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YTU ELT students attitude towards using soft copy materials

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Ytu elt students attitude towards using soft copy materials

Ytu elt students attitude towards using soft copy materials

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  • 1. i YILDIZ TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ EĞİTİM FAKÜLTESİ YABANCI DİLLER BÖLÜMÜ ANABİLİM DALI İNGİLİZCE ÖĞRETMENLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ YTU ELT STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS USING SOFT-COPY MATERIALS LİSANS TEZİ BURAK BASUT EMRE MOR TURGUT ÖLEMEZ YUNUS EMRE SARIGÜL İSTANBUL Haziran, 2012
  • 2. ii ACKNOWLEDGMENT After working with this thesis research, we would say that we felt tired and exhausted some time but in the end, it was one of the best things we did in our university careers. So we are very happy to be a part of this research. Our deep thanks go first and foremost to Yrd. Doç. Dr. Suzan Kavanoz Hatipoğlu and Yrd. Doç. Dr. Gülru Yüksel for guiding us during the process of preparing our thesis and inspiring us for this research. Special thanks to our close friends for their kind supports. We would like to express our thanks to our volunteers and colleagues in Yildiz Technical University.
  • 3. iii ABSTRACT The main goal of this research is to find out about Yildiz Technical University English Language Teaching students‟ attitudes towards soft copy use. This research was held by a sample of 100 volunteers. A questionnaire transformed from a newly developed e- learning scale was used to gather the data. The results show that there are significant differences in the attitudes towards soft copy use based on grade. On the other hand, the results show no differences in the attitudes towards soft copy use based on volunteers‟ gender. Also, the study reveals that Ytu Elt students generally have good attitudes towards soft copy use. Key Words: Soft copy, Attitudes, Yildiz Technical University, English Language Teaching.
  • 4. iv ÖZET Bu araştırmanın temel amacı Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi İngilizce Öğretmenliği Bölümü‟ndeki öğrenim gören öğrencilerin elektronik materyal kullanımına bakış açısını ortaya çıkarmaktır. Araştırma 100 gönüllü tarafından gerçekleştirilmiştir ve araştırmada kullanılan anket elektronik öğrenme anketinin araştırmaya uygun şekilde adapte edilmiş halidir. Sonuçlar, elektronik materyal kullanımına karşı farklı sınıflarda farklı tutumların geliştiği görülmüştür. Öte yandan, elektronik materyal kullanımına bakışta cinsiyetin bir değişken olmadığı ortaya çıkmıştır. Ayrıca araştırma sonunda Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi İngilizce Öğretmenliği Bölümü öğrencilerinin elektronik materyal kullanımına karşı olumlu tutum sergiledikleri gözlemlenmiştir.
  • 5. v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Acknowledgment……………………………………………………………………………….i Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………ii Özet……………………………………………………………………………………………..iii Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………...…iv List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………………vi List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………………...vii Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Presentation…………………………………………………………………………1 1.2 Thesis Overview…………………………………………………………………….1 1.3 Statement of the Problem…………………………………………………………...1 1.4 Purpose of This Research……………………………………………………………4 1.5 Research Hypothesis……………………………………………………………...…4 1.6 Thesis Structure……………………………………………………………………..4 1.7 Definitions to some Key Concepts………………………………………………….5 Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Presentation…………………………………………………………………………6 2.2 Definitions of the Soft Copy ………………………………………………………6 2.3 The evolution of the Soft Copy…………………………………………………….7 2.3.1 History Timeline of Soft Copy…………………………………………...7 2.3.1.1 Instructor Led Training (Pre 1983) …………………………….7 2.3.1.2 Multimedia Era (1984 to 1993)…………………………………7 2.3.1.3 Introduction of Web - (1994 - 1999)……………………...……8 2.3.1.4 The Next Generation Web (2000 to now)………………………8 2.3.2 Uses of Soft Copy…………………………………………………………9 2.4 Soft Copy Dimensions……………………………………………………………….9 2.4.1 Attitudes……………………………………………………………..….…9
  • 6. vi 2.4.2 Advantages……………………………………………………………….10 2.4.3 Disadvantages………………………………………………………….....11 2.4.4 Implementations Barriers…………………………………………………11 2.4.5 Differences in Attitudes towards Soft Copy Material Class Based on Educational Levels…………………………………………………………......13 2.4.6 The Future………………………………………………………………...13 2.4.6.1 Rich-Media Instructors…………………………………………13 2.5 Turkey and Soft Copy………………………………………………………………13 2.5.1 Fatih Project………………………………………………………………13 2.5.2 Smart Board in Turkey…………………………………………………...17 2.5.3 Evolution in Computerization…………………………………………….17 2.5.4 Overhead Projectors………………………………………………………18 2.6 Examples of Seminal Studies in Soft Copy Usage and E-learning………………...18 2.6.1 Newton‟s Study (2003)…………………………………………………...18 2.6.2 Cheng‟s Study…………………………………………………………….19 2.6.3 Alghazo‟s Study (2006)…………………………………………………..20 2.7 Summary……………………………………………………………………………22 Chapter 3: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 3.1 Presentation…………………………………………………………………………….23 3.2 Participants…………………………………………………………………………23 3.3 Research Design…………………………………………………………………....23 3.4 Instruments…………………………………………………………………………24 3.5 Data Collection……………………………………………………………………..24 3.6 Data Analysis……………………………………………………………………….25 3.6.1 Target Population Sampling Method……………………………………..25 3.6.2 Research Limitations…………………………………………………..…25 3.7 Data Analysis Method……………………………………………………………...26
  • 7. vii Chapter 4: DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Descriptive Analysis……………………………………………………………….27 4.1.1 The Participants of the Questionnaires…………………………………...27 4.1.2 The Gender of the Participants…………………………………………..27 4.2 Hypothesis Testing…………………………………………………………………27 4.2.1 Negative attitudes towards soft copy use hypothesis…………………….28 4.2.2 Gender Differences Hypothesis…………………………………………..43 4.2.3 Grade Differences Hypothesis……………………………………………47 4.3 Interview Findings………………………………………………………………….47 4.3 Discussion and Findings……………………………………………………………48 Chapter 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 Presentation………………………………………………………………………...49 5.2 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………….49 5.3 Research Implications………………………………………………………………49 5.4 Recommendations………………………………………………………………….50 References…………………………………………………………………………..….51 Appendix: Questionnaire (English)……………………………………………………..
