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Madagascar - political, economic, cultural, and geographic aspects

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  1. 1. Madagascar
  2. 2. Political aspects
  3. 3. Independence from France in 1960. Source:
  4. 4. The president of Madagascar, Mr. Andry Nirina Rajoelina (born in 1974), is the youngest president in Africa. Mr. Rajoelina became President in 2009. Source
  5. 5. The government of Madagascar has more than 30 ministers. Source:
  6. 6. Economic issues
  7. 7. Relatively stable real GDP growth of about 7% Source:
  8. 8. GDP per capita world ranking: # 211 Source factbook/rankorder/2004rank.html?countryName=Madagascar&countryCode=ma&regionCode=af&ran k=211#ma
  9. 9. Export products Coffee. Vanilla. Shellfish. Sugar. Cotton cloth. Chromite. Petroleum products. Sources
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  11. 11. Infrastructure
  12. 12. In 2005 an estimated 3.5 million school days were lost in Madagascar due to diarrhoea and other illnesses linked to poor sanitation. This absenteeism contributes to the high Malagasy school dropout rate, with six out of ten children never finishing primary school. Source
  13. 13. Throughout Madagascar only 38% of the population has access to safe water and only 52% of houses are equipped with latrines. Source
  14. 14. Agriculture
  15. 15. Coffee Cloves Sugarcane Cocoa Vanilla Agriculture Rice products Beans Peanuts Cassava Livestock (tapioca) Bananas products Source:
  16. 16. Energy
  17. 17. Only 4% of the country’s communities are now served with electricity. Source:
  18. 18. We would like that in 2020, 70% of the energy in Madagascar should be renewable and 10% of transportation will use renewable energy. The capacity for solar energy is very good in Madagascar, as well as wind energy in the north and south and biomass. We are starting in those directions to [develop] renewable energy. Source:
  19. 19. Madagascar is home to the Bemolanga oil sands, one of the world’s largest undeveloped bitumen reserves at 16 billion barrels of oil. Total of France and Madagascar Oil of the U.S. are developing the site. Source:
  20. 20. Madagascar also has coal, estimated at 135 million tons Source:
  21. 21. Madagascar has the potential for 7,800 megawatts from hydropower, but uses only 150 megawatts . Source:
  22. 22. A cooperation deal between battery company Saft and energy management specialist Schneider Electric is to deliver a off-grid solar photovoltaic installation providing the village of Marovato on Madagascar’s east coast with energy for around six hours per day – mainly in the evenings – as an alternative to the kerosene and hand-gathered wood traditionally used by the 120 villagers. Source
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  24. 24. Minerals
  25. 25. Nickel Chromium Copper Gold Cobalt Grapphite Petroleum Minerals Sappire Iron ore Ruby Titanium Emerald Zirconium Diamonds Cement Source:
  26. 26. Madagascar holds half the world’s sapphires as well as semiprecious gems such as amethyst and beryl. It has iron, nickel, graphite, bauxite and uranium. It has lesser-known minerals essential to industry, such as vanadium, a metal used in high- strength steels and titanium alloys, and ilmenite, used in pigments and whiteners from toothpaste to paint. Source:
  27. 27. Mining companies in Madagascar Source:
  28. 28. Cultural issues
  29. 29. Population 20.6 million people Life expectancy 63 years Languages English (official) French (official) Malagasy (official) Religion Indigenous beliefs 52% Christian 41% Muslim 7% Source:
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  33. 33. Unlike much of the African mainland, Malagasy people share a common language which is spoken throughout the island, hence facilitating communication and trade. French is widely used in the administration and in high school instruction. Source:
  34. 34. The various Malagasy dialects are all closely related, having diversified only in the last 2,000 years when Madagascar was settled by an Indonesian people. The languages contain some words of Bantu, Swahili, Arab, English, and French origin. Since 1820 the Merina dialect, written in the Roman alphabet, has been the official language of the island. Sources
  35. 35. Although most Malagasy are from mixed Asian and African ancestry, people from coastal areas harbor a historical resentment against people from the central highlands who traditionally ruled the country. Source:
  36. 36. Geographical aspects
  37. 37. Madagascar 587,041 km2. 14 times larger than Switzerland. World’s 4th largest island. Source:
  38. 38. Source:
  39. 39. The island of Madagascar split away from the east coast of Africa more than 120 million years ago and evolved its own unique flora and fauna in quiet isolation from the rest of the world. Source
  40. 40. Isalo National Park Source:
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  42. 42. 1 of 99 recognized species and subspecies of lemur found only in Madagascar Source: