0
IN THE NAME OF ALLAH
MOST COMPASIONATE
MOST MERCIFUL

LESSON

#1b

“INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF
TAUHEED – (AQA’ID) ”
TCH MAY
...
This module # Intermediate on:

PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVE

Development of Certainty (Belief)
Awareness of Reality / Truth
Deve...
A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE & METHOD OF APPROACH

By : Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
Intermediate Islamic Course conducted...
Faith (IIMAN), from the Islamic perspective is not mere blind
acceptance. It is a process of acquiring a knowledge of
cert...
Basic and most fundamental message of Islam is the
KALIMATUT-TAUHEED (Statement concerning the Absolute
Oneness of God), i...
The message of Islam is very simple and exact, yet profound.
It stresses upon mankind to recognize the Truth that there is...
The Arabic proper noun “Allah” for God, refers to the One
Supreme Being, Who is Absolute, Unique and without equal.
“Allah...
From the above statement, there are 2 aspects which we are
required to confirm and develop Faith (iiman) in :
(1) Recogniz...
Previous Lesson
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
TAUQIFIYYAH - i. e. by relying upon true report, which have already
been ascertained as to its reliability as being author...
FITRAH - i.e. by relying upon our natural or innate human
instincts, intuitions;

Previous Lesson
All Rights Reserved ©Zhu...
‘AQLIIYAH - i.e. by the using of the faculty of reasoning, thought
process;

Previous Lesson
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkefl...
Unlike other religion, Islam recognizes the use of reasoning
faculty, and in fact it encourages man to use them because,
f...
Previous Lesson
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
(1) Things that we see around us are 'new' and were created . Creation
must emanate from outside creation i.e. the Uncreat...
(4) The existence of a unified order in the universe . To attribute this
order to random chance is most improbable without...
(6) Inherent preparedness in our creation, as well as in animals,
plants, etc. This preparedness cannot be something evolv...
(8) The 'law' of probability. The computation which actually informs
us (mathematically) of the utter remoteness of creati...
A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE & METHOD OF APPROACH

Previous Lesson
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
The term TAUHEED is derived from Arabic word "Ahad”(Absolute One) "Wahada" (Oneness attested) “Yuwaa-hidu" (he unify or at...
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
“Abraham was not a Jew nor yet a Christian, but he was true in
faith and bowed his will to Allah's (“HANEEFAN-MUSLIMAN”
wh...
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
“And who turns away from the religion of Abraham but such
as debase their souls with folly? Him (Abraham) We chose
and ren...
There are five approaches or methodology (types) of attesting to the
existence of the One and only God (Allah) – in the Is...
(1) TAUHIID AL-KHALI-QIYYAH
(2) TAUHEED AR-RUBUB-BIYYAH
( 3) TAUHEED AL - ULU-HIYYAH or 'UBUDIYYAH
(4) TAUHEED AS-SIFAT
(5...
The true aspiration towards being close to our
Compassionate and Loving Creator, has to begin by
knowing Him and with stri...
Previous Lesson
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
Say [O Prophet]: "If you love Allah, follow me
(TABI-’UUNI), [and]Allah will love you and forgive you your
sins; for Allah...
Previous Lesson
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
Say [O Prophet]: "I am but a mortal man like all of you. It
has been revealed unto me that your God is the One and
Only Go...
CONCLUSION:
Thus the Concept of Tauheed which serves as the
foundation of the teachings of Islam can only be
accomplished ...
CONCLUSION:
The Last of Allah’s Prophets and Messengers, who came
to supersede them all, guided by Allah's revelation to
e...
CONCLUSION:
And certainly there will be no other prophet after him.
That is why the Kalimah of al-Islam for every Muslim
m...
CONCLUSION:
And further elaborations after TAUHEED would include
aspects emanating from it such as:
(AL- ‘ADALAH) :
QADHA’...
A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF ITS HISTORY AND RELEVANCE FOR MUSLIMS

All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,
MOST COMPASSIONATE,
MOST MERCIFUL.

All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,
MOST COMPASSIONATE,
MOST MERCIFUL.

“O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those
c...
“The best of mankind – (believers) – are in
my generation, then (a generation) after it,
and then (another generation) aft...
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
“Allah most Exalted will never allow the affairs of
my ummah to be with what deviates (from Truth)
forever; so follow the ...
SALAF GENERATION
No disputation in matters AQEEDAH

Due to politics
SHI’AH - ‘ALI

UMAYYAD

Due to Hellenistic influence
P...
“Amongst you, after receiving guidance, you will not go astray except
for those who then enter into debates (merely for ar...
UMMATAN WASOTAN
EXTREME
JIHAD – AL - JANNAH

LIFE
MOTIVATION

DEFICIENT

(DA’WAH )

MATERIALISM
HEDONISM

ISLAMIC
WORLDVIE...
U
TIN
CON .
TO
…

E

All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
CONSIDER:

 Our learning journey is never static.

