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Ppt 2


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Ppt 2

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Water conservation encompasses the policies, strategies and activities to manage fresh water as a sustainable resource to protect the water environment and to meet current and future human demand. Population, household size and growth and affluence all affect how much water is used. Factors such as climate change will increase pressures on natural water resources especially in manufacturing and agricultural irrigation.
  3. 3. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT • Water is an essential natural resource for human existence. It is needed in every industrial and natural process, for example, it is used for oil refining, for liquid-liquid extraction in hydro-metallurgical processes, for cooling, for scrubbing in the iron and the steel industry and for several operations in food processing facilities, etc. It is necessary to adopt a new approach to design urban water supply networks; water shortages are expected in the forthcoming decades and environmental regulations for water utilization and waste-water disposal are increasingly stringent. • To achieve a sustainable water supply network, new sources of water are needed to be developed, and to reduce environmental pollution.
  4. 4. STRATEGIES In implementing water conservation principles there are a number of key activities that may be beneficial. 1. Any beneficial reduction in water loss, use and waste 2. Avoiding any damage to water quality. 3. Improving water management practices that reduce or enhance the beneficial use of water.
  5. 5. HOME APPLICATIONS • Water-saving technology for the home includes: • Low-flow shower heads sometimes called energyefficient shower heads as they also use less energy, Low-flush toilets and composting toilets. These have a dramatic impact in the developed world, as conventional Western toilets use large volumes of water. Dual flush toilets created by Caroma includes two buttons or handles to flush different levels of water. Dual flush toilets use up to 67% less water than conventional toilets. • • • Saline water (sea water) or rain water can be used for flushing toilets.
  7. 7. THE GANGES Ganges River, Hindi Ganga, great river of the plains of northern India. From time immemorial it has been the holy river of Hinduism.Rising in the Himalayas and emptying into the Bay of Bengal, it drains a quarter of the territory of India, while its basin supports hundreds of millions of people. The Gangetic Plain, across which it flows, is the heartland of the region known as Hindustan and has been the cradle of successive civilizations from the Mauryan empire of Ashoka in the 3rd century bce down to the Mughal Empire, founded in the 16th century. For most of its course the Ganges flows through Indian territory, although its large delta in the Bengal area, which it shares with the Brahmaputra River, lies mostly in Bangladesh. The general direction of the river’s flow is from northwest to southeast. At its delta the flow is generally southward
  8. 8. THE GANGES DISPUTE The Ganges is disputed between India and Bangladesh. The water reserves are being quickly depleted and polluted, while the Gangotri glacier that feeds the sacred Hindu river is retreating hundreds of feet each year and deforestation in the Himalayas, which is causing subsoil streams flowing into the Ganges river to dry up. Downstream, India controls the flow to Bangladesh with the Farakka Barrage, 10 kilometers on the Indian side of the border. Until the late 1990s, India used the barrage to divert the river to Calcutta, to keep the city's port from drying up during the dry season. This denied Bangladeshi farmers water and silt, and it left the Sundarban wetlands and mangrove forests at the river's delta seriously threatened. The two countries have now signed an agreement to share the water more equally. Water quality, however, remains a problem, with high levels of arsenic and untreated sewage in the river water
  9. 9. THE NARMADA Narmada River, also called Narbada or Nerbudda, river in central India. It rises in the Maikala Range in east-central Madhya Pradesh state and follows a tortuous course through the hills near Mandla. It then enters the structural trough between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges at Marble Rocks Gorge and flows westward across Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat states, entering the Gulf of Khambhat through an estuary 13 miles (21 km) wide, just below Bharuch. Draining the northern slopes of the Satpura Range along its 800-mile (1,300-km) course, it flows through the Hoshangabad plains, the Dhar upland, the Mahishmati plains, and the gorges at Mandhata and Murakta. The river has numerous waterfalls and tributaries. Some important cities and towns on its banks include Hoshangabad, Jabalpur, Handia, and Mandhata. Called Namade by the 2nd-century-ce Greek geographer Ptolemy, the river has always been an important route between the Arabian Sea and the Ganges (Ganga) River valley.
