RECYCLING OF WATER
• Recycled water, is former wastewater (sewage) that is treated to
remove solids and certain impurities, and used insustainable
landscaping irrigation or to recharge groundwater aquifers . The
purpose of these processes is sustainability and water conservation,
rather than discharging the treated water to surface waters such as
rivers and oceans. In some cases, recycled water can be used for
streamflow augmentation to benefit ecosystems and improve
aesthetics. One example of this is along Calera Creek in the City of
• The definition of reclaimed water, as defined by Levine and Asaneo,
is "The end product of wastewater reclamation that meets water
quality requirements for biodegradable materials, suspended
matter and pathogens.“ In more recent conventional use, the term
refers to water that is not treated as highly in order to offer a way
to conserve drinking water. This water is given to uses such as
agriculture and sundry industry uses.
HOW IS WATER RECYCLED?
While various wastewater recycling technologies have the same ultimate goal
– to give drillers a cost-effective means of reusing flowback and produced
water – there is no clear consensus on how to achieve it. Some companies
use chemicals, others use electrical pulses. Some see removal of solids as
mandatory, some see it as costly and unnecessary.
OriginOil uses a system called Electro Water Separation (EWS). EWS combines
electrocoagulation – using electrical pulses to prompt organic material in
water to coagulate, or clump together – and electrofloation, which makes
clumped material float to the surface, where it can simply be raked off the
The process leaves a solution that is not potable, but can be sent to disposal
wells or as the first stage in a water-recycling program. “We get it to about
99% clean,” said company Chief Executive. These processes can remove
additional materials, such as minerals that contribute to water hardness. A
company called Pace has integrated OriginOil’s process with a nanofiltration
USES OF RECYCLED WATER
Recycled water can be used for almost any use, as long as it is treated to a
level to make it fit for that intended purpose (i.e. fit-for-purpose) from a
health and environmental perspective . However, the cost of treatment may
make reclamation uneconomical for some uses. Australia now has more than
600 different recycled water schemes operating. The bulk of these schemes
• Urban and municipal environments
• Households, golf courses and recreational parks.
• Washing and cooling in power stations and mills.
• Horticulture, forestry, pasture, flowers, viticulture and sugar cane.
• Fire fighting
• Groundwater recharge
• Environmental flows and wetlands
• It is now also possible for advanced treatment technology to produce safe
drinking (potable) water. In several countries wastewater is recycled for
potable reuse via groundwater