 When we strive to understand deeper a given object of knowledge,
see...
CONSIDER:

 Our learning journey is never static.

 Perhaps the common ‘understanding’ of what constitute Fardhu ’Ain,
a...
CONSIDER:

 Our learning journey is never static.

 We should ponder deeper on the saying:
“To seek knowledge is obligat...
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
Epistemology: from Greek ἐ πιστήμη(epistēmē),
meaning "knowledge, science",
and λόγος (logos), meaning "study of"
- is the...
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
OXFORD DICTIONARIES’ DEFINITION:

Knowledge is a collection of facts, information,
and/or skills acquired through experien...
EQUIVALENT TERMS USED IN ISLAM

facts, information

MA’-LUMAT
(information; facts)

Skills

SINA’-AH (skills, industrious)...
EPISTEMOLOGY

Amongst the definitions:
“....... Knowledge is the arrival (husul(ma’na-

)* of the meaning

) of a thing or...
EPISTEMOLOGY

Thus, perspective of Education in Islam can be defined:
“... Recognition and acknowledgement, progressively ...
EPISTEMOLOGY

All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
EPISTEMOLOGY

“Has there not been over Man a long period of Time, when he was
nothing--(not even) mentioned?― Verily We cr...
(Allah) Most Gracious! It is He Who has taught
(‘ALAMA) the Qur'an. He has created man: He
has taught him AL-BAYAAN : spee...
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
”It is He (Allah) Who has sent amongst the Unlettered
a messenger (Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.) from
among themselves, to rehe...
“As well as (to confer all these benefits upon) others of them, who
have not already joined them: and He is Exalted in Mig...
EPISTEMOLOGY

To understand how we as human learn, let us analyse
the computer (a product attempted by human to create
an ...
EPISTEMOLOGY

INPUT -

All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014

PROCESSING - OUTPUT
EPISTEMOLOGY

KEYBOARD
THUMB-DISK-DRIVES

SCANNER

MOUSE

FEED TO CPU TO BE PROCESSED
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj I...
EPISTEMOLOGY

• KEYBOARD
• MOUSE
• THUMB/DISK DRIVE

 THE FIVE SENSES:
SIGHT, SOUND, TOUCH, SMELL,
TASTE.

 TRUE REPORT
...
EPISTEMOLOGY

PROCESSING TAKES
PLACE HERE
INPUT
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014

OUTPUT
(FEEDBACK)
EPISTEMOLOGY

• Control unit – storage, speed

 Memory

• ROM – Read only memory

 Linguistic & literacy

• RAM – Random...
EPISTEMOLOGY

SCREEN MONITOR

PRINTER - SCANNER

FROM CPU TO OUTPUT
OR BE SAVED, PRINTED
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee H...
EPISTEMOLOGY

• Monitor – screen
• Printer – scanner
• Thumb-drive

 Speech
 Actions

• Disk-drive

 Creativity

• Soun...
EPISTEMOLOGY

All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
Thus, what our Prophet Muhammad s.a,w. received was
not something new - as this phenomena had already
occurred before him....
EPISTEMOLOGY

All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
Whatever is outside of the

Knowledge resides in the

person – to be regarded as

person – and is also an

information (

...
Information may not

Knowledge has to do

necessarily convey any

with “meanings” –

meanings, but can be

which may inclu...
Every one may have equal

Yet, there can be

access to a given

difference in levels and

information.

depths of knowledg...
Just as raw data input are

It is when cognition of

meant to be processed by

man are applied to

the computer , our read...
THUS the Qur’an categorize

THUS the Qur’anic

these (information) as:

approach for man’s
education enjoins him

“Signs” ...
Note:
Arabic word “universe” and “a scholar; one who
is knowledgeable” is spelt:
(

All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ism...
IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST GRACIOUS, MOST MERCIFUL

ADDENDUM
Especially required
since most participants in
this class are...
ADDENDUM

“Those who do not know that they do not know.”

THE HEEDLESS

“Those who know that they do not know.”

THE IGNOR...
ADDENDUM
BLACK space represents
Infinite Knowledge
“We don’t even know
that we don’t know them”

The GREEN area represents...
ADDENDUM
BLACK space represents
Infinite Knowledge
“We don’t even know
that we don’t know them”

The GREEN area represents...
ADDENDUM
BLACK space represents
Infinite Knowledge
“We don’t even know
that we don’t know them”

When knowledge grows, the...
SINCERE ADVICE TO MUSLIM ‘ INTELLECTUALS ’

All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
CONSIDER:

 Beginning of wisdom in a person is when he
realizes that he does not know.

