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  1. 1. INTRODUCTION • Water conservation encompasses the policies, strategies and activities to manage fresh water as a sustainable resource to protect the water environment and to meet current and future human demand.
  2. 2. NEED FOR WATER CONSERVATION • Sustainability: To ensure availability for future generations, the withdrawal of fresh water from an ecosystem should not exceed its natural replacement rate. • Energy conservation: Water pumping, delivery, and wastewater treatment facilitiesconsume a significant amount of energy. In some regions of the world over 15% of total electricityconsumption is devoted to water management. • Habitat conservation: Minimizing human water use helps to preserve fresh water habitatsfor local wildlife and migrating waterfowl, as well as reducing the need to build new dams andother water diversion infrastructure
  3. 3. RAINWATER HARVESTING • Rainwater harvesting is a technique used for collecting, storing, and using rainwater for landscape irrigation and other uses. The rainwater is collected from various hard surfaces such as roof tops and/or other types of manmade above ground hard surfaces. • In Rajasthan, rainwater harvesting has traditionally been practiced by the people of the Thar Desert. There are many ancient water harvesting systems in Rajasthan, which have now been revived. Water harvesting systems are widely used in other areas of Rajasthan as well, for example the chauka system from the Jaipur district.
  4. 4. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT • A watershed is the area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off of it goes into the same place. • Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant,animal, and human communities within a watershed boundary. • Features of a watershed that agencies seek to manage include water supply,water quality, drainage, stormwater runoff, water rights, and the overall planning and utilization of watersheds.
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION • Recycled Water is the end product of wastewater reclamation that meets water quality requirements for biodegradable materials, suspended matter and pathogens. In more recent conventional use, the term refers to water that is not treated as highly in order to offer a way to conserve drinking water. This water is given to uses such as agriculture and sundry industry uses.
  6. 6. METHODS TO RECYCLE WATER • Use rain collection barrels. This is one of the most efficient ways of collecting water. The stored water can be used for a short or long term needs. As well,because rain water lacks all the chemicals added to tap water, it can be used for other purposes such as feeding livestock, or watering the garden with. • Re-use water that drains out of flower pots. Depending on the size of the pot, simply place a plastic plate or bucket under the flower pot and any water that drains out can be re-used in the garden.
  7. 7. • Save kitchen water Water used to clean dishes can be dumped in the toilet bowl for flushing. Water used to cook vegetables or pasta with can be dumped (the water must be cooled) into the compost pile, in the garden or in the vermiculture area. *Make sure the water has completely cooled so that we do not harm the microorganisms or worms. • Water that has been poured in cups and not drank or water bottles with water in them already can be re-used Simply boil the water to kill any germs (the boiling method also oxygenates the water and “freshens” it up), and can be used for drinking water. If this method does not sound kosher, the water could also be used to water house plants. And the plastic bottles can be used in the garden as miniature water irrigation systems.
  8. 8. WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO RECYCLE WATER • It is important because about 75 percent of earth is covered in water. It sounds like a lot, but only 1 percent of that is freshwater, available for serving the water needs of more than 6.6 billion people in the world today. Because of drought and pollution, that 1 percent is slowly dwindling. To make matters worse, the world's population continues to grow, increasing the demand for water.
  9. 9. SUSUTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT Water is life. Growing pressure on water resources – from population and economic growth, climate change, pollution, and other challenges – has major impacts on our social, economic, and environmental well-being. Many of our most important aquifers are being overpumped, causing widespread declines in groundwater levels. Major rivers – including the Colorado River in the western United States and the Yellow River in China – no longer reach the sea in most years. Half of the world’s wetlands have been lost to development. The world’s water is increasingly becoming degraded in quality, threatening the health of people and ecosystems and increasing the cost of
  10. 10. SINGAPORE SUSTAINABILITY • • • • • • • The SSA will be a smart community made up of government agencies, industry verticals, business chambers and NGO partners as well as Singapore-based companies and academic institutions and research centres across different sustainability clusters. Hosted by Sustainable Development Business Group (SDBG) of Singapore Business Federation as the secretariat, the founding members of the Alliance include Economic Development Board (EDB), Sustainable Energy Association of Singapore (SEAS), Waste Management & Recycling Association of Singapore (WMRAS) and Singapore Water Association (SWA). Alliance members are represented across different sustainability clusters such as  Clean energy and energy efficiency Environmental management Green IT Sustainable manufacturing
  11. 11. HISTORY OF WATER SUSTAINABILITY • Multinational companies have historically taken water availability for granted. But this is changing. A 2013 World Economic Forum report named water scarcity as one of the top global risks facing companies in the 21st century. So far, 93 multinational corporations have committed to the UN Global Compact's CEO Water Mandate, a publicprivate partnership to advance water sustainability -- an exponential increase from the original six signatories in 2007. As more business leaders recognise pressures related to water availability on their supply chains and profits, they are growing more aware of the impact of irresponsible water use on "intangible"
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION • Many industrial and domestic water users are concerned about the hardness of their water. Hard water requires more soap and synthetic detergents for home laundry and washing, and contributes to scaling in boilers and industrial equipment.
