presentation ppt


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

presentation ppt

  1. 1.  HYDROELECTICIY Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generate by hydropower. Hydro comes from the Greek word for water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity generation. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 721 terawatt-hours of production in 2010. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. However, damming interrupts the The flow of rivers and can harm local Ecosystems, and building large dams and reservoirs often involves displacing people and Wildlife.
  2. 2. TIDAL ENERGY Tidal Energy is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity. Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Among sources of renewable energy tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability. However, many recent technological development and improvements, both in design and turbine technology, indicate that the total availability of tidal power may be much higher than previously assumed, and that economic.
  3. 3. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY The term Geothermal originates from two Geek words 'GEO' and 'THERM'. The Greek word ‘geo’ means the earth and ‘therme’ means heat from the earth. Geothermal energy is energy derived from the heat of the earth. Geothermal energy is the heat from the Earth. Resources of geothermal energy range from the shallow ground to hot water and hot rock found a few miles beneath the Earth's surface, and down even deeper to the extremely high temperatures of molten rock called magma. Geothermal energy is a renewable source of energy. Geothermal development is often allowed on federal lands because it does not significantly harm the environment. Geothermal power plants are excellent sources of base load power. Base load power is power that electric utility companies must deliver all day long.
  4. 4. WAVE ENERGY Wave energy is the capacity of the waves for doing work. Ocean waves are generated by the influence of the wind on the ocean surface first causing ripples. As the wind continues to blow, the ripples become chop, fully developed seas and finally swells. In deep water, the energy in waves can travel for thousands of miles until that energy is finally dissipated on distant shores. Waves are caused by the wind blowing over the surface of the ocean. In many areas of the world, the wind blows with enough consistency and force to provide continuous waves along the shoreline. Ocean waves contain tremendous energy potential. Wave power devices extract energy from the surface motion of ocean waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface
  5. 5. The property of water to form an insoluble curd with soap instead of latter. In other words it is the destroying property due to the presence of Bicarbonates, Sulphates and Chlorides of Calcium and Magnesium. Hard water is water that has high mineral content. Hard drinking water is generally not harmful to one's health, but can pose serious problems in industrial settings. The presence of the metal cations makes the water hard. IMPORTANT FACT The World Health Organisation says that "there does not appear to be any convincing evidence that water hardness causes adverse health effects in humans.”
  6. 6. TEMPORARY HARDNESS Temporary hardness is a type of water hardness caused by the presence of dissolved Bicarbonates minerals (calcium bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate). Temporary hardness can be reduced either by boiling the water, or by the addition of lime (calcium hydroxide) through the softening process of lime softening. PERMANENT HARDNESS Permanent hardness is hardness (mineral content) that cannot be removed by boiling. When this is the case, it is usually caused by the presence of calcium sulphate and/or magnesium sulphate in the water, which do not precipitate out as the temperature increases.
  7. 7. It is often desirable to soften hard water. Most detergents contain ingredients that counteract the effects of hard water on the surfactants. For this reason, water softening is often unnecessary. Where softening is practiced, it is often recommended to soften only the water sent to domestic hot water systems so as to prevent or delay inefficiencies and damage due to scale formation in water heaters. A common method for water softening involves the use of ion exchange resins, which replace ions like Ca2+ by twice the number of monocations such as sodium or potassium ions. Temporary hardness can be reduced either by boiling the water, or by the addition of lime (calcium hydroxide) through the softening process of lime softening. Permanent hardness can be removed by the addition of washing soda (sodium carbonate).
  8. 8. DISADVANTAGES Hard Water make peoples' cleaning efforts less effective. Clothes that are washed may not appear clean. More cleaning products are generally required to complete tasks such as mopping or scrubbing bathrooms. Hard Water tends to leave a film on surfaces of the dishes. Soaps and detergents do not perform as well in hard water as they normally do. ADVANTAGES The problem of hard water is caused by a high concentration of minerals, often calcium and magnesium. When individuals drink this water, it may help them to meet their needs for these nutrients.