Behold! Abraham said: "My Lord! s...
Western scientific approach to knowledge, uses “ scepticism” as method
of enquiry. Whether it is “philosophical scepticism...
Our analysis of any new information (potential knowledge) is not
made, as though from a void (tabula rasa), removing every...
Also remember, “one cannot ‘deny’ a thing to exist merely on the
premise that it is not as yet known (proven) by him to ex...
Muslims, who may have missed their subsequent acquisition
regarding this in their FARDHU’AIN lessons on their development ...
Muslims make a clear distinction between :
YAQEEN –

”belief (in a certainty)”; and

SHAKK

“sceptical (with doubts)”.

–
...
LEVELS OF CERTAINTY

LEVELS OF UNCERTAINTY

‘ILMUL YAQEEN
Certainty with knowledge and
Intellection.

RAIBA – suspicious m...
A SCHOLAR WROTE (POEM)

“Knowledge is hostile to the haughty youth,
just as flood water is hostile to the highlands.”

All...
A SCHOLAR WROTE (POEM)

All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
A SCHOLAR WROTE (POEM)

“Neither the teacher nor the physician
advise you unless they are honoured.
So bear your disease p...
TO BE CONTINUED ..... INSHA-ALLAH .. IN

Lesson # 2

A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE & METHOD OF APPROACH

USING OF REASON ...
All welcome to visit my web-blog:

