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Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
Basic Cell Life 2
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Basic Cell Life 2

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  1. <ul><li>THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES OF CELL </li></ul><ul><li>ULTRASTRUCTURE OF CELL </li></ul><ul><li>DIFFUSSION </li></ul><ul><li>OSMOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIVE TRANSPORT SYSTEM </li></ul>BASIC CELL LIFE
  2. OBJECTIVES: <ul><li>By the end of the lesson, student should be able to : </li></ul><ul><li>Define terms cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the structure and functions of the animal and plant cells. </li></ul>
  3. THEORY: <ul><li>Cells form the building blocks of living organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells arise only by the division of existing cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells contain inherited information which control their activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells is the functioning unit of life metabolism (the chemical reaction of life) take place in cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Given suitable conditions, cells are capable of independent existence. </li></ul>
  4. <ul><li>Cells are the basic building blocks of all living creatures. However, they didn't always exist as cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Each cell is formed from a varieties of molecules that can be classified into several major families such as Nucleic Acids and Amino Acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Through cycles of selection from environmental pressures, these molecules come together to form the first primitive cell, for the sole purpose of ultimate survival. </li></ul>WHAT IS CELL?
  5. TYPES OF CELLS PLANT CELL ANIMAL CELL
  6. ANIMAL CELL
  7. PLANT CELL
  8. DIFFERENT BETWEEN ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL: Contain starch granules. Contain glycogen granules. GRANULES Usually has a large vacuole. Usually exists as numerous small vacoules in lower animal cell. VACUOLE Has chloroplast which contain chlorophyll. Does not have. CHLOROPLAST Has a cellulose cell wall. Does not have. CELL WALL Fixed shape. No fixed shape. SHAPE PLANT CELL ANIMAL CELL
  9. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF CELL 1 2 4 3 5 6 7
  10. Ribosomal formation Concentrated area of chromatin, RNA and proteins Nucleolus Storage of genetic information. Nuclear envelope surrounding nucleoplasm, chromatin and nucleolus. Nucleus Selective passage of molecules into and out of cell. Bilayer phospholipid with embedded proteins. Plasma membrane FUNCTION COMPOSITION STRUCTURE
  11. Proteins synthesis. Studded with ribosome. Rough ER Lipid synthesis. No ribosome. Smooth ER FUNCTION COMPOSITION STRUCTURE Synthesis and/or modification of protein and other substances and transport by vesicles formation. Membranous saccules and canals. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Protein synthesis. Protein and RNA in two submits. Ribosome
  12. Processing, packaging & distributing molecules Stack of membranous Golgi apparatus Intracellular digestion. Membranous vehicle containing digestive enzymes. Lysosome Cellular respiration. Inner membrane (cristae) within outer membrane. Mitochondria Storage of substances. Membranous sacs. Vacuole and vesicle FUNCTION COMPOSITION STRUCTURE
  13. Cell movement 9+2 of microtubules Cilia and flagella Formation of basal bodies 9+0 pattern of microtubules Centrioles Shape of cells Microtubels, actin filaments Cytoskeleton FUNCTION COMPOSITION STRUCTURE
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  21. OBJECTIVES: <ul><li>By the end of the lesson, student should be able to : </li></ul><ul><li>Define main group of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the roles and responsibilities of prokaryotes and eukaryotes cells. </li></ul>
  22. MAIN GROUP OF CELLS <ul><li>There are two main groups of cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. </li></ul><ul><li>They differ not only in their appearance but also in their structure, reproduction, and metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>However, all of the cells belong to one of the five life kingdoms. The greatest difference lies between cells of different kingdoms. </li></ul><ul><li>The following group shows the five kingdoms: monera, protista, plantae, fungi, and animalia.   </li></ul><ul><li>The cells in the 5 kingdoms can all be classified as either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. </li></ul>
  23. MAJOR GROUP CELLS EUKARYOTES PROKARYOTES
  24. <ul><li>Eukaryotes are generally more advanced than prokaryotes. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many unicellular organisms which are eukaryotic, but all cells in multicellular organisms are eukaryotic. </li></ul>EUKARYOTES
  25. <ul><li>CHARACTERISTICS: </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear membrane surrounding genetic material. </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous membrane-bound organelles. </li></ul><ul><li>Complex internal structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Appeared approximately one billion years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Paramecium </li></ul><ul><li>It is hypothesized that a primitive bacterium once surrounded its food after releasing its digestive enzymes. </li></ul><ul><li>The membrane folded inward and pinched off, creating the first digestive membrane-bound organelle. </li></ul>
  26. <ul><li>Prokaryotes are unicellular organisms, found in all environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotes are the largest group of organisms, mostly due to the bacteria which comprise the bulk of the prokaryote classification. </li></ul>PROKARYOTES
  27. <ul><li>CHARACTERISTICS: </li></ul><ul><li>No nuclear membrane (genetic material dispersed throughout cytoplasm). </li></ul><ul><li>No membrane-bound organelles. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple internal structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Most primitive type of cell (appeared about four billion years ago). </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Staphylococcus </li></ul><ul><li>Escherichia coli (E. coli) </li></ul><ul><li>Streptococcus </li></ul>
  28. EUKARYOTES PROKARYOTES
