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Evolution of Commercial Mobile Communications - GPREC TechTalk

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Evolution of Commercial Mobile Communications - GPREC TechTalk for B.Tech ECE Students

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Transcript of "Evolution of Commercial Mobile Communications - GPREC TechTalk"

  1. 1. © Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2009-2014. All rights reserved. #202 | Vasantha’s Classic | Doctors’ Colony | HITECH City| Hyderabad 500081 | India Email : vmelachervu@gmail.com | Website : www.linkedin.com/in/vmelachervu Mobile Communications Evolution of Commercial Mobile Communications Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu GPREC 88-92 ECE Batch Associate Vice President – IT Apollo Hospitals Group, Hyderabad 30-July-2014
  2. 2. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Disclaimer Some of the generally available information on the subject on the Internet is used liberally - for the fear of reinventing the wheel. I hereby thankfully acknowledge those sources. I acknowledge that those brands, trademarks etc. used in this material belong to the respective owners. © Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2009-2014. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Agenda  Xx  Xx  xx
  4. 4. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Global Mobile Cellular Subscriptions
  5. 5. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Global Active Mobile Broadband Subscriptions
  6. 6. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. India Telecom Statistics - 2013 Population 1.21 billion Revenue $33.35 billion Telephone Subscribers 915.19 million Fixed Lines 28.89 million Mobile Phones 886.3 million Net Monthly Telephone Additions 5.5 million Teledensity 74.02% Rural Teledensity 42.67% Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telecommunications_in_India *As of Dec 2013
  7. 7. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Electromagnetic Spectrum
  8. 8. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Radio Spectrum
  9. 9. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Origins of Wireless Communication 1901 Guglielmo Marconi Demonstrates wireless communications over increasing distances. 1864 James Maxwell Predicts existence of radio waves. 1886 Rudolph Hertz Demonstrates radio waves. 1899 Jagadish Chandra Bose Rang a bell at a distance using millimeter range wavelength microwaves. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jagadish_Chandra_Bose http://web.mit.edu/varun_ag/www/bose_real_inventor.pdf
  10. 10. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Mobile Communication For Dummies ATD Encryption/ Compression Digital Modulation Digital Demodulation Decryption/ Decompression DTA
  11. 11. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. First Mobile Radio Telephone Bell Labs, 1924 0G
  12. 12. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. 1GAMPS TACS NMT 1980s Analog Voice Typical 2.4 Kbps  Advanced Mobile Phone Services (AMPS)  Deployed in US , Japan : 1983  Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT)  Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland : 1981  Total Access Communication System (TACS)  British System, similar to AMPS : 1985
  13. 13. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Circuit Switching • Dedicated end to end connection • A private road all for yourself
  14. 14. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Packet Switching • Divided packets can take different paths and times • A shared highway
  15. 15. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. 2GGSM CDMA TDMA 1990s Digital Voice 9.6 - 14.4 Kbps (circuit data)  GSM - Global system for Mobile  Based on TDMA ; Europe  900 Mhz, 1800 Mhz  Later 850 Mhz and 1900 Mhz in Americas  Quad Band  World Phones  Used by AirTel, Vodafone  CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access  cdmaOne or IS-95  All users use same freq band - 800 Mhz  Major success in Korea  Used by Verizon, Sprint, Reliance  Easy Migration to 3G
  16. 16. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. FDMA,TDMA,CDMA  Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)  Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)  Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) 3 Orthogonal Schemes
  17. 17. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. CDMA Visual Example DOGUser 1 Message CATUser 2 Message
  18. 18. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. CDMA Visual Example DOG User 1 Pseudo Random Code or Spreading Code
  19. 19. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. CDMA Visual Example CAT User 2 Pseudo Random Code or Spreading Code
  20. 20. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. CDMA Visual Example - Transmitted User 1 and User 2 Spread Message
  21. 21. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. CDMA Visual Example - Receiver User 1 and User 2 Spread Message User 2 Pseudo Random Code or Spreading CodeUser 1 Pseudo Random Code or Spreading Code