http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/
http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/
http://oyoub...
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  1. 1. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH MOST COMPASIONATE MOST MERCIFUL LESSON #1b “INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF TAUHEED – (AQA’ID) ” TCH MAY A B YUAR ] N [JA 2014 Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 18 weekly class started : 15th JANUARY 2014 Every Wadnesday night @ 8pm – 10pm Wisma Indah, 450 Changi Road, #02-00 next to Masjid Kassim IT CAN ALSO BE A REFRESHER COURSE FOR MUSLIM PARENTS, EDUCATORS, IN CONTEMPORARY SINGAPORE. OPEN TO ALL For further information and registration contact E-mail : ad.fardhayn.sg@gmail.com or +65 81234669 / +65 96838279 Using curriculum he has developed especially for English-speaking Muslim converts and young English-speaking Adult Muslims. “To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)” All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 Updated 22 January 2014
  2. 2. This module # Intermediate on: PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVE Development of Certainty (Belief) Awareness of Reality / Truth Develop discernment between Truth & Falsehood, All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  3. 3. A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE & METHOD OF APPROACH By : Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail Intermediate Islamic Course conducted (since 1990's) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 Previous Lesson
  4. 4. Faith (IIMAN), from the Islamic perspective is not mere blind acceptance. It is a process of acquiring a knowledge of certainty in which we confirm with our innate nature and sense faculties especially that of reason - till we develop conviction. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 Previous Lesson
  5. 5. Basic and most fundamental message of Islam is the KALIMATUT-TAUHEED (Statement concerning the Absolute Oneness of God), in Arabic: LAA-ILAA-HA-IL-LALLAAH “There is no other god (object of worship) except Allah (God)." Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  6. 6. The message of Islam is very simple and exact, yet profound. It stresses upon mankind to recognize the Truth that there is only one God, the Creator, Sustainer, Cherisher of the Universe, -besides Whom there is no other god. Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  7. 7. The Arabic proper noun “Allah” for God, refers to the One Supreme Being, Who is Absolute, Unique and without equal. “Allah” : Arabic proper noun; name for God, it refers to the One and Only, the Unique Creator, Lord Sustainer of the Universe, Who Alone is God – there is none besides Allah. No equivalent translation in non-Semitic language. Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  8. 8. From the above statement, there are 2 aspects which we are required to confirm and develop Faith (iiman) in : (1) Recognizing and be convinced in the existence of God; And (2) That there is none other except ‘Allah’, the Absolute One God (i.e. He is without equal or partner; sharing with no one His Divinity, for there is none like Him) . All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 Previous Lesson
  9. 9. Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  10. 10. TAUQIFIYYAH - i. e. by relying upon true report, which have already been ascertained as to its reliability as being authoritative – for Muslims, the using of evidence from the Al-Qur’an (Revelation) and authenticated Ahadith (Sunnah - sayings, actions or consent of the Prophet); true report or news from many verifiable sources such that it eliminates doubts to its veracity. Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  11. 11. FITRAH - i.e. by relying upon our natural or innate human instincts, intuitions; Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  12. 12. ‘AQLIIYAH - i.e. by the using of the faculty of reasoning, thought process; Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  13. 13. Unlike other religion, Islam recognizes the use of reasoning faculty, and in fact it encourages man to use them because, from the point of view of Islam, the mind or reasoning faculty is the greatest gift of God. Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  14. 14. Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  15. 15. (1) Things that we see around us are 'new' and were created . Creation must emanate from outside creation i.e. the Uncreated. (2) Things are in constant state of motion. We cannot conceive motion to have perpetually existed without a beginning (i.e. it must start from a state of motionless). (3) The dependability of things towards a cause or initiator . So where do all things began? Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  16. 16. (4) The existence of a unified order in the universe . To attribute this order to random chance is most improbable without a universal will (intelligent force). (5) The realization that for this universe to exist as it does, there must be a Sustainer. The complexity for its being sustained, and dependability of things to other things affecting it besides itself, indicate the determination by a 'cosmic force.‘ Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  17. 17. (6) Inherent preparedness in our creation, as well as in animals, plants, etc. This preparedness cannot be something evolved because without it, that animals or plants would not have any chance to begin to survive in the first place. (7) Time and the aging factor in our Universe. This would make us ponder concerning the meta-concept of the infinity (past) and eternity (future) - the concepts of the Divine. Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  18. 18. (8) The 'law' of probability. The computation which actually informs us (mathematically) of the utter remoteness of creation being the outcome of chance accidents. Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  19. 19. A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE & METHOD OF APPROACH Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  20. 