  29. EUKARYOTES For support Cell wall Use sunlight to create food by photosynthesis Chloroplast Plant cells also have : Used for storage of water or food. Vacuole Make protein Ribosomes Make energy out of food Mitochondria The “brains” of the cell, the nucleus directs cell activities and contains genes. Nucleus What it does? Part
  30. <ul><li>Bacteria have a very simple internal structure, and no membrane-bound organelles. </li></ul>PROKARYOTES
  31. <ul><li>Do not have a nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Are the smallest of cell types </li></ul><ul><li>Lack internal membrane bound organelles </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Have a nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Are 10 to 1000 times larger than prokaryotic cells </li></ul><ul><li>Have many kinds of organelles, many of which are membrane bound </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. all other cells </li></ul>EUKARYOTES PROKARYOTES
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  33. OBJECTIVES: <ul><li>By the end of the lesson, student should be able to : </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the structure of cell membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the functions of cell membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the important types of protein consists in cell membrane. </li></ul>
  34. <ul><li>Mainly composed: a) Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>b) Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of a double layer of phospholipids. </li></ul><ul><li>Have different types of molecules of cell membrane: a) Phospholipids </li></ul><ul><li>b) Fibrous protein </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Globular shaped protein: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glycoprotein </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pore protein </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Channel protein </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>CELL MEMBRANE
  35. <ul><li>Cell membrane mostly lipids, it only allows lipid-soluble substances such as O 2 ,CO 2 and steroids to go through. </li></ul><ul><li>Water soluble substance such as glucose, amino acid, ions and water need the help of the various part of transport. </li></ul><ul><li>2 layers of phospholipids molecules self-assemble so that their water soluble (hydrophilic) head from the surface and interior of the membrane and the water soluble (hydrophobic) tails face each other. </li></ul>
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  37. <ul><li>STRUCTURE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fluid mosaic model of the membrane shows the membrane is composed of a number of proteins which are similar to shifting tiles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The spaces between the tiles are filled with fluid-like phospholipids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The phospholipids consists of hydrophilic heads, which point towards the outside environment and the cytoplasm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hydrophobic tails repel the water and point in. </li></ul></ul>CELL MEMBRANE
  38. <ul><li>STRUCTURE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus, the phospholipids form a bilayer that acts like a barrier between the cell and the environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The phospholipids bilayer also contains cholesterol, which makes the bilayer stronger, more flexible and more permeable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are a number of important proteins in the plasma membrane which will be discussed later. </li></ul></ul>CELL MEMBRANE
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  40. <ul><li>FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of the membrane is to control what goes in and out of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>The items that go in are highly regulated. It also communicates with other cells for example with receptors on the surface or cell to cell adhesion. </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins that are found in the bilayer are receptor proteins, which deal with communication, recognition proteins and transport proteins that regulate the movement of water and soluble molecules through the membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to regulate the transport of molecules, there are two types of proteins in the cell: carrier proteins and transport proteins. </li></ul>CELL MEMBRANE
  41. <ul><li>FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>The two types of transport proteins are channel and carrier protein. Transport is either active or passive. </li></ul><ul><li>Active transport is moving molecules against the concentration gradient and energy is required in the form of ATP. </li></ul><ul><li>Passive transport is moving molecules down the concentration gradient and no energy is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of passive transport are diffusion, which moves from high concentration to low concentration and osmosis, which is the diffusion of water molecules. </li></ul>CELL MEMBRANE
  42. <ul><li>FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>The cell membrane is important for the connections between cells. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four different types of these connections: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach cells together like &quot;glue&quot;. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A tight junction consists of fusing the cells together. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A gap junction consists of pairs of channels fused. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally, plasmodesma consists of binding plants together. </li></ul></ul>CELL MEMBRANE
  43. <ul><li>FUNCTION (SURFACE CELL): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling the passage of materials in and out of cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition of other cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receptor sites for hormones and neurotransmitters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission of nerve impulses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation of nerves. </li></ul></ul>CELL MEMBRANE
  44. <ul><li>FUNCTION (INSIDE CELL): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acting as a reaction surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acting as an intercellular compartments, isolating different chemical reactions. </li></ul></ul>CELL MEMBRANE
  45. CELL MEMBRANE
  46.  