  • 8. viii LIST OF TABLES PAGE Table:1.0………………………………………………………………………….........27 Table:1.1……………………………………………………………………………….27 Table:2.0……………………………………………………………………………….28 Table:2.1……………………………………………………………………………….29 Table:2.2……………………………………………………………………………….30 Table:2.3……………………………………………………………………………….31 Table:2.4………………………………………………………………………………..32 Table:2.5………………………………………………………………………………..33 Table:2.6………………………………………………………………………………..34 Table:2.7………………………………………………………………………………..35 Table:2.8………………………………………………………………………………..36 Table:2.9………………………………………………………………………………..37 Table:2.10………………………………………………………………………………38 Table:2.11………………………………………………………………………………39 Table:2.12………………………………………………………………………………40 Table:2.13………………………………………………………………………………41 Table:2.14………………………………………………………………………………42 Table:3.0……………………………………………………………………………….28 Table:3.1…………………………………………………………………………..…..29
  • 9. ix Table:3.2………………………………………………………………………………30 Table:3.3………………………………………………………………………………31 Table:3.4………………………………………………………………………………32 Table:3.5 ……………………………………………………………………………..33 Table:3.6………………………………………………………………………………34 Table:3.7………………………………………………………………………………35 Table:3.8………………………………………………………………………………36 Table:3.9………………………………………………………………………………37 Table:3.10……………………………………………………………………………..38 Table:3.11……………………………………………………………………………..39 Table:3.12…………………………………………………………………………….40 Table:3.13……………………………………………………………………………..41 Table:3.14…………………………………………………………………………….42 Table:4.0………………………………………………………………………………44 Table:4.1………………………………………………………………………………45 Table:4.2……………………………………………………………………………….46 Table:4.3……………………………………………………………………………….47
  • 10. 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 PRESENTATION In this chapter, thesis overview, statement of the problem, purpose of the research, research hypotheses, thesis structure and definitions of some key concepts will be presented. 1.1 THESIS OVERVIEW Soft copy usage has attracted a stunning development in the use of e-learning in recent years, and consequently, computer-mediated communication has attracted more attention. When soft copy usage was first introduced in e-learning, it had created excitement among researchers and practitioners. Many educators and researchers had high hopes for soft copy, because soft copy provided more access to information and communication technologies, and ultimately leaded to a new revolution in education. There have been several studies to investigate the attitudes towards soft copy in the world. However, ours will be the first in Yildiz Technical University. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The first motivation about changing our education system started with the invitation of the American educator and philosopher John Dewey (1859-1952) to Turkey by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in 1924. It was certainly the turning point between Turkey and the United States' relationship in terms of Turkish educational system. He was invited to Turkey to make his proposals to establish a democratic culture by the way of public school; to democratize the education of children; and to train the "army of teachers" in accordance with the democratic principles. Dewey firstly examined the Turkish education system and proposed that, it is dangerous to imitate the educational system of other nations in exact form and the formation of Turkish system should synthesize the
  • 11. 2 good parts of various countries' systems. For Dewey, the most urgent problem of Turkey was teachers and their situations. As the heart of education was the teacher, the reform had to begin by improving the position of teachers. Children were supposed to be active and innovative in the democratic society. Two years after, Dewey was invited again by the Turkish government to build up a modern educational system. According to Dewey, children should have been rescued from becoming the slave of books. As Dewey proposed, libraries and exhibitions were established. The Ministry of Education sent librarians to abroad to study library science. Dewey stressed that the schools should be made the centers of community life, especially in the rural districts. The Dewey's report reflects not just his educational ideas, but the ideas of Turkish educators whom Dewey talked with during his journey. Indeed, it is really difficult to separate the views of Turkish educators who were under the influence of European education, from that of Dewey. In the Turkish journals of 1925, it is possible to see the advertisement of a special school which declared that its aim was to bring up men of business and life by applying the teaching methods of progressive schools in America. However, despite all the above mentioned activities, the Turkish educational system was not able to rescue itself from the traditional school system. In Turkey, there are many different teaching styles in practice but we will be focusing on the modern approach which is based on soft copy use. Our aim is to determine the attitudes of Yildiz Technical University ELT-Department students towards soft copy use. As mentioned above, there has been no concrete improvement in Turkish educational system for years. Turkish educational system is theoretically based on Dewey‟s constructivism theory yet it could not keep up with the recent changes in technology. The adaptation of technology in Turkish education system has always been a problem and this research aims to investigate the reasons behind this problem. As the study‟s hypothesis supports the idea of modern school system, we are highly thinking that new material can be useful and be beneficial for our future education. As we agree with this idea, initially we need to check our future teachers‟ aims about their teaching systems and approaches. As the technology has changed and improved we are
  • 12. 3 thinking that soft copy material could be more visible and easier to reach for their education. In conclusion recent improvements and developments in the area of technology make us to research the attitude of using technology. As we cannot investigate the whole country system, we take our university students as a control group for our experiments. The importance of technology in education has gained momentum and research on soft copy use has become crucial to expand the new frontiers of education in language learning. This research on soft copy use has focused on topics such as attitudes of Yildiz Technical University Elt Department‟s students towards soft copy usage, evaluation of gender and grade differences, comparison of traditional and computer assisted learning. Soft copy is a necessity for teacher candidates in order to keep up with the technological developments in educational area. Thus, this research about soft copy use initiates the following questions: 1. What is YTU ELT Students‟ attitude towards using soft copy materials? 2. What are the demographic factors affecting soft copy? 3. What would learners like to use in their classroom environment; soft copy or hard copy? 4. Could soft copy usage facilitate learning process according to the interviewees? 5. What are the advantages of using soft copy? Different researchers from different parts of the world discussed attitudes towards soft copy usage. However, we found that there is a lack of research in this area in Yildiz Technical University ELT Department. By studying the attitudes towards soft copy in Ytu, we try to fill this research gap. The study investigates what the attitudes of Ytu Elt students towards using soft copy materials are. In addition, it shows whether these teacher candidates have a common tendency using soft copy materials in their educational lives. In this respect, the goal of this study is to reveal the common tendency towards using soft copy among Ytu Elt students.
  • 13. 4 1.4 PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH Few studies have analyzed the attitudes towards soft copy. Our study aims to fill this gap by analyzing the attitudes of Ytu Elt students towards soft copy use. More specifically, our objective is to analyze Ytu Elt students‟ attitudes and expectations towards using soft copy, examine the impact of some variables such as gender and grade level on the attitudes towards using soft copy in Ytu. Also, this research will indicate further researches. Furthermore it is hoped that this study will enlighten future studies and lessons for our mentors and students. At the same time, this research can lead to create new teaching environments in Yildiz Technical University. 1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES In this research it is hypothesized that: H1: Ytu Elt students will report negative attitudes towards soft copy. H2: There will be statistically considerable differences in attitude towards soft copy based on gender. H3: There will be considerable differences in attitude towards soft copy based on grade level. 1.6 THESIS STRUCTURE This thesis comprises of five chapters. The first chapter is the introductory chapter, summarizing what the thesis is about. The second chapter is the literature review, in which previous theories and models related to our study topic are analyzed. The third chapter discusses the research design and methodology. The main topic of chapter four is data analysis, discussion and findings. The fifth and last chapter ends with our conclusion and recommendation.
  • 14. 5 1.7 DEFINITIONS OF SOME KEY CONCEPTS A soft copy is the unprinted digital document file. This term is often contrasted with hard copy. It can be regarded as a rule by selecting the appropriate image editing program such as Word processing programs, database programs, or presentation software, depending on file type. Also, the vocabularies below are the keywords that we will use much in our research. It will be beneficial to check their meanings clearly according to our study. Ytu Elt refers to Yildiz Technical University English Language Department. ICT (information and communications technology - or technologies) is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as video conferencing and distance learning. Hard copy is a printout of data stored in a computer. It is considered hard because it exists physically on paper, whereas a soft copy exists only electronically. E-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. The information and communication systems whether networked learning or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process.
  • 15. 6 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 PRESENTATION In this chapter, definition of the soft copy, evolution to soft copy, history timeline of the soft copy, instructor led training, multimedia era, introduction of web, the next generation web, uses of soft copy, soft copy dimensions attitudes, advantages, disadvantages, implementation barriers, differences in attitudes towards soft copy material class based on educational levels, the future, rich-media instructors will be presented. 2.2 DEFINITION OF THE SOFT COPY A soft copy is the unprinted digital document file. This term is often contrasted with hard copy. It can be regarded as a rule by selecting the appropriate image editing program such as Word processing programs, database programs, or presentation software, depending on file type. It can be transported from one computer to another through file transfer / download mechanisms as an email attachment or via USB drives and other drives. Keeping a digital copy of a document can allow easy editing of it later. With soft-copies of work over traditional printed documents eliminates the need for paper and ink. Multiple copies of the same document can be held in various versions, allowing the user to back down from a previous version easily. In addition, soft copies are more easily manipulated by users than hard copies, which can be both an advantage and a disadvantage. If soft copies are kept on storage media, they conserve office space. Softcopy documents are more portable compared to hard copy, because it is not bulky like hard copy.
