PPWNov13- Day 1 pm- G.Galluzzi- Bioversity

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Gea Galluzzi, Bioversity and Aseffa Wedajoo, University of Illinois-Chicago: “Policy Network Analysis to support national implementation of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture”

Workshop on Approaches and Methods for Policy Process Research, co-sponsored by the CGIAR Research Programs on Policies, Institutions and Markets (PIM) and Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) at IFPRI-Washington DC, November 18-20, 2013.

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  • COVER SLIDETo change the picture: Right click on the photo Click on change pictureIf you need a specific CRP logo, replace the general CGIAR logo at the upper right.
  • Every country that ratifies agrees to put some in. IN return enjoy multiplier effect – access to diversiity put in by everyone elseno country/organization conserves crop diversity and info for all its needsnot sufficient market incentives for private sector to invest in conservation and sustainable useCollective action!!! To respond to this reality, MLS creates international pool of PGRFA (for research, training and breeding)Use of a Standard Material Transfer Agreement (SMTA)Implementation issuesConflict with pre-existing ABS regimes (under the CBD)Free-riderissues
  • DIVIDER SLIDEYou can use it to introduce a section of your presentation.
  • Every country that ratifies agrees to put some in. IN return enjoy multiplier effect – access to diversiity put in by everyone elseno country/organization conserves crop diversity and info for all its needsnot sufficient market incentives for private sector to invest in conservation and sustainable useCollective action!!! To respond to this reality, MLS creates international pool of PGRFA (for research, training and breeding)Use of a Standard Material Transfer Agreement (SMTA)Implementation issuesConflict with pre-existing ABS regimes (under the CBD)Free-riderissues
  • Has various components, one of which aims at better understanding the issues just described and address them to move implementation forward
  • DIVIDER SLIDEYou can use it to introduce a section of your presentation.
  • DIVIDER SLIDEYou can use it to introduce a section of your presentation.
  • We have a massive data from 6 countries. We are still working on but here we present only part of the preliminary results. In both countries international organizations constitute large percentage of the ITPGRFA networkLimited information flow
  • policy advice, legal, financial more limited with only a few key actors
  • Node Shade: Black (High priority), Dark Grey(Moderate priority), Light Grey (Low priority),White (Don’t know)Node Size: Number of connections leading out of the nodeNode Shape: Square: International organization; Triangle: National government organization; Two connected triangles: Regional organizationSquare with cross: National non-governmental organization; Square with circle: Private sector organization; Diamond: Provincial or county organization; Circle: Farmer organization; Upside down triangle: Other type of organization
  • Node Shade: Black (High priority), Dark Grey(Moderate priority), Light Grey (Low priority),White (Don’t know)Node Size: Number of connections leading out of the nodeNode Shape: Square: International organization; Triangle: National government organization; Two connected triangles: Regional organizationSquare with cross: National non-governmental organization; Square with circle: Private sector organization; Diamond: Provincial or county organization; Circle: Farmer organization; Upside down triangle: Other type of organization
  • THANK YOU/FINAL SLIDE
  • DIVIDER SLIDEYou can use it to introduce a section of your presentation.
  • We have a massive data from 6 countries. We are still working on but here we present only part of the preliminary results.
  • BI is connected to the key actors. In Rwanda farmers organization are among important actors.
  • In case of administration survey with sensitive questions biasness may be introduces unless enumerators and responders are well informed.
  • PPWNov13- Day 1 pm- G.Galluzzi- Bioversity