20. The term TAUHEED is derived from Arabic word "Ahad”(Absolute One) "Wahada" (Oneness attested) “Yuwaa-hidu" (he unify or attest to the Oneness) – “Tauhii-dan” (you attest to its' Oneness). Therefore it implies an act of attesting to the Belief in the Oneness of Allah (God) Who is the Absolute One; by first by seeking knowledge and verifying the truth in them, so as to arrive at conviction in our hearts and mind, and manifesting the effect of this in our life, through words and deeds. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  21. 21. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  22. 22. “Abraham was not a Jew nor yet a Christian, but he was true in faith and bowed his will to Allah's (“HANEEFAN-MUSLIMAN” which is as a Muslim following a way of life ‘ al-ISLAM’) and he set not any as partners with Allah.” (Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 67) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  23. 23. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  24. 24. “And who turns away from the religion of Abraham but such as debase their souls with folly? Him (Abraham) We chose and rendered pure in this world: and he will be in the Hereafter in the ranks of the Righteous. Behold! His Lord said to him: "Submit (thy will to Me)" He said: "I bow (my will) to the Lord and Cherisher of the universe .“ (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2:130-131) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  25. 25. There are five approaches or methodology (types) of attesting to the existence of the One and only God (Allah) – in the Islamic tradition (that I was taught) , which as Muslims we are to be inculcated with each having a specific expectation, as will be explained herewith, are : All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  26. 26. (1) TAUHIID AL-KHALI-QIYYAH (2) TAUHEED AR-RUBUB-BIYYAH ( 3) TAUHEED AL - ULU-HIYYAH or 'UBUDIYYAH (4) TAUHEED AS-SIFAT (5) TAUHEED AL-ASMA' Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  27. 27. The true aspiration towards being close to our Compassionate and Loving Creator, has to begin by knowing Him and with striving towards achieving His Pleasure (Mardhaa-tillah - ) following the path of TAUHEED – leading to the love of Allah. To attain this, Allah s.w.t. has provided the Guidance and the Guide, the Last Messenger, Seal of the Prophethood, Prophet Muhammad s.a.a.w.: Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  28. 28. Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  29. 29. Say [O Prophet]: "If you love Allah, follow me (TABI-’UUNI), [and]Allah will love you and forgive you your sins; for Allah is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.“ Say: “(TA-’AH - Obey) Pay heed unto Allah and the Messenger.” And if they turn away - verily, Allah does not love those who deny the truth (KAAFIRIN).” (Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 31-32) Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  30. 30. Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  31. 31. Say [O Prophet]: "I am but a mortal man like all of you. It has been revealed unto me that your God is the One and Only God. Hence, whoever looks forward [with hope and awe] to meeting his Sustainer [on Judgment Day], let him do righteous deeds, and (LAA YUSH-RIK) let him not ascribe unto anyone or anything a share in (‘IBAADATI ROB) the worship due to his Sustainer!" (Qur’an: Kahfi: 18: 110) Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  32. 32. CONCLUSION: Thus the Concept of Tauheed which serves as the foundation of the teachings of Islam can only be accomplished by following no other way except the way shown by Allah s.w.t. through His prophets and Messengers. Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  33. 33. CONCLUSION: The Last of Allah’s Prophets and Messengers, who came to supersede them all, guided by Allah's revelation to establish al-Islam as the perfected Deen al-Islam, is prophet Muhammad ibnu 'Abdillah s.a.w - the Last Messenger and the Seal of prophethood. Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  34. 34. CONCLUSION: And certainly there will be no other prophet after him. That is why the Kalimah of al-Islam for every Muslim must be completed with : MUHAM-MADUR-RA-SUU-LULLAH "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah". Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  35. 35. CONCLUSION: And further elaborations after TAUHEED would include aspects emanating from it such as: (AL- ‘ADALAH) : QADHA’-WAL-QADR (SAM-’IYYAT) : AL-GHAYB– RISAALAH - NUBUWWAT (AL-AAKHIRAH) QIYAMAH – HISAB – MIZAN – SIRAT – JANNAH - AN-NAR Previous Lesson All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  36. 36. A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF ITS HISTORY AND RELEVANCE FOR MUSLIMS All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  37. 37. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  38. 38. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST COMPASSIONATE, MOST MERCIFUL. “O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day : that is best, and most suitable for final determination.” (Qur’an: An-Nisa’: 4: 49) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  39. 39. “The best of mankind – (believers) – are in my generation, then (a generation) after it, and then (another generation) after that.” (Hadith reported by Bukhary and Muslim) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  40. 40. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  41. 41. “Allah most Exalted will never allow the affairs of my ummah to be with what deviates (from Truth) forever; so follow the majority (of my ummah – SAWAA-DUL-A’-ZOM). Allah’s hand is upon the Jama’ah (united community), whoever defers away from it , defers toward Hell-fire.” (Hadith reported by al-Hakim from Ibn Jarir) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  42. 42. SALAF GENERATION No disputation in matters AQEEDAH Due to politics SHI’AH - ‘ALI UMAYYAD Due to Hellenistic influence Proliferation of KALAM KHAWARIJ ABBASIYYAH KHALAF GENERATION Beginning of disputation in matters AQEEDAH Theological discussions AHLUS-SUNNAH WAL JAMA’AH MU’TAZILAH QADARIYYAH JAHMIYAH RAWAAFEED All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 MUJASSIMAH JABARIYYAH MURJI ’AH QARAMATIYAH ETC.