  • 16. 7 2.3 THE EVOLUTION TO SOFT COPY 2.3.1. History Timeline of Soft Copy Soft copy use evolved gradually through the phase of time. Computers and Internet are major roles in bring soft copy to what it is today. Education has various standards in many countries and regions. Software is designed to meet various these standards and academic curriculum. Below we shall discuss a brief timeline on the evolution of soft copy. 2.3.1.1 Instructor Led Training (Pre 1983) Prior to the availability of computers everywhere and with everyone, Instructor Led Training (ILT) was the primary training method. ILT allowed students to focus on their studies and to come in direct contact and interaction with their instructors and classmates. Drawbacks of ILT were high costs and time. Students had to ensure to take time off from all other activities and be enrolled into academic institutions and spend most of their time there. 2.3.1.2 Multimedia Era (1984 to 1993) The mid 1980‟s and early 1990‟s saw a much changing computer era. Most of the people started to understand the importance of computers and it started to become a need rather than a luxury product. Various operating systems like Windows, Macintosh for Apple Computers with their easy to use Graphical User interface made it easy for the users to take a much more liking towards computers. Applications also evolved with higher standards focusing on the ease of use by the end-users. Microsoft‟s Office package that included standards day-to-day applications like MS-Word, MS-Excel, MS- PowerPoint, MS-Access and such added software‟s made using programs easier. Out of this applications such as PowerPoint became the major instrument of soft copy. CD- ROM‟s made it easier for these programs to be carried and stored easily rather than carrying multiple numbers of Floppy Disks. All this led to the advancement of the multimedia era.
  • 17. 8 With the use of multimedia applications and in an attempt to make training more transportable and visually engaging, Computer Based Training (CBT) courses were delivered via CD-ROM. This availability of anytime, anywhere via CD-ROM‟s provide time and cost savings compared to the ILT‟s and gradually reshaped the training industry. These too had its disadvantages. Despite these benefits and saving of time and cost, these courses lacked the personal student-instructor interaction and dynamic presentations making the experience somewhat less satisfying. Students started to find it slower and less engaging. 2.3.1.3 Introduction of Web - (1994 - 1999) Introduction of the internet and the World Wide Web, gave insights into training providers to explore its potentiality and find ways to improve training. The introduction of email, Web browsers, HTML, media players, low fidelity streamed audio/video and simple Java began to change the process of lessons. CBT‟s improved with text and graphics, but the graphics provided were of low quality. E-mails provided standards whereby CBT‟s and similar contents could be reached to students with ease, but care had to be taken for these files to be of small file size due to the Internet bandwidth capacity. 2.3.1.4 The Next Generation Web (2000 to now) Various technology advancements have enhanced the variety of soft copy material has shaped today. Application like Java and other IP (Internet Protocol) applications help streamlining rich media. Internet has evolved with high bandwidth lines enabling users to access large files easily and with speed. This has led to a combination of ILT along with electronic highway. Today, live instructor led training (ILT) via the Web can be combined with real-time mentoring, improved learner services and up-to-date. This growth in Internet, Web enables instructors to deliver high quality content directly to the users. With the evolution of PDA (Personal Desktop Assistants) and Smartphone and wireless technologies such as WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network), GPRS (Global Packet Radio Service) web based contents and emails can be accessed from anywhere,
  • 18. 9 anytime. These enhanced training solutions provide greater cost savings, higher quality of learning experience and are the educational standards are being revolutionized and changing to adopt soft copy materials as the basis for many educations levels. 2.3.2 Uses of Soft Copy Soft copy materials are used in everywhere and across all types of areas. Soft copy usage is deployed with the objective of enhancing the students knowledge and cost saving. Using soft copy also helps to reach geographically dispersed groups, to provide “anywhere-anytime” learning, to provide consistency, to ensure compliance with regulations, and to improve productivity. Educational institutions use soft copy for broadening the academic scope. Soft copy use can provide much more references and learning scopes than the ones provided in the usual text books (hard copies). 2.4. SOFT COPY DIMENSIONS 2.4.1 Attitudes Previous researches found a favorable attitude towards soft copy usage. For example, Peters (1993) explored the possible benefits provided by soft copy materials. Results show great conformity to deriving benefits of soft copy in both teaching and research. However, faculty members in this study expressed certain reservations regarding the future implementation of soft copy usage at the university; for example: “One day the university will receive all its learning provision through soft copy using”, “soft copy materials will help faculty members develop better teamwork and inter-personal skills” and “saving time and making economy in teaching programs”. These attitudes reflect faculty members‟ lack of trust in one another‟s ability in using advanced technologies in teaching. Also using the technology helps students and teachers about their communication even they are away from each other. The most appreciated aspect of Web-enhanced instruction was the enhancement of communication opportunities with the course instructor, followed by the availability of instructor‟s presentations using by internet, getting grades from the web, online submission of assignments, posing questions through the internet, saving time, thorough understanding of the course materials, and enhancing communication opportunities with
  • 19. 10 classmates respectively. However, most female students preferred having a hardcopy of the course syllabus rather than printing it from the web. 2.4.2 Advantages Previous researches listed several advantages for using soft copy materials.. These include: 1. Obtaining new information from the Web very fast and easily. 2. Communication with the course instructor. 3. Discussions on course content through the internet. 4. Easy access to course related materials. 5. Submitting assignments through the Web. 6. Enhancement of course understanding. Flexibility and visibility also has been listed as major advantages of soft copy usage. Flexibility in a variety of forms was also an often-identified positive feature of the on- line school. Students were able to work at home, to get extra credits that did not fit into the regular school day, and/or to take a course that was not offered at their home school. The advantages can be summarized as follows: . Flexibility, accessibility, convenience. . Multimedia capability. . Increased reliability. . Cross-platform capabilities. . Web browser software and Internet connections are widely available. . Inexpensive worldwide distribution. . Ease of reach information. . Just-in-time, personal, adaptive, user-centric. . Paper cost and time savings.
  • 20. 11 2.4.3 Disadvantages Every application has two sides. Soft copy also has its disadvantages: . Access capabilities: Unlike the hard copy materials you cannot use them without a computer or technological device. And this situation can limit your working areas. Also some students may not have computer at their home. . Internet connection speed: Sometimes low speed or internet reaching problem can stop your lesson unlike your plan. . Developer limitation: Some materials cannot be used without their provision. . Type of content (not all content is suitable for soft copy usage): Some educational institutions are not yet ready to adapt to the soft copy usage capabilities due to which many of the contents cannot be adopted to the computer platforms. . Learner motivation and initiative: Some students can prefer hard copy materials. And this can lower their motivation to the class. . Loss of a live (physically present): Sometimes students feel awkward about using soft copy materials. . Portability: Soft copy materials should be made portable and compatible to all computer applications via CD‟s, DVD‟s and Internet. 2.4.4 Implementation Barriers Several barriers to the implementation of soft copy are: 1. Increased time commitment (workload) for academic staff. 2. Development time. 3. Delivery time. 4. Lack of extrinsic incentives/rewards. 5. Lack of strategic planning and visions. 6. Lack of support. 7. Lack of training in technological developments. 8. Lack of support for pedagogical aspects of developments.
  • 21. 12 For example, in one study (Mihhailova, 2006) the main problems concerning soft copy were summed up as follows: • Lecturers‟ lack of time. Mainly it is related to preparing the e-course and adjusting existing courses into e-course format. • Lack of clarity in compensation system. Soft copy is different from ordinary learning and teaching. Unfortunately, so far no clear rules have been formulated as to how to measure and pay fairly for the work of an e-teacher. • Uncertainty on how to measure teaching quality and little interest in co-operation between e-course developers. It appears to be still unclear about how to measure teaching quality in e-learning and also the rules and guidelines on how to prepare and develop a good e-course are missing. • Learning materials and time management. In case of ordinary learning situation, the planning and time management is being done for the student by curriculum administration department. But in case of e-learning course, the student himself/herself has to take active role in it and that necessitates much more self- discipline and becomes one of the major issues why students drop e-courses. • Loss of “teacher‟s aura” and possibility of discussion. Some special subjects (e.g. social work, law etc.) require a lot of discussion and quick feedback and that makes the notion of turning these courses into full-fledged e-courses highly questionable. Blended learning offers solution: lectures in virtual environment, seminars, and practical assignments in class room – in face-to-face environment. • Time-management. Although students find themselves at ease and working at their own by using soft copy materials, both teacher and students can save times during their classes. • Technology. The technology issues followed two main themes: hardware problems with the school‟s network server help them to reach information immediately. • Comparison to regular courses. Some students felt that the courses which helped by soft copy materials was more difficult than the work their peers in normal regular paper were doing. Others said that they felt the courses which used soft copy materials took more time than that of their peers in regular courses.
