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  1. 1. GEOGRAPH Y
  2. 2. CONSERVATION OF WATER WHAT IS WATER CONSERVATION? Water conservation encompasses  the  policies,  strategies  and  activities  to  manage fresh  water as  a  sustainable  resource  to protect the water environment and to meet  current and future human demand.              AIMS OF CONSERVATION - Revive traditional structures as well as  create new infrastructure for water  conservation - Increase the groundwater recharge in  the watershed area - Increase water use efficiency in  agriculture and domestic sectors by  ensuring the adoption      of water management techniques                                                                              - Conserve fertile soil through soil and  moisture conservation
  3. 3. RAINWATER HARVESTING In  urban  areas,  the  construction  of  houses,  footpaths  and  roads  has  left little exposed earth for water to  soak  in.  In  parts  of  the  rural  areas  of India, floodwater quickly flows to  the  rivers,  which  then  dry  up  soon  after  the  rains  stop.  If  this  water  can  be  held  back,  it  can  seep  into  the  ground  and  recharge  the  groundwater supply. This  has  become  a  very  popular  method  of  conserving  water  especially  in  the  urban  areas.  Rainwater  harvesting  essentially  means  collecting  rainwater  on  the  roofs  of  building  and  storing  it  underground for later use.  Some of the benefits of rainwater  harvesting are as follows a. Increases water availability b.Checks the declining water table  is  environmentally friendly  c.Improves the quality of     groundwater through the dilution of  fluoride, nitrate, and salinity  d.Prevents soil erosion and flooding  especially in urban areas
  4. 4. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT   Watershed management is the study of the  relevant characteristics of a watershed  aimed at the sustainable distribution of its  resources and the process of creating and  implementing plans, programs, and projects  to sustain and enhance watershed functions  that affect the plant, animal, and human  communities within a watershed boundary.  Features of a watershed that agencies seek  to manage include water supply, water  quality, drainage, storm water runoff, water  rights, and the overall planning and  utilization of watersheds. Landowners, land  use agencies, storm water management  experts, environmental specialists, water  use surveyors and communities all play an  integral part in the management of a  watershed.
  5. 5. RAINWATER HARVESTING IN INDIA Rainwater harvesting can be seen in the northeastern  states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya,  Manipur and Nagaland. This is also in use in Bikaner,  Jaisalmer and Jodhpur districts of Rajasthan. In  recent years, at the initiative of the Central and State  Governments, the practice has been increasingly  adopted in many cities and towns in different parts  of the country.  TANKA – A RAINWATER HARVESTING TANK  FOUND IN INDIA  Arunachal Pradesh Water Resources department has  achieved a milestone in implementation of demonstrative  projects on roof top rainwater harvesting and artificial  recharge to groundwater under cent per cent Central sector  scheme "Ground water management and regulation" during  the 11th Five Year Plan. The total detailed project reports  cleared by the state level technical core committee and  accepted by New Delhi covered 235 projects in 11 districts,  official sources informed here today. The districts, includes  Tawang, West and East Kameng, Papum Pare, Kurung  Kumey, Tirap and Longding. The  inhabitants  of  border  and hill top villages would  be  the  main  beneficiaries  of  these  projects  as  the  state  government  was  committed  to  conserve  rainwater in storage tanks  to  supplement  water  requirement  during  lean  period.
  7. 7. . SUSTAINABILITY OF WATER . The importance of groundwater for the existence of human society cannot be overemphasized. Groundwater is the major source of drinking water in both urban and rural India. Besides, it is an important source of water for the agricultural and the industrial sector. Till recently it had been considered a dependable source of uncontaminated water REASONS THAT HAVE LED TO DEGRADATION IN GROUNDWATER During the past two decades, the water level in several parts of the country has been falling rapidly due to an increase in extraction. The number of wells drilled for irrigation of both food and cash crops have rapidly and indiscriminately increased. India's rapidly rising population and changing lifestyles has also increased the domestic need for water. The water requirement for the industry also shows an overall increase. The quality of groundwater is getting severely affected because of the widespread pollution of surface water.