  43. 43. “Amongst you, after receiving guidance, you will not go astray except for those who then enter into debates (merely for argument sake) .” Then he (Prophet s.a.w.) recited a verse (Qur’an: Zukhruf: 43: 58): “They raise not the objection save for argument. Nay! but they are a contentious folk.” (Hadith quoted by Imam Ibn Hajar in “Az-Zawajir”) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  44. 44. UMMATAN WASOTAN EXTREME JIHAD – AL - JANNAH LIFE MOTIVATION DEFICIENT (DA’WAH ) MATERIALISM HEDONISM ISLAMIC WORLDVIEW SECULAR HUMANISM TAKFIR AQEEDAH (TAUHEED) RELIGIOUS PLURALISM TABDI’ FIQH FASIQ WALA’- WAL - BARA’ (MADZHAB) Tendency - obsession All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 SAWAA-DUL- A’ZOM Tendency - obsession
  45. 45. U TIN CON . TO … E All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  46. 46. CONSIDER:  Our learning journey is never static.  When we strive to understand deeper a given object of knowledge, seeking to discover whatever profound meanings contain within it, requiring much thinking, contemplation in processing our thoughts while interacting with the information, till we uncover layers upon layers of meanings, thereby increasing our understanding, we are adding quality and it is this this mode of acquisition which I deem as “vertical”.  Thus, to me a Muslim’s learning is never static, although the subjects we may be speaking of is similar, especially those regarded as “Fardhu ‘Ain” which I always like to re-visit and share. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  47. 47. CONSIDER:  Our learning journey is never static.  Perhaps the common ‘understanding’ of what constitute Fardhu ’Ain, amongst our community, may have been grossly misperceived because too often, we imply increase in knowledge only in the horizontal sense.  Knowledge of the Fardhu ‘Ain for a Muslim actually is always judged in accordance with whatever obligations he/she is commanded by the religion to uphold. As this responsibilities increases when his social role changes, so too would be the Fardhu ‘Ain knowledge he/she has to or obligated (by our religion) or to (religiously) acquire them. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  48. 48. CONSIDER:  Our learning journey is never static.  We should ponder deeper on the saying: “To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”  If you say, we seek “knowledge” then we should ask what is “knowledge”?  Is there a difference between the ‘traditional’ Islamic perspective of its meaning with what was taught by the ‘conventional’ worldview?  Is there any difference between “knowledge” and “information” ?  Are there not many types or categories of knowledge? How do we go about prioritizing them? ... etc. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  49. 49. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  50. 50. Epistemology: from Greek ἐ πιστήμη(epistēmē), meaning "knowledge, science", and λόγος (logos), meaning "study of" - is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge. It addresses the questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge acquired? How do we know what we know? All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  51. 51. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  52. 52. OXFORD DICTIONARIES’ DEFINITION: Knowledge is a collection of facts, information, and/or skills acquired through experience or education or (more generally) the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); and it can be more or less formal or systematic. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  53. 53. EQUIVALENT TERMS USED IN ISLAM facts, information MA’-LUMAT (information; facts) Skills SINA’-AH (skills, industrious); Knowledge ’ILM – (science and knowledge) education TA-ADDIB; - which includes TA’-LIM; TAR-BIYYAH; TAZKIYYAH, etc. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 FANNIYAH (artistry);
  54. 54. EPISTEMOLOGY Amongst the definitions: “....... Knowledge is the arrival (husul(ma’na- )* of the meaning ) of a thing or object of knowledge in the soul of the subject; and simultaneously,..... Knowledge is the soul’s arrival (wusul- ) at the meaning of that thing or the object of knowledge.” By “meaning” (ma’na- ) is: “the recognition of the proper place of anything in a system ...” : Prof. Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas * “attainment; acquirement” is a better translation. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  55. 55. EPISTEMOLOGY Thus, perspective of Education in Islam can be defined: “... Recognition and acknowledgement, progressively instilled into man, of the proper places of things in the order of creation, such that it leads to the recognition and acknowledgement of the proper place of God in the order of being and existence.” Quoted from: “The Educational Philosophy and Practice of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas” by Wan Mohd Nor Wan Daud (ISTAC publication). All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  56. 56. EPISTEMOLOGY All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  57. 57. EPISTEMOLOGY “Has there not been over Man a long period of Time, when he was nothing--(not even) mentioned?― Verily We created Man from a drop of mingled sperm, in order to try him: so We gave him (the gifts), of Hearing and Sight. We showed him the Way: whether he be grateful or ungrateful (rests on his will).” (Qur’an: al-Insan: 76:1-3) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  58. 58. (Allah) Most Gracious! It is He Who has taught (‘ALAMA) the Qur'an. He has created man: He has taught him AL-BAYAAN : speech (and Intelligence) (Qur’an: ar-Rahmaan: 55:1-4) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  59. 59. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  60. 60. ”It is He (Allah) Who has sent amongst the Unlettered a messenger (Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.) from among themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to sanctify them, and to instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom― although they had been, before, in manifest error― “ (Qur’an: Jumu’ah:62: 2) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  61. 61. “As well as (to confer all these benefits upon) others of them, who have not already joined them: and He is Exalted in Might, Wise. Such is the Bounty of Allah, which He bestows on whom He will: and Allah is the Lord of the highest bounty.” (Qur’an: Jumu’ah: 63: 3-4) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  62. 62. EPISTEMOLOGY To understand how we as human learn, let us analyse the computer (a product attempted by human to create an imitation or artificial intelligence) Computerization is a total system comprising of: [1] INPUT [2] PROCESSING [3] OUTPUT All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  63. 63. EPISTEMOLOGY INPUT - All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 PROCESSING - OUTPUT