  • 22. 13 2.4.5 Differences in Attitudes towards Soft Copy Material Class Based on Educational Levels Generally speaking, the experience of applying soft copy materials has been found to play an important role in a multimedia class. For example, in one study (Cheng, 2006) the survey results indicated that the students who use soft copy materials for business courses were found to be much more willing to utilize using this material again. It is easy to see that students who applied for business courses have a positive attitude and inclination towards the usage of soft copy materials. 2.4.6 The Future As discussed earlier, soft copy materials has already revolutionized the educational patterns in all areas. Soft copy materials is not limited to the boundaries of academic institutions like schools, colleges and universities but is applicable to all kinds of areas where leaning is a continuous process. We shall now discuss as to various aspects that will be affected by the usage of soft copy materials. 2.4.6.1 Rich-Media Instructors Use of rich-media instructors will become an industry standard for all types and levels of users throughout the internet. Improvements to technology are happening on a daily basis and these improvements are helping the growth of soft copy materials. Content developers are customizing the soft copy materials based on age, race, style and academic levels and these are being deployed locally and internationally. Keep these above in view; products are developed with a global view. These have also helped to keep the development costs down and increased soft copy usage across the enterprise. 2.5 TURKEY AND SOFT COPY 2.5.1 F@tih Project Turkey has initiated FATIH Project with the aim of enabling equal opportunities in education and improving technology in schools for the efficient usage of information and communication technology (soft copy) tools in the learning-teaching processes by appealing to more sense organs in all 620.000 schools that are in the preschool
  • 23. 14 education, the primary education and the secondary education through providing tablets and LCD Smart Boards. In-service trainings for teachers are going to be held in order to provide effective usage of the ICT equipment that is installed in the classes in the learning- teaching process. In regards to this process, educational e-contents are going to be formed by according the current teaching programs to the ICT supported education. In this context, FATIH Project has composed of 5 different components and these components can be listed as: 1. Providing Equipment and Software Substructure 2. Providing Educational e-content and Management of e-content 3. Effective Usage of the ICT in Teaching Programmes 4. In-service Training of the Teachers 5. Conscious, Reliable, Manageable and Measurable ICT Usage FATIH Project that has been carried out by the Ministry of Education has also been supported by the Ministry of Transport. It has been planned that FATIH Project will have been finalized in the next five years. Aim of this project: In this project, it is aimed to provide ICT equipment to classes in order to achieve the ICT supported teaching until the end of 2013 in related to the goals that take place in the Strategy Document of the Information Society, the Development Report, the Strategy Plan of our Ministry and The Policy Report of ICT that have described all activities of our country in the process of being an information society and have been formed within the scope of the e-transformation of Turkey. Warrant of this project: The goal has been declared as “Information and Communication Technologies (soft copy materials) will be one of the main instruments of the education process and it will also make teachers and students use these technologies effectively” in the Strategy of Information Society that has been prepared by the State Planning Organization (2006-
  • 24. 15 2010). In this context, it has been wished that complement of the infrastructure of the information and communication technologies in the institutions in which Formal Education and Informal Education, improving competency of the students‟ usage of the information and communication technologies in these institutions, and development of the programs that are supported by the information and communication technologies. Moreover, in the Information Society Strategy, in order to transform our society to information society, described goals in the below list are aimed within the scope of our Ministry‟s work space: · Lifelong learning approach, development of the proper structures in which all individuals can improve themselves through e-learning, and development of the e-content. · All students that graduate from secondary education should have the ability to use the basic information and communication technologies. · One of the three individuals in society should benefit from e-education facilities through the effective usage of internet. · Providing equal opportunities to everybody on learning and usage of the information and communication technologies. · One of the two individuals in society should be internet user. · Internet should be made reliable for society. 2.5.2 Smart Board in Turkey The board is a device which gives us the opportunity to use it as a computer screen. Smart board works reflecting the visual on a board which is equipped with special sensors and it consists of a technology that is always in the interaction with board surface and the computer. Also our hand writings could be saved in PowerPoint, word, excel etc. formats that supplies more secure and easy method to save the information of instructor for learners. These smart boards are now in very limited usage in Turkey being only in some colleges, private courses and are not wide spread in public schools so we‟re hardly to mention about a general usage of smart board in Turkey and it seems that it will take pretty much time for all schools to obtain it for every class. The average
  • 25. 16 cost for a smart board with all its equipment is 4000 liras. However, some helpful rich people are getting these devices for the schools around them. Looking at the benefits of smart boards for learners; - It lets the students get their creativity to high level - Develops the ability to participate in social interactions - Makes it possible for each different learner to proceed in their own speeds - Increases self esteem - Develops problem solving ability and the ability to focus on problems - Saves time from learning duration - Turns the abilities documentation, filing and having their references into a habit - creates situations to make researches on previous works, to modify and use them for their new studies - especially usable and beneficial for math and language classes - expands sharing attitudes - gives opportunity to reach more and more information - if someone has a lesson which he couldn‟t attend, he has the chance to get it another time Benefits for instructors; - the instructor can use all of the soft materials as a education tool if he succeed to integrate - saves pretty much time in lectures - keeps learners‟ motivation high and encourages them to participate - uses visuals in a broad scale - supplies quality in education - turns boring, monotonous lectures in to entertainment 2.5.3 Evolution in Computerization We live in fast times. The evolution of technology and the introduction of the Internet have changed our workplace, our schools and our society. Not since the spread of modern industrialization has our world changed so quickly in such a short period of
  • 26. 17 time. As educators, we must not only react to this change but be pro-active in order to prepare our students for the emerging knowledge-based workforce and the challenges of a global economy. As teachers, we believe this requires the active use of new technology tools in our classrooms. Students are naturally enthusiastic about new technology so finding ways to channel that energy into learning is a great opportunity for all teachers. However, changing familiar teaching methods can be a challenge. We see the emerging technology available for teachers as a way to ignite our students‟ curiosity and make our teaching materials more engaging and effective. Thanks to our short period of trainings, we‟ve seen the difference in our students‟ successes as we‟ve introduced new ways to help them learn so we believe that technology has earned a place in the classroom. It's hard to believe that as late as the 1990‟s, the overhead projector was considered a progressive teaching tool. Not every classroom was equipped with „the latest‟ tools, requiring teachers to find a projector and wheel it into the classroom every time they needed to use it. There were no laser printers either so we remember teachers spending hours writing slides by hand in order to create a single presentation. Although Information Technology classes were taught to the higher grades, the school we attended had just two PCs for 1000 students. Today, not only are projectors standard in most classrooms, but most schools have entire labs of computers available for teacher access and many classrooms are equipped as well. Only 20 years ago we would have thought that this was an impossible luxury. If we have seen these kinds of changes in the last 20 years, what will the next 20 bring? How long will it be before every student has a laptop? Will every school eventually have wireless access as a standard across the campus? Will text books become strictly Web-based? Will students leave their homework at home after they network their home and school computers? Along with all of the changes in the available tools for teachers comes the challenge of learning how to integrate new technology into our teaching methods. It's a challenge that I am willing to take and I hope that what I have learned helps other teachers. It's an exciting time to be an educator.