  47. THE IMPORTANT PROTEINS: <ul><li>The fibrous protein may span the entire membrane and serve as receptors for the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>The pore protein to allow lipid insoluble water molecules to pass through. </li></ul><ul><li>Other integral protein sure as channel proteins and selectively transport ions for the cell. </li></ul>
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  49. OBJECTIVES: <ul><li>By the end of the lesson, student should be able to : </li></ul><ul><li>Define the diffusion process. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the FICK’S LAW concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the relation of diffusion and facilitated diffusion. </li></ul>
  50. <ul><li>DEFINITION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion is the movement of molecules, other than water, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No ATP energy is used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules move like this naturally, so no chemical or cellular energy is needed. </li></ul></ul>DIFFUSION
  51. <ul><li>THE RATE OF DIFFUSION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Is directly proportional to the area of the surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Is directly proportional to the concentration gradient. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Is inversely proportional to the distance. (the length of the diffusion pathway) </li></ul></ul>
  52. <ul><li>Rate of diffusion is proportional to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface area X difference conc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of diffusion path </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* INCREASING the factors on the top line of the equation will make diffusion faster, while increasing that on the bottom will slow it down. </li></ul></ul>FICK'S LAW
  53. <ul><li>Applies to situations where there is no barrier to the movement of substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: The diffusion of a dye in a container of water, the diffusion of a substance into or out of a cell is a of passive transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion through a cell membrane is affected by the nature membrane (its permeability) and the size and type of molecule or ion diffusing through it. </li></ul>FICK'S LAW
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  55. <ul><li>ADAPTATION FOR DIFFUSION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to FICK’S LAW cellular diffusion is a very slow process unless there is large concentration gradient over a short distance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissues such as those in the lungs and small intestine are especially adapted to maximize the rate of diffusion by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining a steep concentration gradient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Having a high surface area to volume ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being thin, minimizing the distance over which the diffusion takes place. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. <ul><li>MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell membrane are partially permeable: many substances can pass through them, but some substances cannot. </li></ul></ul>
  57. FACILITATED DIFFUSION <ul><li>Sometimes, proteins are used to help move molecules more quickly. It is a process called facilitated diffusion . </li></ul><ul><li>It could be as simple as bringing in a glucose molecule. Since the cell membrane will not allow glucose to cross by diffusion, helpers are needed. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell might notice outside fluids rushing by with free glucose molecules. </li></ul>
  58. <ul><li>The membrane proteins then grab one molecule and shift their position to bring the molecule into the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>That's an easy situation of passive transport because the glucose is moving from higher to lower concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>It's moving down a concentration gradient . If you needed to remove glucose, the cell would require energy. </li></ul>
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  62. OBJECTIVES: <ul><li>By the end of the lesson, student should be able to : </li></ul><ul><li>Define the osmosis process. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify several terms use in osmosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the concept of isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate the osmosis in animal and plant cells. </li></ul>
  63. PASSIVE TRANSPORT: <ul><li>While active transport requires energy and work, passive transport does not. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several different types of this easy movement of molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>It could be as simple as molecules moving freely such as osmosis or diffusion . </li></ul><ul><li>May also see proteins in the cell membrane that act as channels to help the movement along. </li></ul><ul><li>There is an in-between transport process where very small molecules are able to cross a semi-permeable membrane . </li></ul>
  64. <ul><li>DEFINITION: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osmosis is the movement of water from a region of high water concentration to a region of lower water concentration through a semi permeable membrane. </li></ul></ul>OSMOSIS
  65.  
  66. SELECTIVE PERMEABLE MEMBRANE WATER MOLECULES
  67. TERMS IN OSMOSIS: <ul><li>SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE MEMBRANE Allowing some materials to pass through more easily than others.   </li></ul><ul><li>SOLVENT Liquid substance, such as water, in which other materials may be dissolved.   </li></ul><ul><li>SOLUTE The dissolved substance in a solution.   </li></ul><ul><li>SOLUTION Solute plus solvent. </li></ul>
  68.  
