NAME – ISHIKA BARUA
CLASS – X
SEC – A
ROLL NO – 17
REG. NO.- B114084140016
Water recycling is reusing treated wastewater for beneficial purposes
such as irrigation, industrial processes and replenishing a ground water
basin. Water recycling offers resource and financial savings. Another type
of water that can be recycled is greywater.Greywater is the water that
has already been used for household purposes such as washing clothes.It
can be used for non-potable (non-drinking purposes) only. The cost of
recycled water exceeds that of potable water in many regions of the
world.However,recycled water is usually sold to citizens at a cheaper rate
to encourage its use.Using recycled water for non-potable uses saves
potable water for drinking, since less potable water will be used for nonpotable uses. The usage of recycled water decreases the pollution caused
to sensitive environments.
RECYCLING OF WATER
Treatment of wastewater is actually a remarkably simple process
that utilizes very basic physical, biological, and chemical principles to
remove contaminants from water. Physical processes are the first step in
the water recycling process. Raw sewage passes through bar screens
which are simply metal rods immersed in the influent flow to separate
large objects such as sticks and rags from the water. Next, wastewater is
slowed so that settleable organics settle to the bottom while
fats, oils, and greases float to the top. Biological processes remove most
of the rest of the contaminants. Water flows into aeration basins where
oxygen is mixed with the water. Microorganisms consume the organic
material as food, greatly reducing the BOD in the water. After the bugs
do their work, chemical systems such as chlorine contact chambers are
used to kill the remaining microorganisms not captured in final clarifiers.
Recycled water can be used for almost any use, as long as it is
treated to a level to make it fit for that intended purpose from a
health and environmental perspective.Recycled water can be used
for1.Urban and municipal environments
2.Households, golf courses and recreational parks.
4.Cooling in power stations.
NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN
Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting of
adivasis, farmers, environmentists, and human rights activists against a number
of large dams being built across the Narmada river. The river flows through the
states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Madhya Pradesh in India. Sardar Sarovar
Damin Gujarat is one of the biggest dams on the river and was one of the first
focal points of the movement. Friends of River Narmada is the unofficial
website of the NBA.
Their mode of campaign includes hunger strikes and garnering support from
film and art personalities. Narmada Bachao Andolan, with its leading
spokespersons Medha Patkar and Baba Amte received the Right Livelihood in
Due to inter-state differences in implementing schemes and sharing of water, the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal
was constituted by the Government of India on 6 October 1969 to adjudicate over the disputes. This tribunal
investigated the matters referred to it and the decision was given by the tribunal on 12 December 1979.As per the
tribunal’s decision, 30 major, 135 medium, and 3000 small dams, were granted approval for construction including
raising the height of the Sardar Sarovar Dam.
In 1985, after hearing about the Sardar Sarovar dam, Medha Patkar and her colleagues visited the project site and
noticed that the project work being shelved due to an order by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government
of India. The reasons for this was cited as "non-fulfillment of basic environmental conditions and the lack of
completion of crucial studies and plans". What she noticed was that the people who were going to be affected were
given no information but for the offer for rehabilitation. Due to this, the villagers had many questions from why their
permission was not taken .Furthermore, the officials related to the project had no answers to their questions. Patkar
approached the MININSTRY of ENVIRONMENTS to seek clarifications. She realized, that the officials had overlooked
the post-project problems. Through Patkar's channel of communication between the government and the
residents, she provided critiques to the project authorities and the governments involved. At the same time, her group
realized that all those displaced were only given compensation for the immediate standing crop and not for
displacement and rehabilitation. As Patkar remained immersed in the Narmada struggle, she chose to quit her Ph.D.
studies and focus entirely on the Narmada activity.Thereafter, she organized a 36-day solidarity march among the
neighboring states of the Narmada valley from Madhya Pradesh to the Sardar Sarovar dam site. She said that the
march was "a path symbolizing the long path of struggle (both immediate and long-term) they really had".The
main objective of the Narmada Bachao Andolan was that the authorities should look after the post
construction problems of their project and provide proper compensation to the people who will be
affected by their project.
