones of the arches as they are located at the corners of the mouth or dental arches.
GENERAL CHARACTERESTICS• They are longest of the permanent teeth and have longer and stronger roots than those of the other teeth.• The incisal edge of a canine is surmounted by a large pointed cusp instead of being nearly straight as in incisors.• This cusp has a mesial and distal cusp ridges. D M
• The maxillary canine is the third tooth from the midline. 13 23• It is the longest tooth in the mouth• Its root is usually the longest of any root (the possible exception of that of the lower canine, which may be as long sometimes).• The maxillary canines are often the last teeth to erupt (at about 11-12 years), except for the third molar.
THE CROWN• The geometric outline of the crown is pentagonal.• Mesial outline: usually convex from the cervical line to the mesial contact area.• Distal outline: usually concave between the cervical line and the distal contact area.• Incisal outline: distinct pointed tip called a cusp. This cusp has a mesial and distal slopes. The mesial slope is shorter than the distal slope. Both slopes show a tendency toward concavity• Cervical line: convex toward the root M D
THE CROWNContact area:• Mesial: Nearly at the junction of the middle and incisal thirds of the crown, closer to the cusp tip than is the distal contact point.• Distal: In the middle third. Usually it is in the middle of the middle third. It is more cervically located than the mesial contact area.
THE CROWNLabial surface:• The labial surface is convex both mesiodistally and inciso-cervically.• ELEVATIONS: Cusp: usually on a line with the center of the root Labial ridge: vertical promenent ridge runs from the tip of the cusp toward the cervical margin• DEPRESSIONS: Two developmental grooves: shallow longitudinal developmental depressions “grooves” lie mesial and distal to the labial ridge
THE ROOT• The single root is long, slender, and conical with a pointed apex.• Its labial surface is smooth and convex at all points.• The apical third is curved in a mesial or distal direction, in most cases distally. M D
THE CROWN• The crown is narrower lingually than labially.• ELEVATIONS: Cingulum Lingual ridge Marginal ridges• DEPRESSIONS: Two lingual fossae D M
THE CROWNCingulum• The cingulum is large, and sometimes is pointed like a cusp in the center.Lingual ridge• It is a prominent vertical ridge runs from the cusp tip to the cingulum.• Canines are the only teeth that have a prominent lingual ridge. D M
THE CROWNMarginal ridges:• Mesial and distal marginal ridges• The mesial marginal ridge is longer than the distal marginal ridge because of the shorter mesial cusp slope the location of the mesial contact area.Lingual fossae:• On each side of the lingual ridge a mesial and distal lingual fossae are present. These fossae are usually shallow D M
THE ROOT• The lingual surface of the root is smooth and convex.• The root is narrower lingually than labially. Therefore, much of its proximal sides are visible lingually with one or both of the developmental depressions of the root. D M
THE CROWN• The geometric outline of the crown is wedge (triangular)-shaped.• The cervical line: curves toward the cusp. Convexity of the canine is less marked than that on the incisors.• The cusp tip: is located slightly labially to the root axis.
THE CROWN• The labial outline:The entire labial outline is convex fromthe cervical line to the cusp tip. The crestof curvature is at the cervical third.• The lingual outline:Is convex in the cervical third. The crestof curvature is on the cingulum. In themiddle third, at the lingual ridge, thelingual outline is slightly concave, then,becomes convex again in the incisal thirdrepresenting the cusp tip.
THE ROOT• The root is conical with a tapered or bluntly pointed apex.• Its apical third may curve labially.• Usually the labial outline of the root is slightly convex and the lingual outline is more convex.• The mesial surface of the root is broad with a shallow longitudinal depression in most cases.
THE CROWN• The shape of the crown distally is similar to the crown shape from the mesial aspect, except the following: The cervical line has less curvature toward the cusp tip. The distal surface of the crown is usually concaved cervical to the contact area.
THE ROOT• The depression on the distal surface of the root is more pronounced than that on the mesial surface.
• The labiolingual dimension is greater than the mesiodistal.• The tip of the cusp is labial and mesial to the centers of the crown.• The labial surface is convex, more than either incisors.
• The maxillary canine is the third tooth from the midline. 43 33• It closely resembles the upper canine.• Its features are less well developed than those of upper canine.• Its crown appears long and narrow compared with that of upper canine.
THE CROWNThe mesial outline:• is nearly straight from the cervical line to the mesial contact area, then continues to the cusp slope.• It is nearly in line with the mesial side of the root and does not project or bulge beyond the root outline.The distal outline:• Is slightly concave in the cervical third, then, it becomes convex incisally.• The distal outline is shorter than the mesial outline. M D
THE CROWNThe incisal outline:• Cusp slopes form a more obtuse angle than those of upper canine.• The cusp is less pointed than that of upper canine.• The mesial slope of the cusp is shorter than the distal slope, more so than on maxillary canine.• The distal cusp slope slopes more severely in an apical direction compared to mesial• Cervical line: convex toward the root M D
THE CROWNContact area:• Mesial: In the incisal third just below the mesioincisal angle.• Distal: At the junction of the middle and incisal thirds, more cervically located than the mesial contact area
THE CROWNLabial surface:• The labial surface is smooth and convex• ELEVATIONS: Cusp: usually on a line with the center of the root Labial ridge: not as prominent as on the upper canine.• DEPRESSIONS: Two developmental grooves: not prominent as on the upper canine.• The incisal third of the crown is slightly flattened mesial and distal to the labial ridge.
THE ROOT• The root is shorter than that of the upper canine.• Its apical end is more sharply pointed.• The root is convex on the labial surface. M D
THE CROWN• The crown is narrower lingually than labially.• The lingual surface of the crown resembles those of the lower incisors in being smooth but faint lingual ridge is running from the cusp tip to the cingulum. D M
THE CROWN• The cingulum is poorly developed• The marginal ridges are not prominent.• The mesial marginal ridge is longer and straighter than the shorter and curved distal marginal ridge D M
THE CROWN• The geometric outline is similar to maxillary canine but it is longer and narrower• The cervical line: Curves more incisally than does the cervical line on upper canine.• The cusp tip: is located slightly labially to the root axis and more pointed than upper canine.
THE CROWN• The labial outline: has less curvature than that of upper canine with very little crest of curvature directly above the cervical line.• The lingual outline: is similar to that of the upper canine, but differs in degree. The cingulum is not prominent.
THE ROOT• The root surface is similar to that of the upper canine from the mesial aspect except: The root tip is more pointed than that of upper canine. The developmental depression mesially is more pronounced than that on upper canine.
THE CROWN• The shape of the crown distally is similar to the crown shape from the mesial aspect, except that cervical line has less curvature toward the cusp tip.THE ROOT• developmental depression on the distal side of the root is often deeper than the depression on the mesial side Mesial Distal
• The outline of lower canine from the incisal aspect is often similar to that of upper canine except: The cusp tip is more likely to be inclined lingually. The mesiolabial outline is more convex while the distolabial outline is flat or concave The distal cusp slope is directed slightly lingually from the cusp tip which gives the incisal part of the crown a distolingual twist like lower lateral incisor.