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Chapter06      Managing  Disks And  Data  Storage
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Chapter06 Managing Disks And Data Storage

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  • 1. Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Environment Chapter 6: Managing Disks and Data Storage
  • 2. Objectives
    • Understand concepts related to disk management
    • Manage partitions and volumes on a Windows Server 2003 system
    • Understand the purpose of mounted drives and how to implement them
    • Understand the fault tolerant disk strategies natively supported in Windows Server 2003
  • 3. Objectives (continued)
    • Determine disk and volume status information and import foreign disks
    • Maintain disks on a Windows Server 2003 system using a variety of native utilities
  • 4. Disk Management Concepts
    • Windows Server 2003 supports two data storage types:
      • Basic disks
        • Uses traditional disk management techniques
        • Has primary partitions, extended partitions, logical drives
      • Dynamic disks
        • Does not use traditional disk partitioning
        • No restriction on number of volumes implemented on one disk
  • 5. Basic Disks
    • Maximum of four primary partitions or three primary and one extended partition on a disk
    • Each primary partition:
      • Can use FAT, FAT32, or NTFS file system
      • Has a drive letter
    • Boot partition
      • Operating system files reside on boot partition
      • Can be located on a primary partition or logical drive
  • 6. Primary Partitions
    • A basic drive must contain at least one and no more than four primary partitions
    • One partition is the system (or active) partition
        • Contains files to start operating system
        • Usually drive C on Windows
        • Can also be used for traditional data storage
  • 7. Extended Partitions and Logical Drives
    • An extended partition:
      • Is created from free hard disk space that is not partitioned, formatted, or assigned a drive letter
      • Allows you to extend the four-partition limit
        • Can be divided into logical drives
        • Each drive is then formatted and assigned a drive letter
  • 8. Volume Sets and Stripe Sets
    • Only on Windows NT Server 4.0
    • Volume set
      • Two or more partitions combined to look like one volume with a single drive letter
    • Stripe set
      • Two or more disks striped for RAID level 0 or 5
    • Windows Server 2003 and 2000 provide backward compatibility
      • Can use but not create
  • 9. Dynamic Disks
    • Can set up a large number of volumes per disk
      • Volumes are similar to partitions but with additional capabilities
    • Reasons to implement dynamic disks include
      • Can extend NTFS volumes
      • Can configure RAID volumes for fault tolerance and performance
      • Can reactivate missing or offline disks
      • Can change disk settings with restarting computer
  • 10. Simple Volume and Spanned Volume
    • A simple volume:
      • Dedicated, formatted portion of space on a dynamic disk
      • NTFS volumes can be extended (not system or boot)
    • A spanned volume:
      • Space in 2 to 32 dynamic disks
      • Treated as a single volume
      • Allows you to maximize use of scattered space across several disks
  • 11. Striped Volume
    • Referred to as RAID level 0
    • Implemented for performance enhancement, particularly for storage of large files
    • Not fault tolerant
    • Requires from 2 to 32 disks
    • Data is written in 64 KB blocks across rows in the volume
  • 12. Striped Volume (continued)
  • 13. Managing Partitions and Volumes
    • Primary tool is Disk Management
    • Central facility for
      • Viewing information
      • Creating partitions and volumes
      • Deleting partitions and volumes
      • Converting basic disks to dynamic disks
  • 14. Managing Partitions and Volumes (continued)
  • 15. Managing Disk Properties
    • Disk Management:
      • Can be added to a custom MMC
      • Most commonly accessed via Storage section of Computer Management
      • Used for the creation, deletion, and management of disks, partitions, and volumes
      • Shares some property sheets with Windows Explorer, Device Manager
  • 16. Managing Disk Properties (continued)
  • 17. Activity 6-1: Viewing and Managing Disk Properties with Disk Management
    • Objective: Use Disk Management to view the properties of a hard disk and partition
    • From AdminXX account
      • Start  My Computer  Manage  Expand Storage  Disk Management
    • Explore information available for partitions, disks, and volumes as directed
  • 18. Activity 6-2: Creating and Deleting a Primary Partition
    • Objective: Use Disk Management to create and delete a new primary partition
    • Create a new NTFS partition using the New Partition Wizard
    • Assign a drive letter
    • Verify that the new partition was created
    • Delete the partition
  • 19. Activity 6-3: Creating an Extended Partition