  22. 22. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. CDMA Visual Example - Receiver User 1 Message
  23. 23. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. CDMA Visual Example - Receiver User 2 Message
  24. 24. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. BSS — Base Station System BTS — Base Transceiver Station BSC — Base Station Controller MS — Mobile Station NSS — Network Sub-System MSC — Mobile-service Switching Controller VLR — Visitor Location Register HLR — Home Location Register AuC — Authentication Server GMSC — Gateway MSC 2G Architecture SS7 BTS BSC MSC VLR HLR AuC GMSC BSS PSTN NSS A E C D PSTN Abis B H MS GSM — Global System for Mobile communication
  25. 25. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. 2G Architecture Contd. BTS — Base Transceiver Station BSC — Base Station Controller MSC — Mobile Switching Center VLR — Visitor Location Register HLR — Home Location Register BTS BSC MSC/VLR HLRBSC GMSC CO BSC BSC MSC/VLR CO PSTN PLMN CO Tandem Tandem SMS-SC PSDN
  26. 26. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Making of Mobile Call
  27. 27. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Making of Sending SMS
  28. 28. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. PSTN-to-Mobile Call (STP) (SCP) PSTNPLMN (SSP)(SSP)BSSMS PLMN (Home)(Visitor) (STP) HLR GMSC (SSP) VMSC VLR IAM 6 2 Where is the subscriber? 5 Routing Info 3Provide Roaming 4 SCP 1 IAM 514 581 ... ISUP MAP/ IS41 (over TCAP) Signaling over SS7
  29. 29. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. 3GPP GPRS EDGE LTE WCDMA HSPA 1.92 Mbps 14 Mbps 384 Kbps 114 Kbps 100 Mbps
  30. 30. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. 3GPP2 1xRTT EV-DO UMB (abandoned 2008 Nov & favoring LTE) 114 Kbps 2.4 Mbps 288 Mbps
  31. 31. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. 3G Services
  32. 32. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. 3G Standard Organizations ARIB (Japan) T1 (USA) ETSI (Europe) TTA (Korea) CWTS (China) TTC (Japan) TIA (USA) Third Generation Patnership Project (3GPP) Third Generation Partnership Project II (3GPP2) ITU Mobile Operators ITU Members IS-95), IS-41, IS- 2000, IS-835 GSM, W-CDMA, UMTS
  33. 33. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. CDMA GSM TDMA PHS (IP-Based) 64 Kbps GPRS 115 Kbps CDMA 1xRTT 144 Kbps EDGE 384 Kbps cdma2000 1X-EV-DV Over 2.4 Mbps W-CDMA (UMTS) Up to 2 Mbps 2G 2.5G 2.75G 3G 1992 - 2000+ 2001+ 2003+ 1G 1984 - 1996+ 2003 - 2004+ TACS NMT AMPS GSM/ GPRS (Overlay) 115 Kbps 9.6 Kbps 9.6 Kbps 14.4 Kbps / 64 Kbps 9.6 Kbps PDC Analog Voice Digital Voice Packet Data Intermediate Multimedia Multimedia PHS TD-SCDMA 2 Mbps? 9.6 Kbps iDEN (Overlay) iDEN Source: U.S. Bancorp Piper Jaffray Migration To 3G
  34. 34. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. 3G and 3.5G
  35. 35. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications Frequency Bands You can check All Countries’ Frequency Bands at : http://www.gsmarena.com/network-bands.php3?sCountry=INDIA 2G Capabilities GSM 900, GSM 1800 3G Capabilities UMTS 2100 4G Capabilities LTE 2300 1G + 2G 806 MHz 960 MHz 2G (Asia, Europe) + 3G 1710 MHz 1885 MHz DECT, PHS + 2G + 3G 1885 MHz 2025 MHz 2110 MHz 2200 MHz WCDMA(UL) 1820-1880MHz WCDMA(DL) 1910-1970MHz India Global
  36. 36. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. 3G Mobile Network
  37. 37. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Node B 3G-324M Mobile MSC UTRAN UMTS Core Network IP Network RNC Iu-cs 3G-324M H.323 terminal Streaming/Mail media server Soft Switch or Gate Keeper H.248 or RAS H.323 Support for H.323 calls & streaming media Multi-Media GW RTP 3G Network Platform
  38. 38. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. 3G Network Architecture SD Mobile Station MSC/ VLR Base Station Subsystem GMSC Network Subsystem AUCEIR HLR Other Networks Note: Interfaces have been omitted for clarity purposes. GGSN SGSN BTS BSC Node B RNC RNS UTRAN SIM ME USIM ME + PSTN PLMN Internet
  39. 39. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved.  Core Network CN  switching, routing and transit for user traffic  UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network – UTRAN  Air interface access method for User Equipment  User Equipment – UE  Terminals work as air interface counterpart for Node B  Various identities are: IMSI, TMSI, P-TMSI, TLLI, MSISDN, IMEI, IMEISV 3G Network Architecture - Subsystems
  40. 40. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved.  Wide band CDMA air interface  Base Station is referred to as Node-B  Control equipment for Node-B’s is called is called as Radio Network Controller RNC)  Functions of Node –B  Air Interface Tx/Rx  Modulation / Demodulation  Functions of RNC  Radio Resource Control  Channel Allocation  Power Control Settings  Handover Control  Ciphering 3G Network Architecture - UTRAN