  • 27. 18 2.5.4 Overhead Projectors Overhead projector is a machine, lets you reflect the materials prepared before the lesson on a board or surface, these materials may be colorful or not, may be a picture, a text, or graphic but the material must be transparent. Additionally, you can use the machine as a transparent board on which you have the opportunity to make changes or some additions and then cleaning. The projector at first seems versatile but several disadvantages have lowered its usage in schools, we may number those deficiencies like; - No possibility for programming - isn‟t suitable for individual study - needs pretty much time to produce its materials, also needs some abilities like photography - no chance to apply more than one visual at the same time - the order may be violated easily For a short time in secondary schools in Turkey, giving lectures with overhead projectors was very popular. Teachers used to apply the subjects on tracing papers then proceed the class on them. At those times, this kind of having lessons were seem very attractive and also were suggested heavily by inspectors. 2.6 EXAMPLES OF SEMINAL STUDIES IN SOFT COPY USAGE AND E-LEARNING Some studies have been conducted in this field by many authors. Below we shall highlight a few of the studies. 2.6.1 Newton’s Study (2003) The paper deals with the issues perceived as being important “barriers” to using technology in teaching and learning within the academic staff community working in higher education in the UK.
  • 28. 19 Methodology and Data Analysis: The empirical data was gathered using questionnaires distributed to 300 academicians in the Information Technology sector of UK. The questionnaire was divided into three main sections: (1) teaching experience using technology; (2) staff perception on usefulness of technology; (3) additional comments and suggestions. The respondents were selected via institutional websites. This study focused primarily in the Information Technology field. The statistical software package SPSS was used to analyze and present the data. Result: A virtual learning environment does not necessarily mean that they do not feel that these initiatives are important. The study shows that although a lack of clarity is evident in distance learning, yet this shows that there is a willingness to participate in this activity which reflects the intrinsic values played by academic staff on teaching and learning. Virtual learning environment barriers are not related to institutional support. Organizational encouragement is important towards the progression of innovation. Organization should ensure that effective strategies are in place prior to implementing web based distance learning. 2.6.2 Cheng’s Study (2006) This research thus used a technical college in Taiwan to survey students‟ level of acceptance in applying e-learning for business courses. The purpose of the study was to provide a clear reference for developing and promoting e-learning in all business courses. Methodology and Data Analysis: This research adopted a questionnaire survey in three stages. The first stage was to receive the inputs from professional academicians in the related field. The second stage targeted students from various departments; 45 in total. The final stage was a second batch of students excluding the first 45 from the various departments and this batch totaled to 180 students. The data was tested using Chi-square test.
  • 29. 20 Result: E-learning will not reduce the difficulty of the coursework nor improve students‟ grades. 1. Gender does not have an obvious effect on the students‟ level of acceptance in applying e-learning for business courses. 2. The experience of applying e-learning for business courses played a key factor in affecting the level of acceptance. 3. School systems do not play a key factor in affecting students‟ level of acceptance in applying e-learning for business courses. 4. Computer skills do not play a key role affecting students‟ level of acceptance in applying E-learning for business courses. 2.6.3 Alghazo’s Study (2006) This study aimed at investigating students‟ attitudes toward web-enhanced instruction in an educational technology course taught in the College of Education at the United Arab Emirates University. Methodology and Data Analysis: This study was done in the Middle East region within the United Arab Emirates within a student sample with an age range between 19 and 21 of female gender totaling to 66 students. 88% of them own a personal computer, 26% prefer reading from paper and 74% prefer reading from a screen. At the time of the study, there were no sections of this course offered for male students and hence only female students were selected. Data collection was done using modified version of the Web-based Instruction Scale developed by Sanders and Morrison-Shetlar (2001) and a Likert type response scaling asking participants to specify the degree of agreement or disagreement with items about their attitude toward Web-based instruction and two items as free-response questions. Results: This study dealt with the following issues: student attitudes toward Web- enhanced instruction, the effect of learning preference on attitude toward web-enhanced instruction, effect of previous experience with Web-enhanced instruction on attitude,
  • 30. 21 advantages of Web-enhanced instruction as seen by female students, and obstacles to Web-enhanced instruction as seen by female students. The results from the total 66 female respondents revealed that: •They have positive attitudes toward Web-enhanced instruction. •26% preferred reading from screen, 74% preferred reading from papers. •42% had previous experience with Web-enhanced instruction, and 58% did not have such experience. •Students see many advantages of Web-enhanced instruction such as obtaining grades, communication with instructors, discussing course contents, easy access to course related materials, submitting assignments and enhancement of course understanding and communication with classmates. •The difficulties perceived were in accessing the course from home, limited computers in the labs and poor internet bandwidth.
  • 31. 22 2.7 SUMMARY The literature review has shed light on the importance of soft copy from various aspects. The initial section of this chapter shed light into the evolution and current standards of soft copy with benefits and also some of the disadvantages. The later section talked about the different studies done on soft copy use and e-learning by various authors. Only a few of the many studies have been selected to highlight the fact on the importance and focus provided by various authors and educational institutions about soft copy. It can be summarized that soft copy materials are the standards of education today, as it opens the doors to learning focusing on the individuals‟ priorities and learning skills. Soft copy usage can be customized to meet all learning patterns, age, culture and varied subjects. Soft copy materials are used in schools, businesses, government organizations, non-government organizations, in short everywhere where there is a thirst for knowledge. Turkey has taken the right steps required to attain this objective, but needs to move faster to stay in pace. In the following chapters, we shall focus on the empirical studies by collecting data from Yildiz Technical University English Language Teaching Department students and relating them to our objective. Prior to which the following chapter will discuss about the methodology used in collecting the various literature and empirical data.
  • 32. 23 CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 3.1 PRESENTATION In this chapter, we are going to introduce our participants and methodological framework. In addition, research design, data analysis methods and instruments are also supposed to be conducted to analyze Ytu Elt students‟ attitudes towards soft copy use. 3.2 PARTICIPANTS The participants of this study included 100 students at Yildiz Technical University English Language Teaching Department in Istanbul from different grades, genders and backgrounds. Their ages were between 19-21 years old and they were first, second and third grade students at Yildiz Technical University, Faculty of Education ELT Department. English was foreign language for these students. Their levels of English proficiency were nearly the same. The sexes of them were 76 females and 24 males. The questionnaire was applied to both sexes. Interview was applied to 6 students from first, second and third grade. 2 students were randomly chosen for each grade. 3.3RESEARCH DESIGN In order to answer the research questions effectively, it was necessary to use a quantitative and qualitative research approach. The design of the study was experimental, because the students were randomly selected to participate and it was observed that groups were different on some variable such as different grades and sexes. The data was collected during the 2011-2012 academic school year. In this study, the questionnaire was conducted via both internet survey and face-to-face interview to identify the attitudes of Ytu Elt students in English learning and teaching (ELT)
  • 33. 24 department. The data determined the attitudes of Ytu Elt students towards soft copy use in classroom setting. A questionnaire was selected to obtain objectives of the research. The questionnaire was applied to 100 students in Ytu. Sample included participants from junior, sophomores and senior students of Ytu ELT department. Six of the participants were contacted and interviewed face to face in order to get more details about their attitudes towards using soft copy. Cheng (2006) created a scale that assesses attitude towards e-learning and we adopted it into soft copy usage. This scale consists of 15 items and it was used in the current study. This scale has been reported to be valid and reliable Cheng (2006). In order to be able to find out whether soft copy materials are preferred, the research study on the tendency among Ytu Elt students towards using soft copy was conducted. The survey was designed so as to gather information from students about their attitudes to soft copy usage. 3.4 INSTRUMENTS In this study, two instruments were used to gather data: a questionnaire and an interview. The questionnaire is a fifteen-item scale that measures attitudes towards e-learning (Cheng, 2006). We adapted it into soft copy questionnaire. This scale consists of three dimensions that measure individual perspective, learning effects and class management within an electronic educational system. The reported reliability alpha of the scale in Cheng‟s study is 0.8076. 3.5 DATA COLLECTION The data collection process began at the beginning of April, 2012 and finished in the beginning days of May, 2012. The primary source of this data was attitude questionnaire that was conducted in ELT Department and the second source of data collection material was interviews. The questionnaire including fifteen items was used to gather general tendency of the students towards soft copy usage.
