Unleashing the power of lightning v1.6

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Unleashing the power of lightning v1.6

  1. 1. Unleashing The Power Of Lightning “…In Quest Of Energy For Humanity…” Rohan Reddy Melachervu …In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity… Class 6, Section D DPS, HyderabadDelhi Public School, Hyderabad © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Contents • Why Care About Lightning? • The Sights and Sounds of Lightning • What is Lightning? • Lightning Formation • Frequency and Distribution • Lightning Types • Physical Effects • Power of Lightning • Unleashing Lightning Power • Harvesting Lightning • Anatomy of Energy Transformation • Lightning Harvesting Challenges • Harnessing Lightning Power • Living in Lightning AlleyUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Why Care About Lightning? There are approximately 2,000 thunderstorms at any given moment worldwide Lightning strikes 40–50 times a second worldwide, for a total of nearly 1.4 billion flashes per year About 95 people die from lightning yearly in the U.S. A moderate thunderstorm generates several hundred megawatts of electrical powerUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. The Sights and Sounds of Lightning (1/3) Thunder Storm 4-second video of a lightning strike, Island in the Sky, Canyonlands National Park, Utah, United StatesUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. The Sights and Sounds of Lightning (2/3) High speed photography showing different parts of a lightning Flash during the Discharge process as seen in Toulouse, FranceUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. The Sights and Sounds of Lightning (3/3) View from an Aero planeUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. What is Lightning? (1/2)  A massive electrostatic discharge caused by unbalanced electric charges in the atmosphere accompanied by the loud sound of thunder  It could be:  Cloud to itself – Intra-Cloud  Cloud to a cloud – Inter-Cloud  Cloud to ground – CG  Ground to cloud - GC  Caused by circulation of warm moisture-filled air through electric fields in which ice or water particles accumulate charge a la Van de Graaff generator  Usually produced by cumulonimbus clouds which are at 5–6 km above the ground  Lightning has been observed within the atmospheres of other planets, such as Venus, Jupiter and SaturnUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. What is Lightning? (2/2)  A typical cloud to ground lightning strike is over 5 km long  A typical thunderstorm has three or more strikes per minute at its peak  The science of lightning is called fulminology and the fear of lightning is called astraphobiaUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Formation (1/2) Hypothesis  Cloud particle collision hypothesis  According to this cloud particle charging hypothesis, charges are separated when ice crystals rebound off graupel - a soft ice-water mixture. Charge separation appears to require strong updrafts which carry water droplets upward, supercooling them to between -10 and - 40 °C (14 and -40 °F). These water droplets collide with ice crystals to form graupel. Collisions between ice crystals and graupel pellets usually result in positive charge being transferred to the ice crystals, and negative charge to the graupel.  Updrafts drive the less heavy ice crystals upwards, causing the cloud top to accumulate increasing positive charge. Gravity causes the heavier negatively charged graupel to fall toward the middle and lower portions of the cloud, building up an increasing negative charge. Charge separation and accumulation continue until the electrical potential becomes sufficient to initiate a lightning discharge, which occurs when the distribution of positive and negative charges forms a sufficiently strong/high electric field.  Polarization mechanism hypothesis  Falling droplets of ice and rain become electrically polarized as they fall through the earths magnetic field;  Colliding/rebounding cloud particles become oppositely charged.Unleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Formation (2/2) When the local electric field exceeds the dielectric strength of damp air (about 3 million volts per meter), electrical discharge results in a strike, often followed by commensurate discharges branching from the same path Even assuming an electric field has been established, the mechanism by which the lightning discharge begins is not well known Unleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Frequency and Distribution  Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning accounts for 25% of lightning globally  The base of the negative region in a cloud is typically at the elevation where freezing occurs  The closer this region is to the ground, the more likely cloud-to-ground strikes are  In the tropics, where the freeze zone is higher, 10% of lightning is CG  At the latitude of Norway (60° lat.) where the freezing elevation is lower, 50% of lightning is CG  Lightning is not distributed evenly around the planet  About 70% of lightning occurs on land in the tropics, where most thunderstorms occur  The place where lightning occurs most often is near the small village of Kifuka in the mountains of eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo - where the elevation is around 975 metres - receives 158 lightning strikes per 1 square kilometer (0.39 sq mi) a year.Unleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Cloud-To-Ground Lightning (1/3) As a thundercloud moves, an equal and opposite electric charge of the base of the thundercloud is induced on the Earths surface below the cloud’s shadow The above effects creates and electric field in the air between the two This electric field varies in relation to the strength of the surface charge on the base of the thundercloud. Neutralization of the surface occurs in milli seconds where the positive charges race inward towards the strike termination This rapid change, referred to as step Illustration: A negative leader - potential, is often responsible for more blue meeting a positive streamer injury or deaths than the strike itself - red and the return stroke Unleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Cloud-To-Ground Lightning (2/3) Downward Leader Formation  A channel of ionized air, starts from a negatively charged region of mixed water and ice in the thundercloud  Ionized channels are referred to as leaders  These leaders are conductors for lighting discharge as they travel outward and are invisible to the naked eye  The positively and negatively charged leaders proceed in opposite directions, positive upwards within the cloud, the negative towards the earth  Both ionic channels, proceed in their respective directions, in a number of successiveHigh