  41. 41. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. WCDMA  Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA)  The air radio interface standard for UMTS  Wideband direct sequence spread spectrum  Three types of interface :  FDD: separate uplink/downlink frequency bands with constant frequency offset between them  TDD: uplink/downlink in same band but time-shares transmissions in each direction  Dual mode :supports FDD and TDD  5-MHz Channel (25 GSM channels)  Each service provider can deploy multiple 5MHz carriers at same cell site  Each 5 MHz shared by multiple subscribers using CDMA  Maximum chip rate = 3.84 Mchips/sec  QPSK modulation
  42. 42. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Mobile Station (MS)  Mobile Equipment  Radio equipment  User interface  Processing capability and memory required for various tasks  Call signaling  Encryption  SMS  Equipment IMEI number  Subscriber Identity Module  A small smart card  Encryption codes needed to identify the subscriber  Subscriber IMSI number  Subscriber’s own information (telephone directory)  Third party applications (banking etc.)  Can also be used in other systems besides GSM, e.g., some WLAN access points accept SIM based user authentication
  43. 43. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications Network Architecture 2G - 2.5G - 3G
  44. 44. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. 3G  3G ◦ Wireless Internet ◦ Video Calling ◦ Mobile TV  Drawbacks ◦ High Bandwidth Requirements ◦ High spectrum licensing fees ◦ Huge capital
  45. 45. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. 3.5G EVDO-Rev A HSDPA HSUPA EVDO-Rev B
  46. 46. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Trends of Network Evolution 2G 3G Wireless Wireline circuit packet (VoIP) ALL IP Network Tremendous Growth in Data Traffic It’s not a choice but an inevitable trend
  47. 47. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Emergency Services Network 3G-HLR UTRAN BSS/ GERAN 3G-HLR G-MSC Server IP Multimedia Subsystem PS Domain 3G-SGSN 3G-GGSN R-SGW MGCF MGW PSTN/ Legacy/External T-SGW Legacy mobile signalling Network Multimedia IP Networks Multimedia IP Networks MSC Server Signaling only User Data and Signaling BGCF Applications & Services SCP CSCF CSCF Application Service Control Transport CS Domain RAN 3G-HLR UMS HSS MRF GMLC MT TE All-IP Network Architecture Model
  48. 48. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. More Demands..! 4G 3G 2G 1G  High transfer rate  Internet access any where  Ability to move around with the same IP address  Utilization of Smart antennas  High resolution Mobile TV
  49. 49. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Evolution of Cellular Networks 1G 2G 3G 4G2.5G Wi-Fi WiMAXWireless Broadband
  50. 50. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Commercial Mobile Communication Data Rates G Technology Data Rates 1 Analog Typical 2.4 Kbps; max 22 Kbps 2 Digital – TDMA, CDMA 9.6 - 14.4 Kbps (circuit data) 2.5 GPRS – mux packets in voice timeslots 15 - 40 Kbps 3 Improved modulation using CDMA variants 50 – 144 Kbps (1xRTT) 200 – 384 Kbps (UMTS) 500 Kbps – 2.4 Mbps (EVDO) 3.5 More modulation tweaks 2–14 Mbps (HSPA) 4 New modulation (OFDMA) Multi-path (MIMO) All IP LTE >10 Mbps Potential >100 Mbps
  51. 51. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Key 4G Concepts  Mobile IP  VoIP  Ability to move around with the same IP address  Presence Awareness Technology  Knowing who is on line and where  Smart Antennas  Unique spatial metric for each transmission  Integrated LAN card and Subscriber Identity Modules (SIMs)  Unified Subscriber Information  Mobile Broadband everywhere  ‘MAGIC’  Mobile Multimedia Communication  Anywhere, Anytime with Anyone  Global Mobility Support  Integrated Wireless Solution  Customized Personal Service
  52. 52. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. 3G vs 4G Technology 3G 4G Data Transfer Rate 385 Kbps – 2 Mbps 20-100Mbps Internet services Broadband Ultra Broadband Mobile -TV Resolution Low High Bandwidth 5 - 20 MHz 100+ MHz Frequency 1.6 - 2 GHZ 2 - 8 GHz Network Architecture Wide Area Network Hybrid Network - integration of Wireless LAN(WiFi), Blue Tooth, Wide Area Signal Quality Good Best Switching Circuit Switching Packet Switching Component Design Optimized Antennae, Multi- band Adapters Smart Antennae, SW Multi- band, Wideband Radios Access WCDMA/CDMA2000 MC-CDMA or OFDM
  53. 53. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. 4G Key Challenges  Spectral Efficiencies  Multi Carrier Modulation (MCM)  Signal Processing and optimizations  Extremely Fast Arithmetic (esp. multiplication)  Smart / Intelligent Antennas  More Efficient and Sensitive Transceiver Designs
  54. 54. © 2010. All rights reserved. Mobile Communications 3G Overview ©Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2014. All rights reserved. Topics of Research and Commercialization
  55. 55. © Venkateswar Reddy Melachervu 2009-2014. All rights reserved. #202 | Vasantha’s Classic | Doctors’ Colony | HITECH City| Hyderabad 500081 | India Email : vmelachervu@gmail.com | Website : www.linkedin.com/in/vmelachervu Thank you Website : www.linkedin.com/in/vmelachervu Email : vmelachervu@gmail.com
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