Chapter06 Managing Disks And Data Storage


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Chapter06 Managing Disks And Data Storage

  1. 1. Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Environment Chapter 6: Managing Disks and Data Storage
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Understand concepts related to disk management </li></ul><ul><li>Manage partitions and volumes on a Windows Server 2003 system </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the purpose of mounted drives and how to implement them </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the fault tolerant disk strategies natively supported in Windows Server 2003 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Determine disk and volume status information and import foreign disks </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain disks on a Windows Server 2003 system using a variety of native utilities </li></ul>
  4. 4. Disk Management Concepts <ul><li>Windows Server 2003 supports two data storage types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses traditional disk management techniques </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has primary partitions, extended partitions, logical drives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not use traditional disk partitioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No restriction on number of volumes implemented on one disk </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Basic Disks <ul><li>Maximum of four primary partitions or three primary and one extended partition on a disk </li></ul><ul><li>Each primary partition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use FAT, FAT32, or NTFS file system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a drive letter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boot partition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system files reside on boot partition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be located on a primary partition or logical drive </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Primary Partitions <ul><li>A basic drive must contain at least one and no more than four primary partitions </li></ul><ul><li>One partition is the system (or active) partition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains files to start operating system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually drive C on Windows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can also be used for traditional data storage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Extended Partitions and Logical Drives <ul><li>An extended partition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is created from free hard disk space that is not partitioned, formatted, or assigned a drive letter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows you to extend the four-partition limit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be divided into logical drives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each drive is then formatted and assigned a drive letter </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Volume Sets and Stripe Sets <ul><li>Only on Windows NT Server 4.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Volume set </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more partitions combined to look like one volume with a single drive letter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stripe set </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more disks striped for RAID level 0 or 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003 and 2000 provide backward compatibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use but not create </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Dynamic Disks <ul><li>Can set up a large number of volumes per disk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volumes are similar to partitions but with additional capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reasons to implement dynamic disks include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can extend NTFS volumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can configure RAID volumes for fault tolerance and performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can reactivate missing or offline disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can change disk settings with restarting computer </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Simple Volume and Spanned Volume <ul><li>A simple volume: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated, formatted portion of space on a dynamic disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NTFS volumes can be extended (not system or boot) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A spanned volume: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space in 2 to 32 dynamic disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treated as a single volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows you to maximize use of scattered space across several disks </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Striped Volume <ul><li>Referred to as RAID level 0 </li></ul><ul><li>Implemented for performance enhancement, particularly for storage of large files </li></ul><ul><li>Not fault tolerant </li></ul><ul><li>Requires from 2 to 32 disks </li></ul><ul><li>Data is written in 64 KB blocks across rows in the volume </li></ul>
  12. 12. Striped Volume (continued)
  13. 13. Managing Partitions and Volumes <ul><li>Primary tool is Disk Management </li></ul><ul><li>Central facility for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewing information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating partitions and volumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deleting partitions and volumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converting basic disks to dynamic disks </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Managing Partitions and Volumes (continued)
  15. 15. Managing Disk Properties <ul><li>Disk Management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be added to a custom MMC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most commonly accessed via Storage section of Computer Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for the creation, deletion, and management of disks, partitions, and volumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shares some property sheets with Windows Explorer, Device Manager </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Managing Disk Properties (continued)
  17. 17. Activity 6-1: Viewing and Managing Disk Properties with Disk Management <ul><li>Objective: Use Disk Management to view the properties of a hard disk and partition </li></ul><ul><li>From AdminXX account </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start  My Computer  Manage  Expand Storage  Disk Management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explore information available for partitions, disks, and volumes as directed </li></ul>
  18. 18. Activity 6-2: Creating and Deleting a Primary Partition <ul><li>Objective: Use Disk Management to create and delete a new primary partition </li></ul><ul><li>Create a new NTFS partition using the New Partition Wizard </li></ul><ul><li>Assign a drive letter </li></ul><ul><li>Verify that the new partition was created </li></ul><ul><li>Delete the partition </li></ul>