  • 34. 25 3.6 DATA ANALYSIS The data was analyzed during 2011-2012 academic school year, in Yildiz Technical University. The quantitative and qualitative research approaches were applied to analyze the attitudes towards using soft copy. 3.6.1 Target Population and Sampling Method The questionnaire used in this study was an attractive two-page booklet with a cover page of brief instructions. Google documents were also used to collect data. The final version of the questionnaire included two sections. The first section consisted of demographic data such as age, gender, and education level. The second section covered the fifteen-item soft copy usage scale. Collecting data by mail surveys in Yildiz Technical University was easy. In order to ensure an acceptable number of responses, it was used Elt Department‟s mail group to reach a convenient number. A network of contacts cooperated in distributing and returning the questionnaire. Also the questionnaires were administered to groups of students who completed them in the classroom. Students responded voluntarily and were not compensated for their participation. A total of 100 questionnaires were distributed. Confidentiality of responses was emphasized in the cover letter with the title “Ytu Elt Students‟ Attitudes towards Soft Copy Usage Survey” in the text. To reduce social desirability artifacts, the cover letter indicated that the survey seeks “attitudes towards soft copy material” and nothing else. 3.6.2 Research Limitations In the process of preparing this study, it was faced some problems and obstacles that caused some limitations to the study. One of these limitations was „time‟. The time of collecting data was limited, and hence, the sample size selected was relatively small. Results, therefore, had to be interpreted scrupulously. Also as there were not many researches about this subject in this area, the study had difficulty about the literature review but it was benefited from subject related to e- learning and the compromise between the past researchers and this one. On the other hand, writing a hypothesis was very difficult as there was not any experiment on this area before.
  • 35. 26 3.7 Data Analysis Method Factor analysis was used as the main procedure of data analysis. Factor analysis is a technique that represents a number of variables in term of a smaller number of factors, or latent variables as they are often referred to. Averages of students‟ responses were calculated and they were used for creating graphics to represent differences in grade and gender differences. The identification of these factors is important for at least two reasons. Firstly, it can provide useful theoretical insights into underlying relationships and patterns in the data, and secondly, it can enable data containing highly correlated variables. A distinction can be made between two different types of factor analysis, exploratory and confirmatory. Exploratory factor analysis which is going to be used in this study identifies relationships among variables which are often far from obvious in the original data.
  • 36. 27 CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS A total of 100 questionnaires were collected. The data were grouped according to different demographic factors such as gender and age. Tables below show the sample‟s different descriptive statistics. 4.1.1 The Participants Of the Questionnaires Freshman (first) 40 40% Sophomore (second) 33 33% Junior (third) 27 27% Table:1.0 4.1.2 The Gender Of the Participants Male 23 23% Female 77 77% Table:1.1 4.2 HYPOTHESES TESTING In this section of chapter four, the research hypotheses will be tested. In this research it is hypothesized that: H1: Ytu Elt students will report negative attitudes towards soft copy. H2: There will be statistically considerable differences in attitude towards soft copy based on gender. H3: There will be considerable differences in attitude towards soft copy based on grade level.
  • 37. 28 4.2.1 Negative Attitudes towards Soft Copy Use Hypothesis Table:2.1 Comment: As there are no district differences between male and female or 1th, 2nd and 3rd students, it not possible to discuss an obvious idea for this question. But the answers of 2nd grade students show that they have some problem about the soft copy usage in their lessons. Although their classroom and campus conditions are the same with others, they differentiate from each other because of their teachers they are taken from. In this case, it can be investigated for further investigations by other people and tried to do some improvements in positive side. 1) I think the teacher‟s application of soft copies in teaching language courses helps me learn a lot. Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 - Strongly Disagree 7 7% 2 6 6% 3 35 35% 4 32 32% 5 - Strongly Agree 20 20% Table:3.0 3,8 3,6 3,8 2,8 2,72 3,3 3,8 3,8 4 All Male Female All Female Male All Female Male 1th Grade1th Grade1th Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade3rd Grade3rd Grade 1) I think the teacher’s application of soft copies in teaching language courses helps me learn a lot.
  • 38. 29 Table:2.1 Comment: For this question, their rates about using soft copy are obviously high. None of the grates are lower than 3.00 points which means that whole students have affirmative ideas about the usage of soft copy. These results encourage both us and our teachers to use more soft copy material in their further teaching times. Also it shows that in their future life, they are thinking that using soft copy materials and technology will help them in their classes. 2) I‟m in favor of applying soft copies for language courses. Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 - Strongly Disagree 3 3% 2 9 9% 3 31 31% 4 35 35% 5 - Strongly Agree 22 22% Table:3.1 3,9 3,77 3,9 3,1 3,0 3,25 3,8 3,9 3,6 All Male Female All Female Male All Female Male 1th Grade1th Grade1th Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade3rd Grade3rd Grade 2) I’m in favour of applying soft copies for language courses.
  • 39. 30 Table:2.2 Comment: As this question tells idea about their mentors, they generally prefer to give negative answer for this question. But also here we saw an apparent nuance between second grade and the others. This results support the idea we told for the second questions. It seems the second grade students have some problems about their mentors. This also forces us to ask students another specific question for making some positive changes in their classes. 3) I think the teacher‟s application of soft copies in teaching language courses is a waste of my time. Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 - Strongly Disagree 26 26% 2 37 37% 3 15 15% 4 16 16% 5 - Strongly Agree 6 6% Table:3.2 2,05 2,7 1,8 3,0 3,2 2,75 2,0 1,95 2,3 All Male Female All Female Male All Female Male 1th Grade1th Grade1th Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade3rd Grade3rd Grade 3) I think the teacher’s application of soft copies in teaching language courses is a waste of my time.
  • 40. 31 Table:2.3 Comment: Again in this question, the students who give negative answer are the only second grade ones. Also girls are more pessimist than the males. This result obviously indicates that second grade students do not agree that applying soft copy material in their teaching lessons is not so much practical to improve their level of language. In addition that, all male group is closer to be part of a class in which soft copy materials are used. 4) I think my grade will improve by applying soft copies to language courses. Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 - Strongly Disagree 5 5% 2 18 18% 3 28 28% 4 37 37% 5 - Strongly Agree 12 12% Table:3.3 3,7 3,3 3,8 2,8 2,72 3,1 3,4 3,2 3,8 All Male Female All Female Male All Female Male 1th Grade1th Grade1th Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade3rd Grade3rd Grade 4) I think my grade will improve by applying soft copies to language courses.
  • 41. 32 Table:2.4 Comment: This question shows the students‟ attitudes about whether to use soft copy in classes. There is an apparent nuance between second grade and the other grades in this question. This results support that second grade students ignore whether their teachers apply soft copy. 5) I will find language courses easier if the teacher applies soft copies in teaching. Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 - Strongly Disagree 6 6% 2 10 10% 3 29 29% 4 36 36% 5 - Strongly Agree 19 19% Table:3.4 3,775 3,7 3,7 2,9 2,88 3,25 3,8 3,85 3,6 All Male Female All Female Male All Female Male 1th Grade 1th Grade 1th Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade 3rd Grade 3rd Grade 5) I will find language courses easier if the teacher applies soft copies in teaching.
  • 42. 33 Table:2.5 Comment: This question aims to measure whether students want to use soft copies in their future career. Second grade students are not volunteers to apply soft copy materials in their classes. Second grade students generally prefer to give negative answers to questions. As this result suggests, first and third grade students are enthusiastic to apply soft copy material in their future careers. 6) By means of soft copies, I (should) like language courses more and more. Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 - Strongly Disagree 8 8% 2 16 16% 3 38 38% 4 25 25% 5 - Strongly Agree 13 13% Table:3.5 3,525 2,5 3,8 2,5 2,52 2,75 3,44 3,5 3,1 All Male Female All Female Male All Female Male 1th Grade1th Grade1th Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade3rd Grade3rd Grade 6) By means of soft copies, I (should) like language courses more and more.