  64. 64. EPISTEMOLOGY KEYBOARD THUMB-DISK-DRIVES SCANNER MOUSE FEED TO CPU TO BE PROCESSED All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  65. 65. EPISTEMOLOGY • KEYBOARD • MOUSE • THUMB/DISK DRIVE  THE FIVE SENSES: SIGHT, SOUND, TOUCH, SMELL, TASTE.  TRUE REPORT • SCANNER • BLUETOOTH/WIRELESS COMPUTER All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014  EXTRA-SENSORY -INSPIRATION, DREAM, INTUITION, BURST OF BRILLIANCE HUMAN BEING
  66. 66. EPISTEMOLOGY PROCESSING TAKES PLACE HERE INPUT All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 OUTPUT (FEEDBACK)
  67. 67. EPISTEMOLOGY • Control unit – storage, speed  Memory • ROM – Read only memory  Linguistic & literacy • RAM – Random access memory  Logic & music • BIOS – Basic input-output  Deductive - inductive System • DOS – Disk operating System; Drivers etc. • ALU – Arithmetic logic unit COMPUTER All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014  Speculative extrapolation  Emotive - empathy  Contemplative - intuition  Extraneous linkage HUMAN BEING
  68. 68. EPISTEMOLOGY SCREEN MONITOR PRINTER - SCANNER FROM CPU TO OUTPUT OR BE SAVED, PRINTED All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 THUMB-DISK-DRIVES
  69. 69. EPISTEMOLOGY • Monitor – screen • Printer – scanner • Thumb-drive  Speech  Actions • Disk-drive  Creativity • Sound-system  Behaviour • Projector  Disposition (akhlaq) • Other devices COMPUTER All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 HUMAN BEING
  70. 70. EPISTEMOLOGY All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  71. 71. Thus, what our Prophet Muhammad s.a,w. received was not something new - as this phenomena had already occurred before him. Thus those, termed the “People of the Book” amongst those of Abrahamic line i.e. the Jews and Christians, would be the independent parties than can corroborate not deny but confirm this. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  72. 72. EPISTEMOLOGY All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  73. 73. Whatever is outside of the Knowledge resides in the person – to be regarded as person – and is also an information ( attribute (sifat- knowledge ( ) – not ). All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 ) of the person him/herself.
  74. 74. Information may not Knowledge has to do necessarily convey any with “meanings” – meanings, but can be which may include subjected to process or abstract concepts and interpretation – by a human construct beyond the – striving to seek and material forms. arriving at understanding of “meanings” from it. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  75. 75. Every one may have equal Yet, there can be access to a given difference in levels and information. depths of knowledge to a given information, depending upon who contemplates upon it. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  76. 76. Just as raw data input are It is when cognition of meant to be processed by man are applied to the computer , our readings, process these observations, news, data information, that he and information etc. are may be said to arrive objects to be understood at knowledge (i.e. and possible meanings from when it becomes it to be comprehended by us meaningful). human. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  77. 77. THUS the Qur’an categorize THUS the Qur’anic these (information) as: approach for man’s education enjoins him “Signs” – aayat ( ) to “Read” ( ) these Al-Qur’an – aayat Qawliyyah signs to arrive at the Universe – aayat Kauniyah “meanings” – regarding the REALITY. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  78. 78. Note: Arabic word “universe” and “a scholar; one who is knowledgeable” is spelt: ( All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 )
  79. 79. IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, MOST GRACIOUS, MOST MERCIFUL ADDENDUM Especially required since most participants in this class are Muslims who may require this important reminder.* * A REMINDER TO MUSLIMS FROM LESSONS ON ISLAMIC “ADAB” All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 Hope those nonMuslim or participants new to Islam in this class can understand and appreciate the reason for this prelude LESSONS FROM BEGINNERS’ COURSE 79
  80. 80. ADDENDUM “Those who do not know that they do not know.” THE HEEDLESS “Those who know that they do not know.” THE IGNORANT “Those who do not know that they know.” THE NEGLIGENT THE WISE “Those who know that they know.” SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRULY WISE And the wise (those who truly know), will always look at what they are ignorant of, maintaining humility , striving to continue learning, rather than become conceited with whatever little they had already learnt. LESSONS FROM BEGINNERS’ COURSE All RightsReserved© Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (2012) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  81. 81. ADDENDUM BLACK space represents Infinite Knowledge “We don’t even know that we don’t know them” The GREEN area represents whatever Knowledge that we have. RED line (circumference) indicates our encounter with knowledge which we now realize we do not know; which motivates us to acquire them. The beginning of Wisdom is when you realize you do not know! *Extracted and elaborated from “Beginners’ Manual on Islam” by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj ismail (PERGAS) LESSONS FROM BEGINNERS’ COURSE All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  82. 