  19. 19. Activity 6-3: Creating an Extended Partition <ul><li>6-3 Objective: To create an extended partition using the New Partition Wizard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once an extended partition has been created, you can create a logical drive </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Activity 6-4: Creating a Logical Drive <ul><li>6-4 Objective: To create a logical drive within the new partition using the New Partition Wizard </li></ul>
  21. 21. Activity 6-5: Converting a Basic Disk to a Dynamic Disk <ul><li>Objective: To convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk using Disk Management </li></ul><ul><li>Convert and verify according to exercise </li></ul><ul><li>If necessary to convert from dynamic to basic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be empty, backup first </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once a dynamic disk is available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can create different types of volumes on the disk </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Activity 6-6: Creating a Simple Volume <ul><li>Objective: To create a simple volume on a dynamic disk </li></ul><ul><li>Create using New Volume Wizard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Format in NTFS file system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign a drive letter </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Extending Volumes <ul><li>Volume can be extended unless </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functioning as boot or system volume </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DISKPART command-line utility </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Activity 6-7: Extending a Volume Using DISKPART <ul><li>Objective: To extend a volume using the DISKPART command </li></ul><ul><li>Open the command line and enter the DISKPART command </li></ul><ul><li>Select the simple volume and extend the size by 50 MB </li></ul><ul><li>Verify that the size of the volume has been increased </li></ul>
  25. 25. Mounted Drives <ul><li>Mounting a drive is an alternative to assigning it a drive letter </li></ul><ul><li>A mounted drive is represented as a folder with a normal path </li></ul><ul><li>To mount a drive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be on an NTFS volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be an empty folder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>26 drive letter limit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Path access is convenient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backups </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Activity 6-8: Mounting an NTFS Volume <ul><li>Objective: To mount an NTFS volume </li></ul><ul><li>Create an empty folder </li></ul><ul><li>Use Disk Management to mount a drive to the folder </li></ul><ul><li>Test by creating a test folder on the drive and viewing it from the mounted folder </li></ul>
  27. 27. Fault Tolerant Disk Strategies <ul><li>Fault tolerance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to recover gracefully from hardware or software failure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hard disks do fail periodically </li></ul><ul><li>Software RAID provides various levels of fault tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of RAID and backup can minimize disruption and loss of data </li></ul>
  28. 28. RAID Levels <ul><li>Redundant Array of Independent Disk strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of standards for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lengthening disk life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preventing data loss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling uninterrupted access to data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003 supports level 0, 1, and 5 </li></ul><ul><li>RAID level 0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Striping with no other redundancy features </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RAID level 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk mirroring (duplicating data from main disk to backup disk) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. RAID Levels (continued) <ul><li>RAID level 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk striping, error correction across all disks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RAID level 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk striping, error correction on 1 disk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RAID level 4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk striping, error correction across all disks, checksum on 1 disk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RAID level 5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk striping, error correction across all disks, checksum across all disks </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. RAID Levels (continued) <ul><li>Supported on FAT and NTFS </li></ul><ul><li>Either RAID level 1 or 5 is usually recommended </li></ul><ul><li>Considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placement of boot and system files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of disks required or supported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost (per megabyte of storage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of memory required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read and write access speed </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Striped Volume (RAID 0) <ul><li>Reasons to use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce wear on disk drives by equalizing load </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase disk performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No specific fault tolerance support </li></ul><ul><li>Can be created using New Volume Wizard </li></ul>
  32. 32. Mirrored Volume (RAID 1) <ul><li>Creates a copy of data on a backup disk </li></ul><ul><li>Requires 2 disks </li></ul><ul><li>Highly effective fault tolerance since a complete copy of data is available </li></ul><ul><li>Disk read performance is equal to non-mirrored </li></ul><ul><li>Disk write time is doubled </li></ul><ul><li>Created through New Volume Wizard </li></ul>
  33. 33. Mirrored Volume (continued)
  34. 34. RAID-5 Volume <ul><li>Requires a minimum of 3 disks </li></ul><ul><li>Provides good fault tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Parity information distributed across all drives </li></ul><ul><li>Performance slower than with a striped volume (parity information must be computed and stored) </li></ul>
  35. 35. RAID-5 Volume (continued) <ul><li>Read access is equal to striped volume </li></ul><ul><li>Storage requirement for parity information is 1/n with n the number of disks </li></ul><ul><li>Created through New Volume Wizard </li></ul>
  36. 36. RAID-5 Volume (continued)
  37. 37. Software RAID and Hardware RAID <ul><li>Software RAID uses existing hardware and implements particular software strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware RAID requires specialized hardware (more expensive) but lessens the burden on the OS </li></ul><ul><li>Often implemented on the adapter for disk drives </li></ul><ul><li>Often includes a battery backup </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages include: faster read and write, mixed RAID levels, failed disk hot-swap, better setup options </li></ul>