There were groups such as Gujarat-based Arch-Vahini
(Action Research in Community Health and Development)
and Narmada Asargrastha Samiti (Committee for people
affected by the Narmada dam), Madhya Pradesh-based
Narmada Ghati Nav Nirman Samiti (Committee for a new
life in the Narmada Valley) and Maharashtra-based
Narmada Dharangrastha Samiti (Committee for Narmada
dam-affected people) who either believed in the need for
fair rehabilitation plans for the people or who vehemently
opposed dam construction despite a resettlement policy.
While Medha Patkar established Narmada Bachao Andolan
in 1989, all these groups joined this national coalition of
activists, scientists, academics and project-affected people
with a non-violent approach. Amongst the major celebrities
who have shown their support for Narmada Bachao Andolan
are Booker Prize winner Arundhati Roy and Aamir Khan.
1994 saw the launch of Narmada: A Valley Rises, by
filmmaker Ali Kazimi. It documents the five-week
Sangharsh Yatra of 1991. The film went on to win several
awards and is considered by many to be a classic on the
issue. In 1996, veteran documentary filmmaker, Anand
Patwardhan, made an award-winning documentary: A
CRITICISM: The Narmada dam's benefits include provision of drinking water, power generation and irrigation
facilities. However, the campaign led by the NBA activists has held up the project's completion, and the NBA
supporters have attacked on local people who accepted compensation for moving. Others have argued that the
Narmada Dam protesters are little more than environmental extremists who use pseudoscientific agitprop to
scuttle the development of the region and that the dam will provide agricultural benefits to millions of poor in
RESULT: The Supreme Court's decision is still pending, seeking stoppage of construction of the Sardar Sarovar
dam. The court initially ruled the decision in the Andolan's favor, thereby effecting an immediate stoppage of
work at the dam and directing the concerned states to first complete the rehabilitation and replacement process.
The Court deliberated on this issue further for several years but finally upheld the Tribunal Award and allowed
the construction to proceed, subject to conditions. The court introduced a mechanism to monitor the progress
of resettlement pari passu with the raising of the height of the dam through the Grievance Redressal Authorities
(GRA) in each of the party states. The court’s decision referred in this document, given in the year 2000 after
seven years of deliberations, has paved the way for completing the project to attain full envisaged benefits. The
court's final line of the order states, "Every endeavour shall be made to see that the project is completed as
expeditiously as possible".
Subsequent to the court’s verdict, Press Information Bureau (PIB) featured an article which states that:
"The Narmada Bachao Andolan has rendered a woman's service to the country by creating a high-level of
awareness about the environmental and rehabilitation and relief aspects of Sardar Sarovar and other projects on
the Narmada. But, after the court verdict it is incumbent on it to adopt a new role. Instead of 'damning the dam'
any longer, it could assume the role of vigilant observer to see that the resettlement work is as humane and
painless as possible and that the environmental aspects are taken due care of.
SUSTAINABILITY OF GROUND WATER
Groundwater is the water located beneath the earth's
surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock
formations. An aquifer is a layer of porous substrate that
contains and transmits groundwater. Groundwater
makes up about twenty percent of the world's freshwater
supply, which is about 0.61% of the entire world's
water, including oceans and permanent ice. Global
groundwater storage is roughly equal to the total amount
of freshwater stored in the snow and ice pack, including
the north and south poles. This makes it an important
resource which can act as a natural storage that can
buffer against shortages of surface water, as in during
times of drought. Groundwater is naturally replenished
by surface water from precipitation, streams, and rivers
when this recharge reaches the water table. Just as river
waters have been over-used and polluted in many parts
of the world, so too is groundwater . Groundwater can
be collected through wells and pumps.
Groundwater is overused due to overpopulation in certain areas where the water
supply is limited and due to lack of awareness for conservation.
INDIA: Groundwater is a critical resource in India, accounting for over 65% of
irrigation water and 85% of drinking water supplies. But this dependence is leading to
a rapid and very worrying deterioration in the nation’s groundwater resources. it is
estimated that 60% of groundwater sources will be in a critical state of degradation
within the next twenty years.In the most seriously affected north-western
states, recent satellite measurements indicate an average decline of 33 cm per year
from 2002 to 2008.5 Local observations of annual water table decline exceeding 4
metres are common throughout India.
A recent study found
underground water is being exploited faster than it can be replenished globally
especially in many Asian nations.