    1. 1. Policy Network Analysis to support national implementation of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture Gea Galluzzi, Aseffa Seyoum, Richard Ogwal
    2. 2. Outline Context Objectives Theories, tools and methods Results from East Africa
    3. 3. The context
    4. 4. The International Treaty on PGRFA • • Common framework for conservation and sustainable use Multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing (MLS) Status: into force in 2004; 130 ratifications Implementation Few countries have developed the mechanisms to participate proactively in the MLS. Why??? • • • Little knowledge or engagement Isolation, lack of coordination among relevant agencies …..
    5. 5. Genetic Resources Policy Initiative (phase 2) – GRPI2 Building capacities for implementing the International Treaty and its Multilateral System 8 countries (Asia, Africa, Latin America)
    6. 6. Objectives, theories and methods
    7. 7. Research component on policy networks • Gather empirical evidence on who are relevant actors, (existing or missing) connections, directions of information, influences • Identify interventions to create or strengthen connections and stakeholder engagement Inform national policy-making processes for IT and MLS implementation Collaboration between Bioversity International, the Science, Technology and Environment Policy (STE) Lab at the University of Illinois at Chicago and teams of national research partners from each country
    8. 8. Theories and frameworks - Social Network Analyses (SNA) Network: a set of dyadic ties all of the same type, among a set of actors. Networks are everywhere! Special kind of data = relationships! Assumptions • People influence each other • Energy, resources and information flow through relationships • Individual characteristics are only part of the story • ….
    9. 9. Methods - Data collection Survey (3 languages) Snowball sampling approach Face to face interviews recorded in SSI Web CAPi tool • • • Methods - Data analyses • 14 12 • 10 8 6 4 2 0 • Statistical analyses of traditional survey data (perceptions, knowledge) Analysis of network data (relations, connections) Results and network map interpretation with national project partners
    10. 10. Results in Uganda and Rwanda
    11. 11. … Preliminary findings…  Number of respondents: Uganda - 26; Rwanda - 37  Variety of different actors (organizations) involved  In Uganda, out of actors currently involved in the ITPRGFA policy network,  International (32%),  National governmental (15%),  Private sectors and farmers organizations, about 11%  …  There are actors not involved but should be involved  In Uganda, about 66% of the organization recommended to be involved in the IT are either national or regional  Inconsistency in identifying actors who are [not] involved
    12. 12. … Preliminary findings…  The survey asked actors perspectives about the ITPGRFA and the MLS   Most respondents about 68% for Uganda and about 73% believe that the IT is very beneficial for their country In both countries the main constraints on implementation  Financial and capital resources constraint  Lack of sufficient information, and  Lack of legal and policy expertise, particularly in Rwanda
    13. 13. … Preliminary findings…  IT/MLS actors involved in many other national policy networks  Biosafety,  Phytosanitary,  Plant Variety Protection (PVP)  CBD, seed policy, etc.  IT policy network in Uganda is centralized while that of Rwanda in more decentralized  Resource exchange networks- vary substantially across networks and countries  Science networks are more connected  Policy advice, legal, financial resource networks are more limited with only a few key actors
    14. 14. … Preliminary findings… Table 1. Network Metrics (Uganda) Number of ties Number of nodes Centralization (outdegree,%) Density Average degree centrality All relationships 196 95 60.1 0.022 2.1 Legal expertise 79 50 22.8 0.009 0.8 Policy and administrative direction 135 65 26.4 0.015 1.4 Scientific expertise 218 81 55.6 0.024 2.3 Financial resources 64 45 14.3 0.007 0.7 Table 3. Network Metrics (Rwanda) 539 175 Number of connected nodes 94 61 130 293 79 63 73 47 Number of ties All relationships Legal expertise Policy and administrative direction Scientific expertise Financial resources Centralization (outdegree,%) Density 34.45 19.34 0.059 0.019 Average degree centrality 5.62 1.82 14.52 31.86 8.70 0.014 0.032 0.009 1.35 3.05 0.82
    15. 15. … Preliminary findings Communication network:  Frequency of communication and structural hole  NARO and BI; FAO and MAAIF Uganda  FAO and MAARI; MAAR and MINAGRI Rwanda
    16. 16. … Preliminary findings ITPGRFA Implementation Priority Network  NAAR  KakinduFC Uganda  MAAR Rwanda
    17. 17. Ways forward Further research   Better understand how key actors characteristic affect IT policy implementation Further assess the effect of policy actors network dynamism (inclusion and exclusion of actors) on the policy process Towards implementation  Capacity building and communication with and within network (workshops, publications, briefs)  Inclusion of actors not currently involved but should be involved (form or strengthen national commission on PGRFA)  Dissemination of results of on-going research on incentives, disincentives, opportunities and needs of country participation in the IT/MLS
    18. 18. Thank you www.bioversityinternational.org
    19. 19. Additional information
    20. 20. … Preliminary findings… Table 1. Selected national polices in which ITPGRFA actors are involved Polices Access and Benefit Sharing Policy Biosafety Policy Convention on Biological Diversity Environment Policy Farmers' Rights Phytosanitary Policy Plant Breeders' Rights Seed Policy Trade and Investment Policy Plant Variety Protection (PVP) UgandaN. ITPGRFA policy actors involved 6 15 2 4 11 9 5 4 4 RwandaN. ITPGRFA policy actors involved 9 17 2 6 10 10 12 1 8 2
    21. 21. All relationships • NARO, MAAIF, Makerere Uni., BI Uganda • CRS, RAB, INGABO, BI Rwanda
    22. 22. … Preliminary findings Table 4. Actor Type and Involvement in ITPGRFA Policy Implementation (Uganda) Type of organization International Regional National government National NGOs Provincial/county govt. Farmers organizations Private sector Others (university, media) Total Status of involvement Involved Not Involved n Percent n Percent 32 33.7 2 11.1 7 7.4 6 33.3 14 14.7 6 33.3 5 5.3 1 5.6 5 5.3 0 0.0 10 10.5 0 0.0 10 10.5 1 5.6 12 12.6 2 11.1 95 100.0 18 100.0 Total n 34 13 20 6 5 10 11 14 113 Percent 30.1 11.5 17.7 5.3 4.4 8.8 9.7 12.4 100.0 Table 5. Actor Type and Involvement in ITPGRFA Policy Implementation (Rwanda) Type of organization International Regional National government National NGOs Provincial/county govt. Farmers organizations Private sector Others (university, media) Total Status of involvement Involved Not Involved n Percent n Percent 29 30.85 1 9.09 11 11.70 0 0 15 15.96 3 27.27 7 7.45 1 9.09 2 2.13 0 0 9 9.57 1 9.09 11 11.70 1 9.09 10 10.64 4 36.36 94 100 11 100 Total n 30 11 18 8 2 10 12 14 105 Percent 28.57 10.48 17.14 7.62 1.90 9.52 11.43 13.33 100
    23. 23. Methodological challenges • PNA is a well established techniques that has been used to analyze policy-making and implementation • Some of the challenge - related to data collection    it is data intensive technique arranging interview with policy actor is not easy some of the policy related questions in the survey might be sensitive for respondents

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