    • 6-3 Objective: To create an extended partition using the New Partition Wizard
      • Once an extended partition has been created, you can create a logical drive
  • 20. Activity 6-4: Creating a Logical Drive
    • 6-4 Objective: To create a logical drive within the new partition using the New Partition Wizard
  • 21. Activity 6-5: Converting a Basic Disk to a Dynamic Disk
    • Objective: To convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk using Disk Management
    • Convert and verify according to exercise
    • If necessary to convert from dynamic to basic
      • Must be empty, backup first
    • Once a dynamic disk is available
      • Can create different types of volumes on the disk
  • 22. Activity 6-6: Creating a Simple Volume
    • Objective: To create a simple volume on a dynamic disk
    • Create using New Volume Wizard
      • Format in NTFS file system
      • Assign a drive letter
  • 23. Extending Volumes
    • Volume can be extended unless
      • Functioning as boot or system volume
    • Possible tools
      • Disk Management
      • DISKPART command-line utility
  • 24. Activity 6-7: Extending a Volume Using DISKPART
    • Objective: To extend a volume using the DISKPART command
    • Open the command line and enter the DISKPART command
    • Select the simple volume and extend the size by 50 MB
    • Verify that the size of the volume has been increased
  • 25. Mounted Drives
    • Mounting a drive is an alternative to assigning it a drive letter
    • A mounted drive is represented as a folder with a normal path
    • To mount a drive:
      • Must be on an NTFS volume
      • Must be an empty folder
    • Reasons:
      • 26 drive letter limit
      • Path access is convenient
      • Backups
  • 26. Activity 6-8: Mounting an NTFS Volume
    • Objective: To mount an NTFS volume
    • Create an empty folder
    • Use Disk Management to mount a drive to the folder
    • Test by creating a test folder on the drive and viewing it from the mounted folder
  • 27. Fault Tolerant Disk Strategies
    • Fault tolerance
      • The ability to recover gracefully from hardware or software failure
    • Hard disks do fail periodically
    • Software RAID provides various levels of fault tolerance
    • A combination of RAID and backup can minimize disruption and loss of data
  • 28. RAID Levels
    • Redundant Array of Independent Disk strategies
      • Set of standards for:
        • Lengthening disk life
        • Preventing data loss
        • Enabling uninterrupted access to data
    • Windows Server 2003 supports level 0, 1, and 5
    • RAID level 0
      • Striping with no other redundancy features
    • RAID level 1
      • Disk mirroring (duplicating data from main disk to backup disk)
  • 29. RAID Levels (continued)
    • RAID level 2
      • Disk striping, error correction across all disks
    • RAID level 3
      • Disk striping, error correction on 1 disk
    • RAID level 4
      • Disk striping, error correction across all disks, checksum on 1 disk
    • RAID level 5
      • Disk striping, error correction across all disks, checksum across all disks
  • 30. RAID Levels (continued)
    • Supported on FAT and NTFS
    • Either RAID level 1 or 5 is usually recommended
    • Considerations:
      • Placement of boot and system files
      • Number of disks required or supported
      • Cost (per megabyte of storage)
      • Amount of memory required
      • Read and write access speed
  • 31. Striped Volume (RAID 0)
    • Reasons to use:
      • Reduce wear on disk drives by equalizing load
      • Increase disk performance
    • No specific fault tolerance support
    • Can be created using New Volume Wizard
  • 32. Mirrored Volume (RAID 1)
    • Creates a copy of data on a backup disk
    • Requires 2 disks
    • Highly effective fault tolerance since a complete copy of data is available
    • Disk read performance is equal to non-mirrored
    • Disk write time is doubled
    • Created through New Volume Wizard
  • 33. Mirrored Volume (continued)
  • 34. RAID-5 Volume
    • Requires a minimum of 3 disks
    • Provides good fault tolerance
    • Parity information distributed across all drives
    • Performance slower than with a striped volume (parity information must be computed and stored)
  • 35. RAID-5 Volume (continued)
    • Read access is equal to striped volume
    • Storage requirement for parity information is 1/n with n the number of disks
    • Created through New Volume Wizard
  • 36. RAID-5 Volume (continued)
  • 37. Software RAID and Hardware RAID
    • Software RAID uses existing hardware and implements particular software strategies
    • Hardware RAID requires specialized hardware (more expensive) but lessens the burden on the OS
    • Often implemented on the adapter for disk drives
    • Often includes a battery backup
    • Advantages include: faster read and write, mixed RAID levels, failed disk hot-swap, better setup options
  • 38. Monitoring Disk Health and Importing Foreign Disks