Bali — The overuse of ground water resources is becoming a huge threat to Asian
nations, warned environmental experts at a seminar in Bali, Indonesia. Professor
Brahma Chellaney, from the India-based Strategic Studies Centre for Policy
Research, said underground water in Asia is being pumped to the surface at such a
high rate that the ground water can not be replenished by rain. "Over-exploitation of
aquifers will affect ecosystems, and in turn accelerate global warming," said Dr
Chellaney, speaking at the two-day seminar on the strategic Importance of water in
Asia. The seminar, organised by the Konrad Adenauer Foundation (KAF)last
week, aimed to help Asian journalists specialising in environmental issues to better
understand the current water shortage in Asia and the ramifications for the future. "A
majority of people in Bangkok rely on piped water and don’t pump water from wells,"
said Gearing. "They are not aware of the strain being put on the aquifers largely by
large and small-scale industry. Dr Chellaney said rapid urban expansion in China’s
capital Beijing, with a population of 17 million, was exhausting the local water supply.
More than two-thirds of Beijing’s water supply is now pumped from subterranean
reserves. In addition to concerns over the over-exploitation of underground
water, pollution is also presenting another formidable challenge as levels of heavy
metals and arsenic rise in some natural water supplies.
WHY TO CONSERVE GROUNDWATER?
Groundwater is the largest source of usable, fresh water in the world. In many parts of the
world, especially where surface water supplies are not available, domestic, agricultural, and
industrial water needs can only be met by using the water beneath the ground.
Groundwater depletion has many negative effects:
1.Lowering of the Water Table
Excessive pumping can lower the groundwater table, and cause wells to no longer be able to
As the water table lowers, the water must be pumped farther to reach the surface, using
more energy which increases the costs.
3.Reduced Surface Water Supplies
Groundwater and surface water are connected. When groundwater is overused, the
lakes, streams, and rivers connected to groundwater can also have their supply diminished.
Land subsidence occurs when there is a loss of support below ground. This is most often
caused by human activities, mainly from the overuse of groundwater, when the soil
collapses, compacts, and drops.
5.Degraded Water Quality
Excessive pumping in coastal areas can cause saltwater to move inland and
upward, resulting in saltwater contamination of the water supply.
HOW TO CONSERVE GROUNDWATER?
Groundwater is available in limited quantities and nothing works without it. Since groundwater is an important
and vital resource for all people, it is important to protect it from pollution as well as conserve it. Conserving the
quantity and quality of groundwater is essential. By simply reducing the amount of water that we use, our water
supply will last longer.We can protect and conserve groundwater by the following ways:
1.Dispose of chemicals properly.
2.Making sure there are no plumbing leaks, leaky faucets can add up to a lot of water wasted.
3.Limit the amount of fertilizer used on plants.
4.Shut water off while brushing teeth.
5.Abandon all wells that are not needed.
6.When you purchase appliances, go for water efficient ones.
7.Set up a rain barrel this summer. You can collect rain water to water your garden.
8.Water your lawn and garden in the morning or after dark. You’ll use 30 percent less water than you
would if you watered in the middle of the day when evaporation is higher. Do not water your lawn when
WATER CONSERVATION IN INDIA
India’s demands for water are quite high,because of its huge
population.The Indian government and many private
organisations have come forward with several water conservation
The availability of water due to a conservation project has
transformed life in Bitkuli, a small village in Bilaspur district of
Chhattisgarh, and turned it into a “model village”.
The village inhabited by 56 families with a total population of
around 250 people, was going through a sustainable livelihood
crisis. For four generations, Ashok Bhaskar’s family grew paddy
here, but only in the last four years have they managed to benefit
from farming. In 2008, Bhaskar and other villagers had a water
conservation project initiated by Shikhar Yuva Manch (SYM), an
NGO, which changed their fate. “Earlier farmers of Bitkuli were
struggling to yield crop in only one season due to scarcity of water.
For the rest of the year, people migrated to other places in search
of work. “We identified suitable spots for construction of small
ponds to conserve water,” Dhananjay Anupam, the coordinator of
Shikhar Yuva Manch, said. Initially the people took charge to
deepen the dam and ensured smooth supply of water to fields
through constructing various drainage channels. “We also turned
the flow of rainwater from hill top towards the dam so that
maximum amount of water could be conserved,” he said. Their
efforts bore fruit and amount of water in dam increased, which
automatically started supporting irrigation while soil erosion was
also greatly reduced.