  • 43. 34 Table:2.6 Comment: This question aims to measure whether students want others to apply soft copy materials. There are no district differences between first and third grade students, for that reason, it not possible to discuss an obvious idea for this question. But the answers of 2nd grade students show that they neither agree nor disagree to usage of soft copy for others. But male of the second grade are still more open to usage of soft copy than female ones. 7) I hope the teachers who conduct language courses may apply soft copies in their teaching. Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 - Strongly Disagree 6 6% 2 9 9% 3 26 26% 4 41 41% 5 - Strongly Agree 18 18% Table:3.6 3,8 3,5 3,9 3 2,88 3,375 3,85 3,95 3,5 All Male Female All Female Male All Female Male 1th Grade1th Grade1th Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade3rd Grade3rd Grade 7) I hope the teachers who conduct language courses may apply soft copies in their teaching.
  • 44. 35 Table:2.7 Comment: This question shows us that the first and third graders are more willing to use soft copies in language courses than second graders, it can be inferred from the graphics that second grades are not willing to use soft copies in classroom they are more likely to choose using traditional methods in classroom environment. Also females on both grades shows more enthusiasm towards using soft copies than the males, we hypothesized that the males would be eager to use soft copies than the girls but the results show vice versa. 8) Applying soft copies for language courses is more relaxing and delightful than the traditional method. Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 - Strongly Disagree 4 4% 2 13 13% 3 27 27% 4 32 32% 5 - Strongly Agree 24 24% Table:3.7 3,975 3,55 4,09 2,93 2,88 3,125 3,81 3,90 3,5 All Male Female All Female Male All Female Male 1th Grade1th Grade1th Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade3rd Grade3rd Grade 8) Applying soft copies for language courses is more relaxing and delightful than the traditional method.
  • 45. 36 Table:2.8 Comment: When we compare the two different educational methods (traditional and the modern method) by using this graphic, we can say that using soft copies may create a lively environment because the modern method is student-centered and in traditional method it is teacher centered so there is no surprise that the students from all grades and genders chooses to apply soft copies in language courses. 9) Applying soft copies for language courses is more sprightly and lively for the curriculum. Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 - Strongly Disagree 5 5% 2 13 13% 3 23 23% 4 39 39% 5 - Strongly Agree 20 20% Table:3.8 3,65 2,88 3,87 3,18 3,16 3,25 3,88 4 3,5 All Male Female All Female Male All Female Male 1th Grade 1th Grade 1th Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade 3rd Grade 3rd Grade 9) Applying soft copies for language courses is more sprightly and lively for the curriculum.
  • 46. 37 Table:2.9 Comment: When we analyze the answers given to this question, we find out that first grades and third grades seem to be more interested in applying soft copy in language courses but while analyzing second grades we realize that soft copy usage in language classroom doesn‟t attract them but the males seems to prefer using soft copy in language classrooms more intentionally. 10) Soft copies make me more interested in language courses. Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 - Strongly Disagree 4 4% 2 18 18% 3 28 28% 4 27 27% 5 - Strongly Agree 23 23% Table:3.9 3,825 3,55 3,9 2,9 2,76 3,375 3,62 3,714 3,3 All Male Female All Female Male All Female Male 1th Grade 1th Grade 1th Grade 2nd Grade2nd Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade 3rd Grade 3rd Grade 10) Soft copies make me more interested in language courses.
  • 47. 38 Table:2.10 Comment: This question aims to measure whether students believe in improving chance of interaction with teacher in classroom environment and the effects of soft copy usage in improving teacher-student interaction in classroom. When we analyze the results of the question, it is obvious that second grades do not believe that applying soft copies will increase interaction between students and teacher in classroom, yet both first grade females and third grade females seem more likely to agree with this statement. 11) By applying soft copies for language courses, the chance of interaction with the teacher is enhanced. Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 - Strongly Disagree 6 6% 2 12 12% 3 39 39% 4 31 31% 5 - Strongly Agree 12 12% Table:3.10 3,625 3,1 3,7 2,84 2,68 3,375 3,4 3,47 3,16 All Male Female All Female Male All Female Male 1th Grade 1th Grade 1th Grade 2nd Grade2nd Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade 3rd Grade 3rd Grade 11) By applying soft copies for language courses, the chance of interaction with the teacher is enhanced.
  • 48. 39 Table:2.11 Comment: The group who supports that the interaction between student and teacher can be enhanced thanks to soft copy use thinks that the interaction between students can also be increased by using soft copy materials in classroom environments. Second grades do not also believe that applying soft copies will increase interaction between students in classroom. 12) By applying soft copies for language courses, the chance of interaction with my classmates can be enhanced. Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 - Strongly Disagree 7 7% 2 12 12% 3 30 30% 4 35 35% 5 - Strongly Agree 16 16% Table:3.11 3,75 3,55 3,8 2,9 2,72 3,75 3,4 3,42 3,5 All Male Female All Female Male All Female Male 1th Grade 1th Grade 1th Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade 3rd Grade 3rd Grade 12) By applying soft copies for language courses, the chance of interaction with my classmates can be enhanced.
  • 49. 40 Table:2.12 Comment: While preparing and using soft copy materials, as a teacher is supposed to use computer technology, in this question, all the students are almost in the same idea which is that the application of soft copy makes their computer competency higher. 13) Applying soft copies for language courses improves my computer skills. Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 - Strongly Disagree 7 7% 2 11 11% 3 9 9% 4 37 37% 5 - Strongly Agree 36 36% Table:3.13 4,075 3,2 4,32 3,3 3,2 3,625 4,1 4,3 3,5 All Male Female All Female Male All Female Male 1th Grade 1th Grade 1th Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade 3rd Grade 3rd Grade 13) Applying soft copies for language courses improves my computer skills.
  • 50. 41 Table:2.13 Comment: This question is basically based on students‟ attitude towards using internet for self-learning. Second grade females are opposed to the idea that using soft copy encourages them to learn on internet by themselves but the second grade males seems rather encouraged by applying soft copy to continue learning on the internet. 14) Applying soft copies for language courses encourages me to continue learning on the Internet by myself. Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 - Strongly Disagree 7 7% 2 11 11% 3 21 21% 4 35 35% 5 - Strongly Agree 26 26% Table:3.13 3,95 3,4 4,1 2,93 2,68 3,75 3,96 4 3,83 All Male Female All Female Male All Female Male 1th Grade 1th Grade 1th Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade 3rd Grade 3rd Grade 14) Applying soft copies for language courses encourages me to continue learning on the Internet by myself.
  • 51. 42 Table:2.14 Comment: In this question, students show their attitudes to a language course in which soft copy materials were used. There are no clear differences between first and third grade attitudes. They all want to be a part of class in which soft copy materials were used. But second grade students do not want to attend 1th, 2nd and 3rd students, it not possible to discuss an obvious idea for this question. But the answers of 2nd grade students show that they have some problem about the soft copy usage in such classes as soft copy materials were used. 15) I‟m unwilling to learn language courses through using soft copies Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 1 - Strongly Disagree 29 29% 2 29 29% 3 15 15% 4 13 13% 5 - Strongly Agree 14 14% Table:3.14 2,375 2,66 2,29 2,96 3,12 2,5 2,25 2,33 2 All Male Female All Female Male All Female Male 1th Grade 1th Grade 1th Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade 3rd Grade 3rd Grade 15) I’m unwilling to learn language courses through using soft copies
  • 52. 43 4.2.2 Gender Differences Hypothesis There are not clear differences between males and females students‟ attitude towards soft copy use. While first and second grade males and females think that soft copy usage in language courses is practical, second grade males and females think that soft copy use is not so much useful for language courses.