    • Disk Management provides status information on disks and volumes
      • Number of different status descriptions
    • Windows Server 2003 provides the ability to import disks from other servers if necessary (foreign disks)
  • 39. Disk and Volume Status Descriptions
    • Optimal descriptions:
      • Disk should be ONLINE
      • Volume should be HEALTHY
    • Common volume messages include:
      • Failed, failed redundancy, formatting, healthy, regenerating, resyncing, unknown
    • Common disk messages include:
      • Audio CD, foreign, initializing, missing, no media, not initialized, online, online (errors), offline, unreadable
  • 40. Importing Foreign Disks
    • Used when a server fails
      • Disks from the server can be moved to another server
    • When first connected, the disk status will be foreign and it will not be accessible
    • Use the Import Foreign Disks option on the disk
    • If multiple disks are imported
      • Each disk is imported individually
      • Default is that disk will use its original drive letter but an available letter is chosen if there is a conflict
  • 41. Other Disk Maintenance and Management Utilities
    • Introduces disk-related utilities other than Disk Management
      • Some provide extra features or functions
      • Some are similar but are accessible from the command line
  • 42. Check Disk
    • Allows you to scan a disk for bad sectors and file system errors
    • Disk can’t be in use during scan
    • Two start options:
      • Automatically fix file system errors
      • Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors
    • CHKDSK command-line utility has similar functionality
  • 43. CONVERT
    • CONVERT is a command-line utility
    • Converts existing FAT and FAT32 partitions or volumes to NTFS
    • Leaves existing data intact
  • 44. Disk Cleanup
    • Allows an administrator to determine where disk space is being used and could potentially be freed
    • Files that can be removed include:
      • Temporary internet files
      • Downloaded program files
      • Files in recycle bin
      • Windows temporary files
      • No longer used Windows components and programs
    • Can also compress files
    • Command-line version is CLEANMGR
  • 45. Disk Defragmenter
    • Free disk space eventually become fragmented as files are created and removed
    • Results in slower access and higher disk wear
    • Defragmentation attempts to place files in contiguous areas
    • Defragmentation should be done periodically
  • 46. Activity 6-9: Using the Disk Defragmenter Utility
    • Objective: to analyze and defragment a volume using the Disk Defragmenter utility
    • The utility graphically displays the fragmentation status of the disk before and after defragmentation
    • Command-line version of command is DEFRAG
      • Can be used to schedule defragmentation when used with a batch file and Task Scheduler
      • Get complete syntax and options with DEFRAG /?
  • 47. DISKPART
    • Command-line utility for managing disks, volumes, partitions
    • Uses include:
      • Configuring active partition, assigning drive letters, implementing fault tolerance schemes, etc.
    • Can manage disks from within scripts
    • Get the complete syntax and options with DISKPART /?
  • 48. FORMAT
    • Used to implement a file system on an existing partition
    • Also used on MS-DOS and Windows 9X
    • Has a variety of advanced settings
      • Setting allocation unit (cluster) size
    • Command-line version can be run from scripts
    • Get the complete syntax and options with FORMAT /?
  • 49. FSUTIL
    • Used with FAT, FAT32, and NTFS file systems
    • Includes many advanced features, requires experienced user
    • Information available includes:
      • Listings of drives, volume information, NTFS-specific data
    • Tasks include:
      • Managing disk quotas, displaying free space
    • Get complete information in Help and Support Center
  • 50. MOUNTVOL
    • Used to create, delete, or list volume mount points from command line
    • VolumeName parameter is difficult to use
      • Complicates adding new mount point
      • Doesn’t affect removing mount points
    • Get complete syntax and options with MOUNTVOL /?
  • 51. Summary
    • Windows Server 2003 supports data storage types:
      • Basic disk
        • Divided into 4 primary partitions or 3 primary and 1 extended partition with logical drives
      • Dynamic disk
        • Can be divided into a number of volumes on 1 disk
        • A number of disks can be configured in 1 volume
        • Support simple, spanned, striped, mirrored, RAID-5 volumes
    • Primary tool for disk management:
      • Disk Management
  • 52. Summary (continued)
    • Fault tolerance implemented through RAID strategies
      • Most highly recommended are:
        • RAID level 1 (mirrored volumes)
        • RAID level 5 (striped, distributed parity info)
    • Hardware RAID very effective but more costly
    • A number of command-line tools and other utilities are available for disk management and cleanup