  69. EXAMPLE: <ul><li>A Red Blood Cell (RBC) which has an internal solute concentration of approximately 0.9% salt (equivalent) and place it in various solutions of varying salt and concentrations. </li></ul>
  70. <ul><li>The concentration of particles in solution is lower than in the cell therefore, the concentration of water is lower in the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Water will diffuse into the cell and the cell will swell up </li></ul><ul><li>-> animal cells may explode. </li></ul><ul><li>-> plant cells held intact by cell wall. </li></ul>HYPOTONIC
  71. <ul><li>The concentration of particles in solution is higher than in the cell therefore the concentration of water is higher in the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Water will diffuse out of the cell and the cell will shrivel up </li></ul><ul><li>-> animal cells lose cytoplasm and shrivel up </li></ul><ul><li>-> plant cells maintain shape due to cell wall but lose cytoplasm (wilting of unwatered plants) </li></ul>HYPERTONIC
  72. <ul><li>The concentration of particles inside and outside the cell is the same therefore so is the concentration of water. </li></ul><ul><li>No change in the cell. </li></ul>ISOTONIC
  73. OSMOSIS: PLASMOLYSED CELL: Water moves out of a plant cell, the cell vacuole shrinks and the cell surface membrane pulls away from the cell wall. <ul><li>External solution is of a sufficiently high solute concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>Water will tend to be drawn out of the cell causing it to shrink and shrivel. </li></ul>HYPERTONIC <ul><li>TURGID CELL: </li></ul><ul><li>Water enters the plant cell, filling the vacuole to capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell surface membrane pushes against the cell wall, making the cell very rigid. </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh water. </li></ul><ul><li>Tends to enter the cell causing the cell volume to increase. </li></ul>HYPOTONIC <ul><li>No changes in the volume of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Water potential inside and outside the cell is the same and there is the same. </li></ul>ISOTONIC PLANT CELL ANIMAL CELL SOLUTION
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  76. OBJECTIVES: <ul><li>By the end of the lesson, student should be able to : </li></ul><ul><li>Define active transport system. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the concept of sodium and potassium moves in and out of the cell. </li></ul>
  77. <ul><li>Active Transport is the process whereby molecules or ions are moved from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration through a semi-permeable membrane. </li></ul>ACTIVE TRANSPORT SYSTEM
  78.  
  79. <ul><li>The cell's own energy is required for this process. </li></ul><ul><li>Protein molecules in cell membrane called channel proteins are involved in this process. </li></ul>
  80.  
  81. <ul><li>Through active transport the cell may: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gather nutrients it needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dispose of waste. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>create electric potential across membrane (nerves and muscles). </li></ul></ul>
  82.  
  83. <ul><li>There are three ways molecules can be transported through channel proteins. </li></ul>
  84.  
  85. OBJECTIVES: <ul><li>By the end of the lesson, student should be able to : </li></ul><ul><li>Define cell division. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the differentiate of mitosis and meiosis process. </li></ul>
  86. <ul><li>Cell division is a process by which a cell, called the parent cell, divides into two cells, called daughter cells . </li></ul><ul><li>Cell division is usually a small segment of a larger cell cycle. I </li></ul><ul><li>n meiosis however, a cell is permanently transformed and cannot divide again. </li></ul>CELL DIVISION
  87. <ul><li>This process of cellular division is unique to eukaryotic cells. </li></ul><ul><li>The following illustrations depict only the replication of chromosomes and their division. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of mitosis involves the entire cell which includes a multitude of organelles. </li></ul>MITOSIS
  88.  
  89. <ul><li>All gametes have half the number of chromosomes that regular cells have. </li></ul><ul><li>Gametes are created through the process of meiosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis involves two divisions which create four haploid cells. </li></ul>MEIOSIS
  90. MEIOSIS I The outer membrane pinches the cell in half and a nuclear membrane forms around chromosomes. Late Interphase, which produce 2 daughter cells. Telophase I The chromosomes pairs are pulled apart from each other to either side of the cell. Anaphase I The identical chromosomes (homologous chromosomes)  line up together in the center of the cell. They form tetrads which are paired chromosome structures. Some get crossed over. Metaphase I Spindle apparatus forms around chromosomes. Prophase I Chromosome are copied to into 2 identical chromatids joined at the centromere. Interphase I DESCRIPTION STAGE
  91. MEIOSIS II The outer membrane pinches the cell in half and a nuclear membrane forms around chromosomes Telophase II The chromosomes pairs are pulled apart from each other to either side of the cell. Anaphase II The homologous chromosomes line up together in the center of the cell.  Metaphase II Spindle apparatus forms around chromosomes. Prophase II DESCRIPTION STAGE
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  93. MITOSIS MEIOSIS <ul><li>Occurs in the formation of: </li></ul><ul><li>Gametes </li></ul><ul><li>Spores </li></ul><ul><li>Some stage in the life of sexually reproducing organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in the formation of: </li></ul><ul><li>body </li></ul><ul><li>non sex cells </li></ul><ul><li>some spores </li></ul><ul><li>basis of asexual reproduction </li></ul>Daughter cells show genetic variation to parent cell and to each other. Daughter cells are genetically identical to or clones of parent cell and each other. 4 daughter cells produced with half the number of chromosomes as parent cell. 2 daughter cell produced with same number of chromosomes as parent cell.
  94. MITOSIS MEIOSIS Homologous chromosomes pair up or form bivalents in prophase I. Homologous chromosomes do not pair up in prophase. 2 stage : 1) Meiosis I 2) Meiosis II 1 main stage.
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