  8. 8. INDIA’S GROUNDWATER SCENARIO India is heading towards a freshwater crisis mainly due to improper management of water resources and environmental degradation, which has lead to a lack of access to safe water supply to millions of people. This freshwater crisis is already evident in many parts of India, varying in scale and intensity depending mainly on the time of the year. As far as the quality of groundwater is concerned, many states in the country have been identified as endemic to fluorosis due to abundance in naturally occurring fluoride-bearing minerals. These are Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, and TamilNadu, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, and Delhi. Nearly half million people in India suffer from ailments due to excess of fluoride in drinking water. In some districts of Assam and Orissa, groundwater has high iron content. About 31% of the total area of Rajasthan comes under saline groundwater. Groundwater is saline in almost all of the Bhakra Canal in Punjab and the lift canal system in south-western Haryana. Similarly high levels of arsenic in groundwater have been reported in the shallow aquifers in some districts of West Bengal. Certain places in Haryana, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh were also found to have dangerously high levels of mercury.
  10. 10. REACTIONS INVOLVED IN THE FORMATION OF HARD WATER Hard drinking water is generally not harmful to one's health, but can pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers and other equipment that handles water. In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack of suds formation when soap is agitated in water, and by the formation of limescale in kettles and water heaters. Wherever water hardness is a concern, water softening is commonly used to reduce hard water's adverse effects.
  11. 11. With hard water, soap solutions form a white precipitate (soap scum) instead of producing lather, because the 2+ ions destroy the surfactant properties of the soap by forming a solid precipitate (the soap scum). A major component of such scum is calcium stearate, which arises from sodium stearate, the main component of soap : 2 C17H35COO- + Ca2+ → (C17H35COO)2Ca Hard water also forms deposits that clog plumbing. These deposits, called "scale ", are composed mainly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2), and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) It is often desirable to soften hard water. Most detergents contain ingredients that counteract the effects of hard water on the surfactants. For this reason, water softening is often unnecessary. Where softening is practiced, it is often recommended to soften only the water sent to domestic hot water systems so as to prevent or delay inefficiencies and damage due to scale formation in water heaters. A common method for water softening involves the use of ion exchange resins, which replace ions like Ca2+ by twice the number of monocations such as sodium or potassium ions.
  12. 12. PHYSICS
  13. 13. WATER AS A SOURCE OF ENERGY WATER AS AN ENERGY Water has been found to be a major source of energy All types of electricity generation consume water either to process the raw materials used in the facility or fuel, constructing and maintaining the plant, or to just generate the electricity itself. Renewable power sources as photovoltaic solar and wind power, which require little water to produce energy, require water in processing the raw materials to build the turbines and solar panels. If a wind turbine is mounted on a concrete or steel tower, additional tonnes of water are required in the tower's construction.
  14. 14. WHAT IS HYDROELETRICITY? Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity generation – 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010, and is expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. WHERE IS IT PRODUCED? A Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the AsiaPacific region generating 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 721 terawatt-hours of production in 2010.There are now three hydroelectricity plants larger than 10 GW: the Three Gorges Dam in China, Itapúa Dam across the Brazil/Paraguay border, and Guri Dam in Venezuela BENEFITS AND EFFECTS OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER….. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The average cost of electricity from a hydro plant larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatthour. Hydro is also a flexible source of electricity since plants can be ramped up and down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. However, damming interrupts the flow of rivers and can harm local ecosystems, and building large dams and reservoirs often involves displacing people and wildlife
  16. 16. NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN INTRODUCTION Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting of adivasis, farmers, environmentalists, and human rights activists against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada river. The river flows through the states of Gujarat, , and Madhya Pradesh in India. Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat is one of the biggest dams on the river and was one of the first focal points of the movement.
  17. 17. CAUSES OF THE MOVEMENT It is a multi crore project that will generate a big revenue for the government. The Narmada Valley Development plan is the the most promised and most challenging plan in the history of India. The proponents are of the view that it will produce 1450 MW of electricity and pure drinking water to 40 million people covering thousand of villages and towns. Some of the dams have been already been completed such as Tawa and Bargi Dams. But the opponents says that this hydro project will devastate human lives and bio diversity by destroying thousand of acres of forests and agricultural land. On the other hand it will overall deprive thousands of people of their livelihood. They believe that the water and energy could be provided to the people through alternative technological means, that would be ecologically beneficial.
