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Periodic Table4


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Periodic Table4

  1. 1. <ul><li>Periodic Table </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><ul><li>Periodic tables reflects the electronic structures of the atom based on classification to different block (s,p,d,f) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can deduce the configuration of any atom if we know : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of valence electron </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Period number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group no.- corresponds to the no. of valence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>electron in an atom </li></ul></ul></ul>Electronic Configuration
  3. 3. Orbital <ul><li>subshell s= only one type of orbital and found in all </li></ul><ul><li>shells, starts from orbital (n=1) </li></ul><ul><li>Subshell p= 3 types of orbital; p x ,p y ,p z . Found in all </li></ul><ul><li>shells except the 1 st shell, starts from n=2 </li></ul><ul><li>Subshell d= 5 types of orbital, found in all shell </li></ul><ul><li>except the 1 st and 2 nd shell. starts from n=3. </li></ul><ul><li>Subshell f= 7 types of orbital and found in all shells </li></ul><ul><li>except the 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd Shell. Starts from n=4. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Orbital <ul><li>The s-Orbital (spherical shape) </li></ul><ul><li>The p-Orbital (p x , p y , p z ) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Orbital <ul><li>Individual s-orbital & p-orbital </li></ul>1s 2s 3s p x p y p z
  6. 6. Orbital <ul><li>Collective s-orbital & p-orbital </li></ul>y x z 1s 2s 3s y y z
  7. 7. Rules in Filling orbital with Electron <ul><li>The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that each orbital can house a maximum of two electrons of opposite spins. </li></ul><ul><li>If only one electron is houses in orbital, it should be as: </li></ul>If two electron are housed in a orbital, it should be indicated as:
  8. 8. Rules in Filling orbital with Electron <ul><li>The Hund’s rule state that for a given set of orbital with identical energy levels, the electron will occupy each orbital unpaired according to the number of available electrons to give a set of half filled orbital with the same spin or parallel spin, before pairing of electrons with opposite spin takes place. </li></ul><ul><li>This is because with such arrangement the electrons are at maximum distance of separation and the repulsive force between the electrons are minimum. Hence a higher stability of electronic configuration achieved. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Steps filling p-orbital according to Hund’s Rule <ul><li>i. </li></ul><ul><li>ii </li></ul><ul><li>iii. </li></ul>And not
  10. 10. Predicting the Electronic Configuration of Atoms and Ions Based on the Proton Number <ul><li>Electronic Configuration : </li></ul><ul><li>Na= 2.8.1 ; </li></ul><ul><li>Na + = 2.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Orbital: </li></ul><ul><li>Na= 1s 2 ,2s 2 ,2p 6 ,3s 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Na + = 1s 2 ,2s 2 ,2p 6 </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Neon gas: 1s 2 , 2s 2 , 2p 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminium: 1s 2 , 2s 2 , 2p 6, 3s 2 , 3p 1 (This can be simplified as [Ne] 3s 2 , 3p 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Argon: 1s 2 , 2s 2 , 2p 6, 3s 2 , 3p 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium : 1s 2 , 2s 2 , 2p 6, 3s 2 , 3p 6 ,4s 1 </li></ul><ul><li>(This can be simplified as [Ar] 4s 1 </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>END </li></ul>