Periodic Table 2


Published on

Published in: Technology
1 Comment
1 Like
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Periodic Table 2

  2. 3. MODERN PERIODIC TABLE <ul><li>Development of the Modern Periodic Table </li></ul><ul><li>John Newland- arrange the element </li></ul><ul><li>according to the increasing order or relative </li></ul><ul><li>atomic mass. Introduce Octave Law </li></ul><ul><li>Dmitri Mendeleev- Successfully coined the first periodic table in year </li></ul><ul><li>1869. arrange the element according to the increasing order of </li></ul><ul><li>Relative atomic mass. Left empty spaces for elements that not found </li></ul><ul><li>yet at that time. </li></ul><ul><li>H.J.G. Moseley- carried out X-Ray analysis and confirmed that the </li></ul><ul><li>Proton number is the identity of each element. He confirmed that the </li></ul><ul><li>proton number and not the relative atomic mass that causes the </li></ul><ul><li>periodicity of the properties Of the elements. Established the Modern </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic Table </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>The arrangement of elements in vertical column called Groups and horizontal rows called Periods in order of increasing proton number </li></ul><ul><li>There are 18 Groups numbered 1-18 and 7 Periods numbered 1-7 in a Periodic Table. </li></ul>MODERN PERIODIC TABLE
  4. 5. Periods & Groups <ul><ul><li>7 numbered periods: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period 1 : 2 elements, H and He. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period 2 : 8 elements, Li to Ne. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period 3 : 8 elements, Na to Ar. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period 4 : 18 elements, K to Kr, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (including First transition elements) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period 5 : 18 elements, Rb to Xe, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (including Second transition elements) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period 6 : 32 elements, Cs to Rn, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (including Third transition elements & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lanthanides) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period 7 : variable no of elements, Fr to Mt, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (including Fourth transition elements & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actinides) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Periods <ul><li>Across the period from left to right </li></ul><ul><li>Proton number increases </li></ul><ul><li>Element become non-metallic </li></ul><ul><li>Oxides become more acidic </li></ul>
  6. 7. Groups <ul><li>Shared similar chemical properties (have same </li></ul><ul><li>number of valence electrons). </li></ul><ul><li>Have the same number of outer shell electron </li></ul><ul><li>Form ion with the same charge </li></ul><ul><li>Form the same number of bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Form compound with similar formula </li></ul><ul><li>Special names for some groups of elements : </li></ul><ul><li>Group I (IA) : alkali metals </li></ul><ul><li>Group 2 (IIA) : alkaline earth metal </li></ul><ul><li>Group 17 (VIIA) : halogens </li></ul><ul><li>Group 18 (VIIIA) : noble gases </li></ul>
  7. 8. Classification of the Elements <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common classification </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>classification into different block (s,p,d,f) </li></ul><ul><li>Valence electrons : Outer electrons of an atom, which are those involved in chemical bonding </li></ul><ul><li>Electron configuration : tell us how the electron are distributed among the various atomic orbital's) </li></ul><ul><li>based on selected physical properties of the element </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Alkali Metals </li></ul><ul><li>Found in group 1 of the periodic table (formerly known as group IA), </li></ul><ul><li>very reactive metals that do not occur freely in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Have only one electron in their outer shell. Therefore, they are ready </li></ul><ul><li>To lose that one electron in ionic bonding with other elements. </li></ul><ul><li>The alkali metals are softer than most other metals. Cesium and </li></ul><ul><li>Francium are the most reactive elements in this group. Alkali metals </li></ul><ul><li>can explode if they are exposed to water. The Alkali Metals are: </li></ul><ul><li>Lithium </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul><ul><li>Rubidium </li></ul><ul><li>Cesium </li></ul><ul><li>Francium </li></ul>CLASSIFICATION BASED ON ELECTRON CONFIGURATION
  9. 10. Alkaline earth metal <ul><li>Metallic elements found in the second group of the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>All alkaline earth elements have an oxidation number of +2, making them very reactive. Because of their reactivity, the alkaline metals are not found free in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>The Alkaline Earth Metals are: </li></ul><ul><li>Beryllium </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Strontium </li></ul><ul><li>Barium </li></ul><ul><li>Radium </li></ul>
  10. 11. Halogens <ul><li>Five non-metallic elements found in group 17 of the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>Have 7 electrons in their outer shells, giving them an oxidation number of -1. </li></ul><ul><li>The halogens exist, at room temperature, in all three states of matter: </li></ul><ul><li>Solid- Iodine, Astatine </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid- Bromine </li></ul><ul><li>Gas- Fluorine, Chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>The Halogens are: </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorine </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Bromine </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine </li></ul><ul><li>Astatine </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>NOBLE GAS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The six noble gases are found in group 18 of the periodic table. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have completely filled outer shell (8 electrons) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Except for Helium, the valence electron is 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The noble gaseous are: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Argon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crypton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xenon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radon </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. CLASSIFICATION INTO METALS, METALLOIDS AND NON-METALS <ul><li>Elements from top of Group 13 (B) to the bottom of Group 16 </li></ul><ul><li>(Po) separates the elements into 3 classes </li></ul><ul><li>METAL </li></ul><ul><li>Most metals elements exhibit the shiny luster </li></ul><ul><li>Metals tend to lose valence electron during chemical </li></ul><ul><li>change, forming positive ions called cations. </li></ul>
  13. 14. NON-METALS <ul><li>Elements in groups 14-16 of the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>Not able to conduct electricity or heat very well. </li></ul><ul><li>Exist in two of the three states of matter. At room temperature: gases (such as oxygen) and solids (such as carbon). </li></ul><ul><li>They have oxidation numbers of ±4, -3, and -2. </li></ul><ul><li>The Non-Metal elements are: </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>Selenium </li></ul>
  14. 15. Metalloids <ul><li>Elements found along the stair-step line that distinguishes metals from non-metals. </li></ul><ul><li>This line is drawn from between Boron and Aluminum to the border between Polonium and Astatine. </li></ul><ul><li>Metalloids have properties of both metals and non-metals. Some of the metalloids, such as silicon and germanium, are semi-conductors. This means that they can carry an electrical charge under special conditions. This property makes metalloids useful in computers and calculators </li></ul><ul><li>The Metalloids are: </li></ul><ul><li>Boron </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon </li></ul><ul><li>Germanium </li></ul><ul><li>Arsenic </li></ul><ul><li>Antimony </li></ul><ul><li>Tellurium </li></ul><ul><li>Polonium </li></ul>
  15. 16. Physical properties of metals and non-metals <ul><li>Metals </li></ul><ul><li>High electrical conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>High thermal conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>Metallic gray or silver luster </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all are solids </li></ul><ul><li>Can be hammered into sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Non Metals </li></ul><ul><li>Poor electrical conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>Good heat insulators No metallic luster </li></ul><ul><li>Solids, liquids or gases </li></ul><ul><li>Brittle in solid state </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>END </li></ul>