This thesis proposes to help analyzing the characteristics of the heterogeneous social networks that emerge from the use of web-based social applications, with an original contribution that leverages Social Network Analysis with Semantic Web frameworks. Social Network Analysis (SNA) proposes graph algorithms to characterize the structure of a social network and its strategic positions. Semantic Web frameworks allow representing and exchanging knowledge across web applications with a rich typed graph model (RDF), a query language (SPARQL) and schema definition frameworks (RDFS and OWL). In this thesis, we merge both models in order to go beyond the mining of the flat link structure of social graphs by integrating a semantic processing of the network typing and the emerging knowledge of online activities. In particular we investigate how (1) to bring online social data to ontology-based representations, (2) to conduct a social network analysis that takes advantage of the rich semantics of such representations, and (3) to semantically detect and label communities of online social networks and social tagging activities.