82. ADDENDUM BLACK space represents Infinite Knowledge “We don’t even know that we don’t know them” The GREEN area represents whatever Knowledge that we have. When we acquire these, our knowledge grows and grows (DARK GREEN area ) *Extracted and elaborated from “Beginners’ Manual on Islam” by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj ismail (PERGAS) LESSONS FROM BEGINNERS’ COURSE All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  83. 83. ADDENDUM BLACK space represents Infinite Knowledge “We don’t even know that we don’t know them” When knowledge grows, the circle will expand. But with this expansion the circumference (RED line) also increases. Remember: RED line (circumference) The GREEN area represents whatever Knowledge that we have. indicates our encounter with knowledge which we now realize we do not know. When we acquire these, our knowledge grows (DARK GREEN area ) “The more we know, the more will we encounter aspects of knowledge which we do not know. And only realization of this which motivates us to grow in learning” *Extracted and elaborated from “Beginners’ Manual on Islam” by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj ismail (PERGAS) LESSONS FROM BEGINNERS’ COURSE All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  84. 84. SINCERE ADVICE TO MUSLIM ‘ INTELLECTUALS ’ All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  85. 85. CONSIDER:  Beginning of wisdom in a person is when he realizes that he does not know. Behold! Abraham said: "My Lord! show me how You give life to the dead. He said: "Do you not then believe?" He said: "Yea! but to satisfy my own understanding.“ * (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 260) * literally: “to make my heart tranquil” All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  86. 86. Western scientific approach to knowledge, uses “ scepticism” as method of enquiry. Whether it is “philosophical scepticism” (which even denies possibility of knowledge) or “methodological scepticism”, we Muslims must be very careful of those who are using this when ‘ learning’ and ‘teaching’ knowledge of al-Islam. This is because it (scepticism) posited ‘denial’ to any thesis which cannot be empirically substantiated. Whereas, in matters of belief, Islam does not limit proof only in the use of the five senses ( EMPIRICAL), but also include the proper use of the intellect ( REASONING), innate pure instinct (FITRAH SALIMAH), as well as reliance upon true and reliable report (TAUQIFIY) especially authenticated revelations. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  87. 87. Our analysis of any new information (potential knowledge) is not made, as though from a void (tabula rasa), removing every known truth which we already hold, as a basis or criteria. Especially when learning in Islam, a Muslim cannot be expected to learn something objectively (like the secularist), but must always subject himself/herself to every truth regarding the REALITY thus far acquired, and to build upon it. Just like Prophet Ibrahim a.s. , his ‘intellectual curiosity’ is not necessarily scepticism, and does not require him to negate whatever faith he already holds. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  88. 88. Also remember, “one cannot ‘deny’ a thing to exist merely on the premise that it is not as yet known (proven) by him to exist . “ For even to ‘deny’ something, Islam requires a “proof” for its falsity. Without which one is simply to hold to a neutral position (neither reject nor accept), remaining open and not to blatantly deny it. In FARDHU ‘AIN, Muslims will be taught (in this module, insha-Allah) how to think; especially the three intellectual postulates: ( HUKM ‘AQL) – i.e. WAJIB (inevitability), HARUS (possibility), and MUSTAHIL (rational impossibility). Have we learnt this? Perhaps many “may not know, that they know!” All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  89. 89. Muslims, who may have missed their subsequent acquisition regarding this in their FARDHU’AIN lessons on their development of AQEEDAH, but went on to be trained in ‘scepticism’ may be spiritually (intellectually) harmed. They should be told that “scepticism” is not knowledge, but only an admission of one’s “ignorance.” A doubt, or rather intellectual curiosity, only if managed with humility, leads to wisdom. So do not use scepticism as though it is a badge to highlight one’s ‘intellectual superiority ’ in learning – (whereas it is but a conceited ‘cynicism ’ , pretentiously disguised as “wisdom”!) So please, be humble. Adhere to the ADAB in learning. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  90. 90. Muslims make a clear distinction between : YAQEEN – ”belief (in a certainty)”; and SHAKK “sceptical (with doubts)”. – We are guided by one of the principles (QAWAA-ID) : “Certainty cannot be removed (overruled) by Doubt” All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  91. 91. LEVELS OF CERTAINTY LEVELS OF UNCERTAINTY ‘ILMUL YAQEEN Certainty with knowledge and Intellection. RAIBA – suspicious misgivings; wavering doubt; uncertainty; ‘AINUL YAQEEN Certainty by sight and sensory perception. SHAKK – doubt,; uncertainty, distrust; sceptical; HAQQUL YAQEEN True certainty – ‘tasting’; direct experience of Reality; All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 DZONN – conjecture; assumption; yet still not certain; guess; inclining towards holding opinion even though still without valid proof of certainty.
  92. 92. A SCHOLAR WROTE (POEM) “Knowledge is hostile to the haughty youth, just as flood water is hostile to the highlands.” All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  93. 93. A SCHOLAR WROTE (POEM) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  94. 94. A SCHOLAR WROTE (POEM) “Neither the teacher nor the physician advise you unless they are honoured. So bear your disease patiently if you have wronged its healer ; and be satisfied with your ignorance if you have wronged a teacher.” All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  95. 95. TO BE CONTINUED ..... INSHA-ALLAH .. IN Lesson # 2 A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE & METHOD OF APPROACH USING OF REASON (AQLIYYAH) AS ONE OF THE MEANS OF DEVELOPING IIMAN (FAITH) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  96. 96. All welcome to visit my web-blog: http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 96
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