  13. 13. CAUSES OF HARDNESS • Hardness is caused by compounds of calcium and magnesium, and by a variety of other metals. Water is an excellent solvent and readily dissolves minerals it comes in contact with. As water moves through soil and rock, it dissolves very small amounts of minerals and holds them in solution. Calcium and magnesium dissolved in water are the two most common minerals that make water "hard."
  14. 14. TWO TYPES OF HARDNESS OF WATER… • • Temporary Hardness: It is a type of water hardness caused by the presence of dissolved bicarbonate minerals (calcium bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate). When dissolved these minerals yield calcium and magnesium cations (Ca2+, Mg2+) and carbonate and bicarbonateanions (CO32-, HCO3-). The presence of the metal cations makes the water hard. Permanent Hardness: It is hardness (mineral content) that cannot be removed by boiling. When this is the case, it is usually caused by the presence of calcium sulphate and/or magnesium sulfates in the water, which do not precipitate out as the temperature increases.
  15. 15. HOW CAN HARDNESS OF WATER BE REMOVED • Temporary hardness can be removed by boning, addition of lime, addition of sodium carbonate and by permuted process. • Permanent hardness can be removed by addition of sodium carbonate and by base exchange processes like distillation,washing soda,deionising,ion exchange resin can also be used.
  16. 16. INTRODUCTION • Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting of adivasis, farmers, environmentalists, and human rights activists against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada river. • The river flows through the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Madhya Pradesh in India. • Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat is one of the biggest dams on the river and was one of the first focal points of the movement.
  17. 17. MODE OF CAMPAIGN • Their mode of campaign includes hunger strikes and garnering support from film and art personalities (notably Bollywood actor Aamir Khan). • Narmada Bachao Andolan, with its leading spokespersons Medha Patkar and Baba Amte, received the Right Livelihood Award in 1991. • Friends of River Narmada is the official website of the Narmada Bachao Andolan.
  18. 18. REASONS FOR STRUGGLE • The plan is Unjust and inequitous. • The cost and benefit analysis is grossly inflated in the favour of building the dam. • The plans rest on untrue and unfounded assumptions of hydrology and seismicity of the area and the construction is causing large scale abuse of human rights and displacement of many poor and underprivileged communities. • An extremely devastating effect on the riverine ecosystem and have rendered destitute large numbers of people (whose entire sustenance and modes of living are centered around the river).
  19. 19. SOLUTION • The demonstrations, protests, rallies, hunger strikes, blockades, and written representations by Narmada Bachao Andolan have all made an impact on the direction of the movement to stop the building of large and small dams along the Narmada. • Media attention from these events has taken the issues from a local level to a more national scale. • The NBA was an integral force in forcing the World Bank to withdraw its loan from the projects by pressuring the Bank with negative media attention.
  20. 20. INTRODUCTION • The connection between energy and water is more apparent during times of drought. Recent droughts have had unexpected - and unprecedented - impacts on the energy sector, impacting both electricity demands and power plants' ability to meet them. • Thermoelectric power plants consume substantial amounts of water each year, impacting the West's valuable rivers, lakes, and groundwater aquifers. New, proposed coal plants threaten to consume even more water. Fortunately, energy efficiency and many forms of renewable energy use negligible amounts of freshwater. Adopting these resources can help meet the West's future energy and water demands. Many renewable sources of energy like wind, solar PV, geothermal, and certain types of concentrating solar power consume negligible amounts of water
  21. 21. HYDROPOWER • Hydropower is electrical energy derived from falling or running water. The water pressure that is created by water is used to turn the blades of a turbine. The turbine is connected to a generator, which converts the mechanical energy into electricity. There are two basic types of hydropower plants — those that impound water behind a dam and those that divert water into a channel parallel to the river (often called "run-of-river" hydropower plants). Hydroelectric plants can be developed at existing dams or at water control structures built for other purposes such as water level control of rivers, lakes and irrigation schemes.
  22. 22. BENEFITS OF HYDROPOWER • • • • Hydropower is a complementary power source to more intermittent renewable energy power sources such as wind and solar because the flow can be regulated to reserve generating capacity during periods of peak demand or when the generating capacity of other renewable energy sources is limited. Small hydro facilities can be integrated into existing irrigation structures, flood control and dams. Because existing structures are used, adding generating capacity only requires the construction of small engineering works. Small hydro production has an important role to play in providing electricity In Canada, hydroelectric generation can provide clean electricity and a source of income to many remote communities that would otherwise be forced to rely on diesel generation. Hydroelectric energy is a proven technology, and hydroelectric stations have a long life
  23. 23. DISADVANTAGES OF HYDROPOWER • • • • • Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high standard. The high cost of dam construction means that they must operate for many decades to become profitable. The flooding of large areas of land means that the natural environment is destroyed. In some countries, people are forcibly removed so that hydropower schemes can go ahead. The building of large dams can cause serious geological damage. For example, the building of the Hoover Dam in the USA triggered a number of earth quakes and has depressed the earth’s surface at its location.