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Central America and Mexico


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Central America and Mexico

  1. 1. Central America And Mexico By: Donald Johnson, Joe Strycharz and John Panaccio
  2. 2. Geographic Features of Central America
  3. 3. <ul><li>Borders - Belize, Guatemala, US; A little smaller than Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate - Varies from tropical to desert. </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain - High mountains, low coastal plains, and deserts </li></ul><ul><li>Imports - Agriculture machinery, and industrial machinery. </li></ul><ul><li>Exports - Silver, cotton, oil, coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Arable Land -12.66% </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mexico Capital: Mexico City The United Mexican States of Mexico is a federal republic made up of 31 states and one Federal District, which contains the capital, Mexico City. Article 49 of the constitution provides that the federal government is divided in three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
  5. 5. Mexican Connections to Geography <ul><li>Tourism - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3rd largest factor in the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agriculture - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20% of jobs farm related, while only 1/5 of the land is arable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most farmers are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subsistence farmers </li></ul></ul>Montezuma’s castle Church of Guadalupe
  6. 6. Surrounded by mountains and volcanoes, it was a center for several pre-Columbian civilizations, including Teotihuacan, the Toltec, and the Aztec.
  7. 7. Chichen Itza A large pre-Columbian archaeological site built by the Maya civilization located in the northern center of the Yucatán Peninsula, in the Yucatán state, present-day Mexico.
  8. 9. Guatemala During the second half of the 20th century, it experienced a variety of military and civilian governments as well as a 36-year guerrilla war. In 1996, the government signed a peace agreement formally ending the conflict, which had led to the death of more than 100,000 people and had created some 1 million refugees. Capital: Guatemala City
  9. 10. <ul><li>Borders - Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico; a little smaller than Tennessee </li></ul><ul><li>Climate - tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain - most of the country mountainous with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateaus </li></ul><ul><li>Imports - fuels, machinery, construction materials, grain, fertilizers, electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Exports - coffee, sugar, petroleum, apparel, bananas, fruits and vegetables, </li></ul><ul><li>Arable Land - 12.54% </li></ul>
  10. 11. Gua t ema l a Miguel Ángel Asturias, named Nobel Laureate in 1967, wrote &quot;Only Guatemala is comparable to itself,&quot; describing it as &quot;a land of natural dreamscapes ... mysterious presences and absences.&quot; Tikal, the largest known Mayan city, is incomparable in the same way; its size imposing and intimidating, its setting lush and teeming with wildlife.
  11. 12. Guatemala-Mexico art
  12. 13. Belize Territorial disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed the independence of Belize (formerly British Honduras) until 1981. Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation until 1992. Tourism has become the mainstay of the economy. Capital: Belmopan
  13. 14. <ul><li>Borders - Guatemala, Mexico; </li></ul><ul><li>a little smaller than </li></ul><ul><li>Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Climate - tropical; very hot and humid </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain - flat, swampy; coastal plains; low mountains in the south </li></ul><ul><li>Imports - machinery, manufactured goods; fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals; tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Exports - sugar, bananas, </li></ul><ul><li>citrus, clothing, fish </li></ul><ul><li>products, molasses, wood </li></ul><ul><li>Arable Land - 2.85% </li></ul>
  14. 15. Belizean Connections to Geography <ul><li>Tourism - The extensive tourist industry benefits from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm Climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Belize Barrier Reef </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous islands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent fishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jungle wildlife </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forestry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belize's climate and terrain produces important varieties of timber included logwood, and mahogany </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Blue Hole The Great Blue Hole
  16. 17. Belize - Tourist haven
  17. 18. Principal Sites of Pre-Conquest in Mesoamerica
  18. 19. Situated on the Pacific coast of Central America, El Salvador is the smallest of the Central American countries, with an area equal to that of Massachusetts. Most of the country is on a fertile volcanic plateau about 2,000 ft. high.
  19. 20. With approximately 6.7 million peopl e, it is the most densely populated nation on the American mainland It is also the most industrialized country in the region. El Salvador
  20. 21. <ul><li>Borders - Guatemala, Honduras; Pacific coast. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate - tropical rainy season and tropical on coast; temperate in uplands </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain - mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau </li></ul><ul><li>Imports - raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels, petroleum, electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Exports - coffee, sugar, shrimp, textiles, chemicals, electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Arable Land - 31.85% </li></ul>
  21. 22. Capital City: San Salvador
  22. 24. El Salvador A 12-year civil war, which cost about 75,000 lives, was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms. GDP per capita is roughly only half that of Brazil, Argentina, and Chile, and the distribution of income is highly unequal. Sacred capilla de El Salvador
  23. 25. MS-13 This gang, aka Mara Salvatrucha 13, is one of the most violently dangerous gangs in the United States - and one of the most organized.  One of many 15-year-olds currently incarcerated in El S alvador
  24. 26. Top ten constraints to firm investment in El Salvador
  25. 28. In 1992, El Salvador began a nationwide highway development program. As a result, the nation boasts one of the finest highway systems in Central America with over 20 percent of the 10,000 kilometer road network paved and in good condition. Infrastru cture
  26. 29. Economy The trade deficit has been offset by annual remittances of almost $2 billion from Salvadorans living abroad and external aid. The government is striving to open new export markets, encourage foreign investment, modernize the tax and healthcare systems, and stimulate the sluggish economy.