  18. 18. The mode of campaign includes hunger strikes and garnering support from film and art personalities (notably Bollywood actor Aamir Khan). Narmada Bachao Andolan, with its leading spokespersons Medha Patkar and Baba Amte, received the Right Livelihood Award in 1991. Amongst the major celebrities who have shown their support for Narmada Bachao Andolan are Booker Prize winner Arundhati Roy. Led by one of the prominent leader Medha Patkar, it has now been turned into the International protest, gaining support from NGO'S all around the globe. Protestors are agitating the issue through the mass media, hunger strikes, massive marches, rallies and the through the on screen of several documentary films. Although they have been protesting peacefully, but they been harassed, arrested and beaten up by the police several times. The Narmada Bachao Andolan has been pressurizing the world bank to withdraw its loan from the project through media.
  19. 19. SUPREME COURT’S DECISION The Supreme Court's decision is still pending, seeking stoppage of construction of the Sardar Sarovar dam. The court initially ruled the decision in the Andolan's favor, thereby effecting an immediate stoppage of work at the dam and directing the concerned states to first complete the rehabilitation and replacement process. The Court deliberated on this issue further for several years but finally upheld the Tribunal Award and allowed the construction to proceed, subject to conditions. The court introduced a mechanism to monitor the progress of resettlement pari passuwith the raising of the height of the dam through the Grievance Redressal Authorities (GRA) in each of the party states. The court’s decision has paved the way for completing the project to attain full envisaged benefits Led by one of the prominent leader MedhaPatkar,ithasnowbeenturnedintoth eInternationalprotest,gainingsupportfro mNGO'Sallaroundtheglobe.
  20. 20. BIOLOGY
  21. 21. What is water recycling What is water recycling Water recycling is aageneric term for Water recycling is generic term for water reclamation and reuse, where the water reclamation and reuse, where the resulting water is referred to as recycled resulting water is referred to as recycled water. This term will be used water. This term will be used throughout this website, but you might throughout this website, but you might also find aanumber of other terms used also find number of other terms used in the water industry to describe in the water industry to describe recycled water or the process to make recycled water or the process to make it. These include: it. These include: •Water reclamation •Water reclamation •Water recycling •Water recycling •Water reuse •Water reuse •Wastewater •Wastewater •Sewage effluent •Sewage effluent •Reclaimed water •Reclaimed water •Grey water •Grey water
  22. 22. Why recycle water? Increasing population means that the demand for water is increasing. To ensure that we have enough water to meet our present and future needs, we need to conserve water and expand the use of recycled water BENEFITS OF RECYCLING WATER Water recycling provides enormous environmental benefits. It also provides an additional source of water for various purposes. This a list of some benefits that water recycling can present: Water recycling decreases the extraction of water form sources that may be dwindling and may stop being viable as habitats for valuable and endangered wildlife. Recycling wastewater can decrease the discharge of effluents that may damage and pollute the ecosystems of the sensitive bodies of water. Recycled water can be used to create new wetlands or to enhance and improve the quality of existing ones. Water recycling can reduce and prevent pollution by leaving damaging pollutants at the treatment plant.
  23. 23. METHODS OF CONSERVATION OF WATER METHODS OF RECYCLING WATER  Initiate the appropriate recycling methods  Conserve water in your everyday routine.  Sanitize grey water.  Reclaim rainwater.  Compare the water bill before and after. CONSERVE WATER IN EVERYDAY LIFE
  24. 24. LIMITATIONS OF RECYCLING W ithmounting water issues, ith W mounting water issues, WATER municipalities are under stress municipalities are under stress to provide water (potable and to provide water (potable and non-potable) to industrial, non-potable) to industrial, commercial, and residential commercial, and residential segments. Though wastewater segments. Though wastewater recycling and reuse is an recycling and reuse is an option to meet water option to meet water requirements, some factors are requirements, some factors are limiting its use, such as: limiting its use, such as: ••Highprice sensitivity towards High price sensitivity towards advanced wastewater advanced wastewater treatment systems treatment systems ••Negativeperception about Negative perception about wastewater recycling wastewater recycling ••Lackof technological Lack of technological awareness and skilled awareness and skilled manpower manpower ••Fragmentednature of the Fragmented nature of the market market ••W enforcement of W eak enforcement of eak