  38. 38. Monitoring Disk Health and Importing Foreign Disks <ul><li>Disk Management provides status information on disks and volumes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of different status descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003 provides the ability to import disks from other servers if necessary (foreign disks) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Disk and Volume Status Descriptions <ul><li>Optimal descriptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk should be ONLINE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume should be HEALTHY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common volume messages include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failed, failed redundancy, formatting, healthy, regenerating, resyncing, unknown </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common disk messages include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio CD, foreign, initializing, missing, no media, not initialized, online, online (errors), offline, unreadable </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Importing Foreign Disks <ul><li>Used when a server fails </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disks from the server can be moved to another server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When first connected, the disk status will be foreign and it will not be accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Import Foreign Disks option on the disk </li></ul><ul><li>If multiple disks are imported </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each disk is imported individually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Default is that disk will use its original drive letter but an available letter is chosen if there is a conflict </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Other Disk Maintenance and Management Utilities <ul><li>Introduces disk-related utilities other than Disk Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some provide extra features or functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are similar but are accessible from the command line </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Check Disk <ul><li>Allows you to scan a disk for bad sectors and file system errors </li></ul><ul><li>Disk can’t be in use during scan </li></ul><ul><li>Two start options: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatically fix file system errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CHKDSK command-line utility has similar functionality </li></ul>
  43. 43. CONVERT <ul><li>CONVERT is a command-line utility </li></ul><ul><li>Converts existing FAT and FAT32 partitions or volumes to NTFS </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves existing data intact </li></ul>
  44. 44. Disk Cleanup <ul><li>Allows an administrator to determine where disk space is being used and could potentially be freed </li></ul><ul><li>Files that can be removed include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary internet files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downloaded program files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Files in recycle bin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows temporary files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No longer used Windows components and programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can also compress files </li></ul><ul><li>Command-line version is CLEANMGR </li></ul>
  45. 45. Disk Defragmenter <ul><li>Free disk space eventually become fragmented as files are created and removed </li></ul><ul><li>Results in slower access and higher disk wear </li></ul><ul><li>Defragmentation attempts to place files in contiguous areas </li></ul><ul><li>Defragmentation should be done periodically </li></ul>
  46. 46. Activity 6-9: Using the Disk Defragmenter Utility <ul><li>Objective: to analyze and defragment a volume using the Disk Defragmenter utility </li></ul><ul><li>The utility graphically displays the fragmentation status of the disk before and after defragmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Command-line version of command is DEFRAG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used to schedule defragmentation when used with a batch file and Task Scheduler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get complete syntax and options with DEFRAG /? </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. DISKPART <ul><li>Command-line utility for managing disks, volumes, partitions </li></ul><ul><li>Uses include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuring active partition, assigning drive letters, implementing fault tolerance schemes, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can manage disks from within scripts </li></ul><ul><li>Get the complete syntax and options with DISKPART /? </li></ul>
  48. 48. FORMAT <ul><li>Used to implement a file system on an existing partition </li></ul><ul><li>Also used on MS-DOS and Windows 9X </li></ul><ul><li>Has a variety of advanced settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting allocation unit (cluster) size </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Command-line version can be run from scripts </li></ul><ul><li>Get the complete syntax and options with FORMAT /? </li></ul>
  49. 49. FSUTIL <ul><li>Used with FAT, FAT32, and NTFS file systems </li></ul><ul><li>Includes many advanced features, requires experienced user </li></ul><ul><li>Information available includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listings of drives, volume information, NTFS-specific data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tasks include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing disk quotas, displaying free space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get complete information in Help and Support Center </li></ul>
  50. 50. MOUNTVOL <ul><li>Used to create, delete, or list volume mount points from command line </li></ul><ul><li>VolumeName parameter is difficult to use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complicates adding new mount point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t affect removing mount points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get complete syntax and options with MOUNTVOL /? </li></ul>
  51. 51. Summary <ul><li>Windows Server 2003 supports data storage types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into 4 primary partitions or 3 primary and 1 extended partition with logical drives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be divided into a number of volumes on 1 disk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A number of disks can be configured in 1 volume </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support simple, spanned, striped, mirrored, RAID-5 volumes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary tool for disk management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk Management </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Summary (continued) <ul><li>Fault tolerance implemented through RAID strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most highly recommended are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RAID level 1 (mirrored volumes) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RAID level 5 (striped, distributed parity info) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware RAID very effective but more costly </li></ul><ul><li>A number of command-line tools and other utilities are available for disk management and cleanup </li></ul>