  9. 9. Water conservation is the practice of saving water and reducing wastefulness. The goals of water conservation efforts are:  SASTAINABILITY-To ensure availability for future generations, the withdrawal of fresh water from an ecosystem should not exceed its natural replacement rate.  ENEGY CONSERVATION - Water pumping, delivery and waste water treatment facilities consume a significant amount of energy. In some regions of the world over 15% of total electricity consumption is devoted to water management.  HABITAT CONSERVATION -Minimizing human water use helps to preserve fresh water habitats for local wildlife and migrating waterfowl, as well as as reducing the need to build new dams and other water diversion infrastructures.
  10. 10. Water conservation is important because it creates more efficient use of the water resources, it helps decrease in water pollution and increases in energy saving. Conserving of water helps in protecting the water quality through improved wastewater treatment. It is also very important in ensuring that we have enough usable water. Our water resources have decreased significantly. So it is our duty to protect water because water is an important resource ,we will not be able survive without water and it is we the people who are polluting the water and making it unfit for drinking. IMPORTANT FACT SAVE WATER SAVE LIFE AND OUR PLANET!
  11. 11. Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer, include water for garden, water for livestock, water for irrigation, and indoor heating for houses etc.. In many places the water collected is just redirected to a deep pit with percolation. The harvested water can be used as drinking water as well as for storage and other purpose like irrigation. DID YOU KNOW? There are two types of rain water harvesting :  Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting Drain Harvesting
  12. 12. • • • • Currently in China and Brazil rooftop rain water harvesting is being practiced for providing drinking water, domestic water, water for livestock, water for small irrigation and a way to replenish ground water levels. Gansu province in China and semi-arid north-east Brazil have the largest rooftop rainwater harvesting projects ongoing. In the state of Tamil Nadu, rainwater harvesting is made compulsory for every building to avoid ground water depletion. It proved excellent results within five years, and every other state took it as role model. Since its implementation, Chennai saw a 50 percent rise in water level in five years and the water quality significantly improved. In Beijing, some housing societies are now adding rain water in their main water sources after proper treatment. In Sri Lanka rainwater harvesting has been a popular method of obtaining water for agriculture and for drinking purposes in rural homes.
  13. 13. Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting of adivasis, farmers, environmentalists, and human rights activists against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada river. The river flows through the states of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh in India. Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat is one of the biggest dams on the river and was one of the first focal points of the movement. HISTORY Post-1947, investigations were carried out to evaluate mechanisms for using water from the Narmada River,which flows into the Arabian Sea after passing through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat. Due to inter-state differences in implementing schemes and sharing of water, the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal was constituted by the Government of India on 6 October 1969 to adjudicate over the disputes. This tribunal investigated the matters referred to it and responded after more than 10 years. On 12 December 1979, the decision as given by the tribunal, with all the parties at dispute binding to it, was released by the Indian government. As per the tribunal's decision, 30 major, 135 medium, and 3000 small dams, were granted approval for construction including raising the height of the Sardar Sarovar dam.
  14. 14. PEOPLE INVOLVED FORMATION Amongst the major celebrities who have shown their support for Narmada Bachao Andolan are Booker Prize winner Arundhati Roy and Aamir Khan. 1994 saw the launch of Narmada: A Valley Rises, by filmmaker Ali Kazimi. It documents the five-week Sangharsh Yatra of 1991. The film went on to win several awards and is considered by many to be a classic on the issue. In 1996, veteran documentary filmmaker, Anand Patwardhan, made an awardwinning documentary: A Narmada Diary. There were groups such as Gujarat-based ArchVahini(Action Research in Community Health and Development) and Narmada Asargrastha Samiti (Committee for people affected by the Narmada dam), Madhya Pradesh-based Narmada Ghati Nav Nirman Samiti (Committee for a new life in the Narmada Valley) and Maharashtra-based Narmada Dharangrastha Samiti (Committee for Narmada dam-affected people) who either believed in the need for fair rehabilitation plans for the people or who vehemently opposed dam construction despite a resettlement policy. While Medha Patkar established Narmada Bachao Andolan in 1989, all these groups joined this national coalition of environmental and human rights activists, scientists, academics and project-affected people with a non-violent approach.