  27. 30. Agriculture Agriculture defined the economic life of El Salvador well before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in the early 1500s, and, despite some modest advances in industrial capacity, agriculture has continued to dominate the nation's wealth, social structure, and political dynamics. Minister of Foreign Affairs Eugene Chien, center, holds a starfruit as he talks with El Salvador's Agriculture Minister Salvador Urrutia
  28. 32. Honduras
  29. 33. <ul><li>Borders - Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua; a little bit bigger than Tennessee </li></ul><ul><li>Climate - lowlands subtropical, mountains temperate </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain - mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains </li></ul><ul><li>Imports - machinery, industrial raw materials, chemical </li></ul><ul><li>products, fuels, </li></ul><ul><li>Exports - coffee, bananas, </li></ul><ul><li>shrimp, lobster, meat; zinc, lumber </li></ul><ul><li>Arable Land - 15.15% </li></ul>
  30. 34. Honduras Part of Spain's empire in the New World, Honduras became an independent nation in 1821. After two and one-half decades of mostly military rule, a freely elected civilian government came to power in 1982.
  31. 35. Tegucigalpa
  32. 36. <ul><li>Borders - Honduras, Costa Rica; a little smaller than the state of New York </li></ul><ul><li>Climate - tropical in lowlands, </li></ul><ul><li>cooler in highlands </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain - coastal plains rising to mountains; often interrupted by volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>Imports - machinery, </li></ul><ul><li>raw materials, petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>Exports - beef, coffee, shrimp, lobster, tobacco, sugar, gold, peanuts </li></ul><ul><li>Arable Land - 14.81% </li></ul>
  33. 37. Managua, Nicaragua
  34. 38. Nicaragua Nicaragua is located in Central America, bordered by Honduras and Costa Rica. Daniel Ortega Saavedra was president of Nicaragua from 1985-1990. As one of the leading commanders of the Sandinista forces that ousted Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza in July 1979, he became head of the ruling junta in the subsequent leftist regime.
  35. 39. Costa Rica One of Central America's smallest countries, Costa Rica is its most economically and socially advanced with a long tradition of democracy. It is also one of the safest and friendliest countries to visit in Latin America, with an incredible degree of biodiversity.
  36. 40. San Jose, Costa Rica
  37. 41. <ul><li>Borders- Nicaragua, Panama; </li></ul><ul><li>A little smaller than West Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Climate- Tropical and subtropical; cooler in highlands </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain- Coastal plains separated by rugged mountains and many volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>Imports- raw materials, consumer goods, petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>Exports- coffee, bananas, </li></ul><ul><li>sugar; pineapples; textiles, </li></ul><ul><li>medical equipment, electronics </li></ul><ul><li>Arable Land - 4.41% </li></ul>
  38. 42. <ul><li>Because of its location on the globe Costa Rica has two distinct seasons each with its own agricultural advantage, as different crops can be grown at different times </li></ul><ul><li>One-fourth of Costa Rican land has been set aside as national forests, often with adjoining beaches, which has made the country a popular tourist spot for retirees and ecotourists . </li></ul>
  39. 43. Costa Rica From the spectacular volcanoes that surround the Meseta Central , fast flowing rivers fall steeply away through lush tropical rainforest towards the Caribbean or Pacific coasts.
  40. 44. <ul><li>Borders - Columbia, Costa Rica; </li></ul><ul><li>a little smaller than </li></ul><ul><li>South Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>Climate - Tropical, hot and humid. Long rainy season, short dry season. </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain - mountainous, coastal areas, many plains and rolling hills </li></ul><ul><li>Imports - food, consumer goods, chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Exports - bananas, shrimp, sugar, coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Arable Land -7.26% </li></ul>
  41. 45. Panama City Casco Viejo, seen from Cerro Ancón
  42. 46. Isthmus of Panama <ul><ul><li>Created by tectonic plates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affected the earths geography by changing the oceans flow which also changed the climate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The location of the Panama Canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than 14,000 ships pass through each year, resulting in many people visiting Panama </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A large factor in the country’s economy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 47. Central American rain forest The tropical rain forest is a forest of tall trees in a region of year-round warmth. An average of 50 to 260 inches of rain falls yearly. Rain forests belong to the tropical wet climate group. The temperature in a rain forest rarely gets higher than 93 °F or drops below 68 °F ; average humidity is between 77 and 88%.
  44. 49. Links <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>