  10. 10. THE NARMADA DISPUTE The Narmada, also called the Rewa, is a river in central India and the fifth longest river in the Indian subcontinent. Investigations for harnessing the Narmada waters started around the time of independence, when Central Waterways, Irrigation and Navigation Commission (CWINC) identified several storage schemes and in 1948 the Khosla Committee prioritised the proposals and named Tawa, Bargi, Punasa and Bharuch projects for preparation of reports. The reports were ready by 1963.While the project in Gujarat called Baruch Weir project went through a series of modifications and improvements with a reformed scheme at Navagam village to extend benefits up to the Rann of Kutch, but following the bifurcation of the erstwhile Bombay state into Maharashtra and Gujarat states and Gujarat's intent to raise the height of the dam at Navagam to maximise storage benefits at the cost of submergence of potential hydropower sites in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, created a dispute between the states. After intense parleys failed to resolve the problem, GOI decided to set up the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal (NWDT) in 1969 under the Interstate River Water Disputes Act, 1956 to adjudicate on the dispute relating to sharing of water of the inter–state river Narmada and its valley.After ten years of deliberations, the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal (NWDT) gave its award in December 1979. The NWDT, considering the development of the water resources of the basin as a whole, gave its award, allocating share of water and Hydro Power of the Sardar Sarovar Project.
  11. 11. GEOGRAPHY
  12. 12. WORLDWIDE CONSERVATION OF WATER o o o o o o o As the world population continues to grow, the ability to source clean water is becoming a more pressing concern. Worldwide agriculture accounts for 70% of all water consumption, compared to 20% for industry and 10% for domestic use. Utilization of water in different countries:USA - In the United States an average American uses over 420 litres per day. This is one of the highest in the world, and by 2050 14 states will face an extreme risk to water sustainability. The UK – In the UK an average person uses 150 litres a day. Now UK has less available water per person than many countries in Europe. Africa – Access to water is a bigger problem in Africa than anywhere else on the planet. Out of the 25 nations of the greatest percentage of people who do not have access to safe drinking water, 19 of them are in Africa. Florida also has similar water shortage problems. These consumption issues are being resolved by Florida and its citizens by using methods like reuse of greywater and rain water harvesting. These two methods of conserving water are also used by many different countries including the United States to overcome the problem of shortage of water. In Melbourne, Australia, a zero water use commercial building, the 60L, has been constructed. The building uses rainwater as a supply for every type of consumption with the exception of the fire sprinklers.
  13. 13. WATER CONSERVATION IN INDIA India is a large nation with a much larger population. Overpopulation, consequent demands for water, overutilization and unequal access to water, all these are the root cause of water scarcity in India. So it is the need of the hour to conserve and manage our water resources. The Miracle Water Village of India o o o Lying in one of the worst drought-prone regions of India, the village of Hiware Bazar battled many decades of sparse rain and failed crops. However, 20 years ago, the entire village came together to script a silent revolution by designing a rainwater-harvesting model that saved every drop of the scanty rain they received. Today, the village is literally an oasis in the middle of the desert, boasting of bumper harvests, dairy cooperatives, millionaire families and visionary farmers. Hiware Bazar still receives the scanty amount of rainfall it used to in the heart of its most trying years, but what has changed is the way it has managed its water and created a miracle with this most precious liquid resource!
  14. 14. RAINWATER HARVESTING o o o o o o o o Rain water harvesting system is a viable alternative of multipurpose projects both socio-economically and environmentally. Objectives of rain water harvesting:To conserve surface run-off during monsoon To recharge aquifers and increase availability of groundwater To overcome the problem of flooding and stagnation of water during monsoon season. Why is it needed? Water scarcity- a serious problem throughout the world for urban and rural communities. Urbanization has led overexploitation of groundwater reserves and the quantity of rainfall is not certain anytime.
  15. 15. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT Watersheds can be defined as a geo-hydrological unit draining to a common point by a system of drains. All lands on earth are part of one watershed or the other. Watershed is thus the land and water area, which contributes runoff to a common point. Need for watershed management In spite of sufficient rainfall, people have to depend upon tankers for domestic water supply in summers in most of the areas. A raindrop, when flows along the slope, carries the loose soil along it. In this case the topmost layer of soil is lost rapidly.