  15. 15. Within the focus of Narmada Bachao Andolan towards the stoppage of the Sardar Sarovar dam, Patkar advised addition of World Bank to their propaganda. Using the right to fasting, she undertook a 22-days fast that almost took her life. In 1991, Patkar's actions led to an unprecedented independent review by the World Bank. The Morse Commission, appointed in June 1991 at the recommendation of World Bank President Barber Conable, conducted its first independent review of a World Bank project. This independent review stated that "performance under these projects has fallen short of what is called for under Bank policies and guidelines and the policies of the Government of India."This resulted in the Indian Government pulling out of its loan agreement with the World Bank. In response, Patkar said "It is very clear and obvious that they used this as a face-saving device," suggesting that if this were not to happen, the World Bank eventually would have withdrawn the loan. The World Bank's participation in these projects was cancelled in 1995. She undertook a similar fast in 1993 and resisted evacuation from the dam site.In 1994, the Bachao Andolan office was attacked reportedly by a couple of political parties, where Patkar and other activists were physically assaulted and verbally abused. In protest, a few NBA activists and she began a fast; 20 days later, they were arrested and forcibly fed intravenously.
  16. 16.  The Supreme Court's decision is still pending, seeking stoppage of construction of the Sardar Sarovar dam. The court initially ruled the decision in the Andolan's favor, thereby effecting an immediate stoppage of work at the dam and directing the concerned states to first complete the rehabilitation and replacement process.  The Court deliberated on this issue further for several years but finally upheld the Tribunal Award and allowed the construction to proceed, subject to conditions. The court introduced a mechanism to monitor the progress of resettlementpari passu with the raising of the height of the dam through the Grievance Redressal Authorities (GRA) in each of the party states. The court’s decision referred in this document, given in the year 2000 after seven years of deliberations, has paved the way for completing the project to attain full envisaged benefits. The court's final line of the order states, "Every endeavour shall be made to see that the project is completed as expeditiously as possible"  The Narmada dam's benefits include provision of drinking water, power generation and irrigation facilities. However, the campaign led by the NBA activists has held up the project's completion, and the NBA supporters have attacked on local people who accepted compensation for moving. Others have argued that the Narmada Dam protesters are little more than environmental extremists who use pseudoscientific agitprop to scuttle the development of the region and that the dam will provide agricultural benefits to millions of poor in India. There had also been instances when the NBA activists turned violent and attacked rehabilitation officer from Narmada Valley Development Authority (NVDA) and caused damage to the contractor's machinery.  The NBA has been accused of lying under oath in court about land ownership in areas affected by the dam. The Supreme Court has mulled perjury charges against the group
  17. 17. Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within a watershed boundary. Features of a watershed that agencies seek to manage include water supply, water quality, drainage, stormwater runoff, water rights, and the overall planning and utilization of watersheds. Landowners, land use agencies, stormwater management experts, environmental specialists, water use surveyors and communities all play an integral part in the management of a watershed.
  18. 18.  As ageing large-scale surface irrigation schemes have become increasingly inefficient, and farmers have begun growing a wider range of crops requiring water on demand, the number of groundwater wells in India has exploded. In 1960, there were fewer than 100,000 such wells; by 2006 the figure had risen to nearly 12 million. In India, a possible solution to over-use of groundwater is emerging, known as 'groundwater recharge'. It involves capturing rainwater that would otherwise run-off, and using it to refill aquifers.  In the Punjab region of India, for example, groundwater levels have dropped 10 meters since 1979, and the rate of depletion is accelerating.