In many rural areas in
India,women still have to
walk a distance of about
2.5 kms everyday to fetch
INDIA: Rainwater harvesting has become a very popular method of
conserving water especially in the urban areas. Rainwater harvesting
essentially means collecting rainwater on the roofs of building and
storing it underground for later use.
Rainwater harvesting: a success story
Once Cherrapunji was famous because it received the largest volume of
rainfall in the world It still does but ironically, experiences acute water
shortages. This is mainly the result of extensive deforestation and because
proper methods of conserving rainwater are not used. There has been
extensive soil erosion and often, despite the heavy rainfall and its location in
the green hills of Meghalaya, one can see stretches of hillside devoid of trees
and greenery. People have to walk long distances to collect water.
In the area surrounding the River Ruparel in Rajasthan, the story is different this is an example of proper water conservation. The site does not receive
even half the rainfall received by Cherrapunji, but proper management and
conservation have meant that more water is available than in Cherrapunji.
The water level in the river began declining due to extensive deforestation
and agricultural activities along the banks and, by the 1980s, a drought-like
situation began to spread. Under the guidance of some NGOs (nongovernment organizations), the women living in the area were encouraged to
take the initiative in building johads (round ponds) and dams to hold back
rainwater. Gradually, water began coming back as proper methods of
conserving and harvesting rainwater were followed. The revival of the river
has transformed the ecology of the place and the lives of the people living
along its banks. Their relationship with their natural environment has been
strengthened. It has proved that humankind is not the master of the
environment, but a part of it. If human beings put in an effort, the damage
caused by us can be undone.
Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at
the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing
plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect
the plant, animal, and human communities within a watershed boundary. Features of a
watershed that agencies seek to manage include water supply, water
quality, drainage, stormwater,runoff,water rights, and the overall planning and utilization of
INDIA: Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) is a modified
programme. The main objectives of the IWMP are to restore the ecological balance by
harnessing, conserving and developing degraded natural resources such as soil, vegetative
cover and water. The outcomes are prevention of soil run-off, regeneration of natural
vegetation, rain water harvesting and recharging of the ground water table. This
enables multi-cropping and the introduction of diverse agro-based activities, which help to
provide sustainable livelihoods to the people residing in the watershed area.
The Kothapelly village dam is a dispiriting sight; three meters tall and 30 meters wide, but
storing nothing but parched earth. It can hold two million liters of water, but in mid-March
at the height of the dry season it looks like a stranded relic. Yet the fields are not barren. In
one, a turbaned farmer tears open freshly harvested maize, revealing the golden food within.
In another, ripe tomatoes bask in the sun. They taste warm and sweet. Village leader P.
Narasimha Reddy proudly explains this success. “Before, there was scarcity of
water.After, there was a 50 percent improvement,” he says as we stand in front of a field of
growing maize. “Before, we grew only cotton. Now we also grow maize and other crops.
Farmers’ income has doubled. Before, farmers didn’t educate their children. Now, 100 percent
of children go to school. People were leaving to look for work, now we have inward
migration.” Reddy is talking about the impacts of the Adarsha Watershed project, an
innovative program of water, soil, and land management that enables Kothapelly farmers to
get water not just in the rainy season but year round. Now they can harvest not just one crop
a year but two or even three. One field can yield rice, then maize, and finally vegetables.
Adarsha means ‘an ideal example’, and the Watershed project is now a model for dry land
farmers elsewhere in India, Thailand, Vietnam, and even Africa.
Water resources are sources of water that are useful or
potentially useful. Uses of water
include agricultural,industrial, household, recreational
and environmental activities. The majority of human uses
require fresh water.
97 percent of the water on the Earth is salt water and only
three percent is fresh water; slightly over two thirds of this is
frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps. The remaining
unfrozen freshwater is found mainly as groundwater, with
only a small fraction present above ground or in the air.
Hydro-power or water power is power derived from the energy of
falling water and running water, which may be harnessed for useful
purposes. Kinetic energy of flowing water (when it moves from higher
potential to lower potential) rotates the blades/propellers of
turbine, which rotates the axle. The axle has a coil which is placed
between the magnets. When the coils rotate in magnetic field it induce
them in the coil due to change in flux. Hence, kinetic energy of flowing
water is converted to electrical energy.
