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9th grade Geography, Mr. Vierk.

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  • Madagascar

    1. 1. Janvi Shah & Gina Youn . Madagascar
    2. 2. <ul><li>Madagascar used to be known as the Malagasy republic </li></ul><ul><li>An island Southeast of Africa in the Indian Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Home to 5% of the animal species </li></ul><ul><li>Used to be a French colony but gained independence in June 26, 1960 </li></ul>An Introduction
    3. 3. <ul><li>The main part of Madagascar’s economy consists of agriculture, fishing, and forestry ( 70% of export earnings). </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial economy consists of textile manufacturing, and processing of agricultural products. </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism is also a large part of the economy. </li></ul>Economy
    4. 4. <ul><li>1997-2000 period of economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>In 2001-2004, a dispute over presidential elections caused the GDP to drop 12.7% </li></ul><ul><li>Malagasy Ariary’s value dropped significantly </li></ul><ul><li>24% inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Stricter monetary enforcement helped the growth development return to normal </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty levels are still fairly high </li></ul>Economy Cont.
    5. 5. <ul><li>Vanilla has been historically important in Madagascar’s economy. When Coca-Cola switched to a different recipe using less vanilla, Madagascar’s economy fell drastically. Fortunately, Coke switched back to the original recipe and the economy returned to its normal state </li></ul><ul><li>Madagascar is also known for being the world’s large cinnamon market </li></ul>Economy Cont.
    6. 6. <ul><li>The Malagasy are the majority of the people is Madagascar </li></ul><ul><li>There are two subgroups </li></ul><ul><li>Those near the higher lands are known as the Merina and the Betsileo </li></ul><ul><li>Those near the coast are the Tanosy and the Temoro </li></ul>Ethnic Make-up
    7. 7. <ul><li>Some other ethnic groups include: </li></ul><ul><li>Antesaka </li></ul><ul><li>Betsimisaraka </li></ul><ul><li>Mahafaly </li></ul><ul><li>Sakalava </li></ul><ul><li>Takarana </li></ul><ul><li>Tsimihety </li></ul><ul><li>Bara </li></ul><ul><li>Tanala </li></ul><ul><li>Mikea </li></ul><ul><li>Sihanaka </li></ul>Ethnic Makeup Cont.
    8. 8. <ul><li>Official languages: Malagasy and French </li></ul><ul><li>Malagasy is spoken throughout the entire island </li></ul><ul><li>French is only spoken between the people who are educated </li></ul><ul><li>English is rarely spoken throughout the country </li></ul><ul><li>The government is introducing a program that will have the schools teach English to the children </li></ul>Languages
    9. 9. <ul><li>In 1958, the constitution noted that French and Malagasy were the official languages </li></ul><ul><li>No official languages were listed in the constitution of 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Malagasy is acknowledged as the “national language” </li></ul><ul><li>However, there are still arguments that both French and Malagasy are official </li></ul><ul><li>In the Constitution of 2007, Malagasy was still the national language, but French and English considered to the official languages </li></ul>Languages Cont.
    10. 10. <ul><li>Considered to be a </li></ul><ul><li>multiparty republic </li></ul><ul><li>They have a president, a parliament , a prime ministry, and a cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>The president serves a five-year term and can be re-elected twice </li></ul><ul><li>The National Assembly consists of 160 people </li></ul>Government Coat of Arms
    11. 11. <ul><li>The senate consists of 90 senators </li></ul><ul><li>60 are elected by the people and 30 are elected by the president </li></ul><ul><li>They all serve 6-year terms </li></ul><ul><li>President appoints the Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>President holds the most power </li></ul>Government Cont.
    12. 12. <ul><li>The Southeastern wind contributes a large role in the climate of Madagascar </li></ul><ul><li>Madagascar has two distinct seasons; a hot wet season and a cool dry season. </li></ul><ul><li>The climate tends to vary with the elevation and position toward the Southeastern wind. </li></ul><ul><li>East has heaviest rainfall (3.5 meters). This region is known for hot humid climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Central highlands are drier due to rain shadow effect </li></ul><ul><li>Lightning tends to be a serious fire hazard in the central highlands were lightning storms are common </li></ul>Climate
    13. 13. <ul><li>Southwest and South have desert climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Only about 30cm of rain falls in the south </li></ul><ul><li>Surface water is most abundant in the east </li></ul><ul><li>Madagascar has a serious cyclone season. </li></ul><ul><li>The last serious cyclone was in 1994 leaving 70 human casualties. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused about 45 million dollars worth of damage </li></ul>Climate Cont.
    14. 14. <ul><li>A little less than half of the people in Madagascar practice tribal religions which emphasize the living and the dead. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 45% are Christian , either Catholic or Protestant. </li></ul><ul><li>The remaining people (around 10%) are Muslim . </li></ul>Religions
    15. 15. <ul><li>Major imports include : petroleum, consumer goods, food </li></ul><ul><li>Import partners : (see chart) </li></ul><ul><li>$ 881 million </li></ul>Imports
    16. 16. <ul><li>Major exports include : coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts and livestock products </li></ul><ul><li>Export partners : (see chart) </li></ul><ul><li>$ 600 million </li></ul>Exports
    17. 17. <ul><li>On the margin of mainstream African foreign relations </li></ul><ul><li>Welcomes relations with all countries </li></ul><ul><li>Strong links with United States, Europe, Japan, India, and China </li></ul><ul><li>Reopened embassy in London in 2004 after 30 years of it being closed </li></ul>Foreign Relations
    18. 18. <ul><li>Many natural resources are found in Madagascar, including: </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals : mica, quartz, graphite, chromite, semiprecious stones </li></ul><ul><li>Coal, salt, and fish </li></ul><ul><li>Water ( hydropower ) </li></ul>Natural Resources
    19. 19. <ul><li>An island in the Indian Ocean , across from Mozambique </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth largest island in the world </li></ul><ul><li>There is a steep escarpment between the plateau and low-lying coastal areas </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the “Red Island” because of red laterite soil that is being exposed by erosion </li></ul>Geography
    20. 20. <ul><li>The highest mountain on the island is Maromokotro , at 9,436 ft , which is about 1/3 that of Mt. Everest. </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive deforestation and slash-and-burn practices have caused erosion (on right) </li></ul><ul><li>In the background: the Tsingy de Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve , which protects many animals and mangrove forests in the area. </li></ul>Geography Cont.
    21. 21. <ul><li>September 23, 2007 - Parliament elections, Tiako I Madagasikara party won 105 of the seats. </li></ul><ul><li>October 19 - Conflict over a new mining project in Southern Madagascar that is affecting the health of people in the area </li></ul><ul><li>June 27 - 6 national parks found to be so unique that they were added to the World Heritage List </li></ul>Current Events
    22. 22. <ul><li>Name three of Madagascar’s exports </li></ul><ul><li>Vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts and livestock products </li></ul><ul><li>How many years does the president serve and how many times can he be re-elected? </li></ul><ul><li>5 years, re-elected twice </li></ul>QUIZ TIME!!