speed photography showing spurts, similar to two kids hopping randomly indifferent parts of a lightning Flash duringthe Discharge process as seen opposite directionsin Toulouse, France  It may split into two different directions, called branches in a fashion similar to a tree, resulting in multiple leaders  This process results in something resembling stairs and is referred to as "stepped leader(s)" once visible during discharge Unleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Cloud-To-Ground Lightning (3/3) Upward Streamers  When a stepped leader approaches the ground, the presence of opposite charges on the ground enhances the strength of the electric field  The electric field is strongest on grounded objects whose tops are closest to the base of the thundercloud – trees, tall buildings  If the electric field is strong enough, a positively charged ionic channel, called a positive or upward streamer, can develop from these points – first theorized by Heinz Kasemir  As negatively charged leaders approach, grounded objects already experiencing corona discharge exceed a threshold and form upward streamers  Once any downward leader connects to any upward leader available, a process referred to as "attachment", a circuit is formed and discharge may occur  The ionized channel established between the cloud andA lightning flash terminates & discharge occurs ground becomes a path of least resistance allowing currenton a tree while an un-attached streamer is to propagate from Earth back up the leader into the cloudvisible on the earth surface projection to the which is called return stroke and it is theleft. most luminous and noticeable part of the lightning discharge Unleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Other Types of Lightning Cloud-To-Ground Cloud-To-Cloud Multiple paths of cloud-to-cloud lightning, Swifts Creek, AustraliaUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Thunder Physical Effects of Lightning Energy Radiation Induced Magnetism Unleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Physical Effects of Lightning Thunder • The gaseous molecules in this channel undergo a rapid increase in pressure and thus expand outward from the lightning creating a shock wave audible as thunder • Lightning discharge super heats the discharge channel to plasma temperatures in a short duration • Light travels at about 300,000,000 m/s and sound travels through air at about 340 m/s • A lightning flash preceding its thunder by five seconds would be about one mile (1.6 km) (5x340 m) distant • A flash preceding thunder by three seconds is about one kilometer (0.62 mi) (3x340 m) distantUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Physical Effects of Lightning Energy Radiation • The cause of the X-ray emissions is still a matter for research • Researchers at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology detected X-ray emissions from an induced lightning strike along a wire trailed behind a rocket shot into a storm cloud • A number of observations by space- based telescopes have revealed even higher energy gamma ray emissionsUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Physical Effects of Lightning Induced Magnetism • The intense currents of a lightning discharge create a fleeting but very strong magnetic field • In general, the movement of electrical charges produces a magnetic field • If lightning current path passes through rock, soil, or metal these material can become permanently magnetized • This effect is known as lightning-induced remanent magnetism, or LIRMUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. The Power of Lightning One strike has enough energy to light 150,000,000 light bulbs One storm can discharge enough energy to supply the entire U.S. with electricity for 20 minutes A single thunderstorm can release 470 million liters of water A typical lightning bolt may transfer 1020 electrons in a fraction of a second, developing a peak current of up to 1000 kiloamperesUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Unleashing Lightning Power• Approximately 5 • Hence - extremely billion joules of Energy high electrical power is released during a • This energy is is involved typical lightning concentrated in a small location and is transacted during an extremely short period of time – millisecondsUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Harvesting Lightning Since 1980s, there have been several attempts to investigate the possibility of harvesting energy from lightning • The energy contained in lightning be used to generate hydrogen from water The Proposals: • Or to harness the energy from rapid heating of water due to lightning Lightning electricity technically does not need to be generated, only transformed into a useful qualityUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Anatomy of Energy TransformationUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Harvesting Lightning Energy Challenges • The ever-changing energy involved in each lightning bolt • Lightning is sporadic, therefore energy would have to be collected and stored • Difficult to convert high-voltage electrical power to the lower-voltage power that can be stored • Impossibility of predicting when and where thunderstorms will occur • A technology capable of harvesting lightning energy would need to be able to rapidly capture the high power involved in a lightning boltUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Harnessing Lightning Power Massive Electrolysis Producing Hydrogen and Oxygen From WaterUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Economics of Energy GenerationUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Living In Lightning Alley Lightning Strike Music VideoUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. Thank You Unleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” Rohan Reddy Melachervu …In Quest of Energy for Humanity…Delhi Public School, Hyderabad ©Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. References 1. http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2012/01/what-causes-lightning/ 2. http://www.hk-phy.org/iq/lightning/lightning_e.html 3. http://www.lightandlightning.com/what-is-lightning/ 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harvesting_lightning_energy 5. http://www.redorbit.com/news/space/1821830/are_tgfs_hazardous_to_air_travel ers/ 6. http://www-star.stanford.edu/~vlf/palmer/palmer.htm 7. http://wattsupwiththat.com/2009/11/08/antimatter-signature-spotted-in- earths-lightning/ 8. http://faculty.icc.edu/easc111lab/labs/labi/prelab_i.html 9. http://peswiki.com/energy/Directory:Lightning_PowerUnleashing The Power of Lightning “…In Pursuit of Energy for Humanity…” © Rohan Reddy Melachervu. All rights reserved.

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