Since ancient times, hydro-power has been used for irrigation and the
operation of various mechanical devices, such
as watermills, sawmills, textile mills, dock cranes, domestic lifts, power
houses and paint making.
Tidal power, also called tidal
energy, is a form of hydropower that
converts the energy of tides into useful
forms of power - mainly electricity.
Although not yet widely used, tidal
power has potential for
future electricity generation. Tides are
more predictable than wind
energy and solar power. Among sources
of renewable energy, tidal power has
traditionally suffered from relatively
high cost and limited availability of
sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges
or flow velocities, thus constricting its
total availability. However, many recent
technological developments and
improvements, both in design
(e.g. dynamic tidal power,tidal lagoons)
and turbine technology (e.g. new axial
turbines, cross flow turbines), indicate
that the total availability of tidal power
may be much higher than previously
assumed, and that economic and
environmental costs may be brought
down to competitive levels. Tidal
energy is a renewable energy source.
Hard water is water that has high mineral content. Hard drinking water is generally
not harmful to one's health, but can pose serious problems in industrial
settings, where water hardness is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns
in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that handles water. In domestic
settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack of suds formation when soap is
agitated in water, and by the formation of limescale in kettles and water heaters.
Wherever water hardness is a concern,water softening is commonly used to reduce
hard water's adverse effects. Water's hardness is determined by
the concentration of multivalent cations in the water. Multivalent cations (positively
charged metal complexes with a charge greater than 1+. Usually, the cations have the
charge of 2+. Common cations found in hard water include Ca2+ and Mg2+. The
following equilibrium reaction describes the dissolving formation of calcium
CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O ⇋ Ca2+ + 2HCO3−
Temporary hardness is a type of water hardness caused by the presence
of dissolved bicarbonate minerals and permanent hardness is hardness (mineral
content) that cannot be removed by boiling. When this is the case, it is usually caused
by the presence of calcium sulfate and/or magnesium sulfates in the water, which do
not precipitate out as the temperature increases.
EFFECTS OF HARDWATER
With hard water, soap solutions form a white precipitate
(soap scum) instead of producing lather, because the 2+
ions destroy the surfactant properties of the soap by
forming a solid precipitate (the soap scum). A major
component of such scum is calcium stearate, which arises
from sodium stearate, the main component of soap:
2 C17H35COO- + Ca2+ → (C17H35COO)2Ca
Hardness can thus be defined as the soap-consuming
capacity of a water sample, or the capacity of precipitation
of soap as a characteristic property of water that prevents
the lathering of soap. Synthetic detergents do not form
Hard water also forms deposits that clog plumbing. These
deposits, called "scale", are composed mainly of calcium
carbonate (CaCO3), magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2), and
calcium sulfate (CaSO4). Calcium and magnesium
carbonates tend to be deposited as off-white solids on the
inside surfaces of pipes and heat exchangers.
Water softening is the removal
of calcium,magnesium, and certain other
metal cations in hard water. The resulting soft water is
more compatible with soap and extends the lifetime of
plumbing. Water softening is usually achieved
using lime softening or ion-exchange resins.
The water that lathers readily with soaps is called soft
water. It describes type of water that contain few or no
minerals like calcium(Ca) or magnesium(Mg) ions.
The term is usually relative to hard water, which does
contain significant amounts of such ions.
Soft Water mostly comes from peat or igneous rock
sources, such as granite but may also come from
sandstone sources, since such sedimentary rocks are
usually low in calcium and magnesium.
However, soft water does have negative side effects and
can be bad for the heart. Thus it should be drunk in
moderation if at all.
Hard water contains high amount of
calcium and magnesium.
Doesn't form lather with detergents
Hard water is a good source of calcium
and magnesium in the body. Hard
water also reduces the solubility of
toxic metal ions.
Hard water can leave the clothes
rough and worn out during washing;
hard water also makes it difficult to
take off dirt from the skin and leaves a
film on skin and dishes when washing
them. Build up of limescale and
galvanic erosion are also problems
caused by hard water.
Soft water contains high amount of
Forms lather with detergents.
. Soft water does not give off any
problems, though it is less beneficial
than hard water in consumption.
Softened water is also known to emit
lead from old pipes in the supply system
Soft water is not harsh on the
skin, clothes, dishes, etc.