  • 53. 44 Table:4.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Freshman (first) All 3,8 3,9 2,05 3,7 3,775 3,525 3,825 3,975 3,65 3,825 3,625 3,75 4,075 3,95 2,375 Freshman (first) Female 3,83871 3,93548 1,83871 3,80645 3,77419 3,80645 3,90322 4,09677 3,87096 3,90322 3,77419 3,80645 4,32258 4,09677 2,29032 Freshman (first) Male 3,66666 3,77777 2,77777 3,33333 3,77777 2,55555 3,55555 3,55555 2,88888 3,55555 3,11111 3,55555 3,22222 3,44444 2,66666 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 Elt 1 General
  • 54. 45 Table:4.1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Sophomore (second) All 2,87878 3,12121 3,09090 2,81818 2,96969 2,57575 3 2,93939 3,18181 2,90909 2,84848 2,96969 3,30303 2,93939 2,96969 Sophomore (second) Female 2,72 3,08 3,2 2,72 2,88 2,52 2,88 2,88 3,16 2,76 2,68 2,72 3,2 2,68 3,12 Sophomore (second) Male 3,375 3,25 2,75 3,125 3,25 2,75 3,375 3,125 3,25 3,375 3,375 3,75 3,625 3,75 2,5 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 Elt-2 General
  • 55. 46 Table:4.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Junior (third) All 3,88888 3,88888 2,03703 3,40740 3,81481 3,44444 3,85185 3,81481 3,88888 3,62963 3,40740 3,44444 4,14814 3,96296 2,25925 Junior (third) Female 3,85714 3,95238 1,95238 3,28571 3,85714 3,52381 3,95238 3,90476 4 3,71428 3,47619 3,42857 4,33333 4 2,33333 Junior (third) Male 4 3,66666 2,33333 3,83333 3,66666 3,16666 3,5 3,5 3,5 3,33333 3,16666 3,5 3,5 3,83333 2 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 Elt-3 General
  • 56. 47 Table:4.3 1) I think the teacher’ s applicati on of soft copies in teaching language course… 2) I’m in favour of applying soft copies for language courses. 3) I think the teacher’ s applicati on of soft copies in teaching language course… 4) I think my grade will improve by applying soft copies to language courses. 5) I will find language courses easier if the teacher applies soft copies in teachin… 6) By means of soft copies, I (should) like language courses more and more. 7) I hope the teachers who conduct language courses may apply soft copies… 8) Applying soft copies for language courses is more relaxing and delight… 9) Applying soft copies for language courses is more sprightly and lively… 10) Soft copies make me more intereste d in language courses. 11) By applying soft copies for language courses, the chance of interac… 12) By applying soft copies for language courses, the chance of interac… 13) Applying soft copies for language courses improve s my compute r skills. 14) Applying soft copies for language courses encoura ges me to contin… 15) I’m unwilling to learn language courses through using soft copies All 3,5225 3,6367 2,3926 3,3085 3,5198 3,1817 3,5589 3,5764 3,5735 3,4545 3,2936 3,3880 3,8420 3,6174 2,5346 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 All
  • 57. 48 4.2.3 Grade Differences Hypothesis There are considerable differences in attitude towards soft copy based on grade level. Second grade students are reluctant to use soft copy material use in language classrooms. The reasons behind second grade students‟ reluctance towards soft copy material use are discussed in discussion part. 4.3 INTERVIEW FINDINGS An interview was applied to six volunteers from Yildiz Technical University English Language Teaching Department to take more detailed information. Initially basic information was given about e-learning, soft-copy material and the general circle of the research to the interviewers. The interviewers were asked the questions below. 1) What do you think about soft-copy material usage in language learning classroom? Is it beneficial or unnecessary? 2) Have you ever been in any kind of soft-copy material used class? 3) What were your basic impressions in the soft-copy material used class? 4) Do you think that using soft-copy materials provide a better learning environment? 5) Which one do you prefer hard copy or soft copy? Why? 6) Do you support traditional language learning or Computer assisted language learning? 7) As a teacher candidate would you think of using soft-copy materials in your teaching career? Here are the highlights of the interviews: -All the interviewers have a background with soft copy material from their high schools or universities. -All of them support soft copy and think that soft copy materials are beneficial and provide a better and faster learning because of having visual effect.
  • 58. 49 -The interviewers choose both soft copy and hard copy materials while studying on a subject. They state that when they are in mobility, they prefer to use hard copy materials. -The interviewers emphasize that they are going to use both soft copy and hard copy materials in their future teaching career. -Almost all the interviewers agree that soft copy material is a good option to make lesson more creative and interesting. -One of the interviewers specifies that if students expose to soft copy material for long minutes, they may probably lose their motivation. -All the interviewers state that their students are going to be able to choose soft copy material or hard copy material in terms of their teaching strategy. 4.4 DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS The three hypotheses were examined in the previous section. The research findings derived are as here under: The results reject H1 which predicted that Ytu Elt students will show negative attitudes towards soft copy due to their traditional view of education. From the results we can conclude that Ytu Elt students have favorable attitudes towards the use of technology in education. Examining the impact of different factors such as gender and grade on the attitudes towards soft copy use is the second objective of this study. Our results did not support H2 which predicted that there will be differences in attitudes towards soft copy use based on the respondents' gender status. H3 was supported as there was significant difference in attitudes towards soft copy use based on the student‟s grade. Second grades are not eager to apply soft copy materials in their classes. The reason behind second grade students‟ reluctance towards soft copy material use may be because of the difficulty of their curriculum.
  • 59. 50 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 PRESENTATION This chapter incorporates the conclusion on the finding and provides recommendations on the issues highlighted in the various chapters from this research work. The first section covers the conclusions of this study. Research and policy implications are the main topic of the second section. Finally, the study's recommendations are also included in the sections three and four. 5.2 CONCLUSION Few studies have analyzed the attitudes towards using soft copy in Turkey. The goal of this study was to fill this research gap by analyzing the attitudes towards using soft copy in Yildiz Technical University. The impact of some variables such as gender and grade on attitudes towards using soft copy has also been examined. From these research findings we can thus conclude that there exists a favorable attitude towards using soft copy in Ytu. On the other hand, a gender gap was not thoroughly found in attitudes towards using soft copy, while a difference was detected in this regard based on grades between second grades and the others. 5.3 RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS This research contributes to the literature on soft copy studies by systematically and analytically assessing the attitudes towards soft copy use in Yildiz Technical University. Perhaps the findings of this research will also increase confidence to researchers who want to investigate their university students‟ attitudes as this research will be a guide for them.
  • 60. 51 5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS As soft copy systems in Turkey have a background, they are positively supported by students. In education, soft copy systems have shown that they can support and enhance the traditional educational systems. It is suggested that Turkish government can establish an association of soft copy institutions to facilitate a planned implementation of the system across the country. This association should be aware of soft copy usage problems and try to manage these problems by offering training programs for students and teachers.
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  • 64. 55 APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE Using Soft Copy Materials We are trying to find out your attitude towards Using Soft Copy Materials. The outcomes of this study will be used to define the need to use soft copy materials in Yıldız Technical University Elt department. What is Soft Copy? Soft copy is the usage of electonic materials and softwares such as computers, online documents, videos, presentations and all kind of computer-assisted language materials. What is your grade? * Freshman (first) Sophomore (second) Junior (third) What is your gender? * Male Female 1) I think the teacher‟s application of soft copies in teaching language courses helps me learn a lot. * 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 2) I‟m in favour of applying soft copies for language courses. * 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 3) I think the teacher‟s application of soft copies in teaching language courses is a waste of my time. * 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 4) I think my grade will improve by applying soft copies to language courses. * 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 5) I will find language courses easier if the teacher applies soft copies in teaching. * 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
  • 65. 56 6) By means of soft copies, I (should) like language courses more and more. * 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 7) I hope the teachers who conduct language courses may apply soft copies in their teaching. * 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 8) Applying soft copies for language courses is more relaxing and delightful than the traditional method. * 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 9) Applying soft copies for language courses is more sprightly and lively for the curriculum. * 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 10) Soft copies make me more interested in language courses. * 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 11) By applying soft copies for language courses, the chance of interaction with the teacher is enhanced. * 1 2 3 4 5 Stronly Disagree Stronly Agree 12) By applying soft copies for language courses, the chance of interaction with my classmates can be enhanced. * 1 2 3 4 5 Stronly Disagree Stronly Agree 13) Applying soft copies for language courses improves my computer skills. * 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
  • 66. 57 14) Applying soft copies for language courses encourages me to continue learning on the Internet by myself. * 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 15) I‟m unwilling to learn language courses through using soft copies * 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree
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