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  2. 2. HYDRO POwER  Hydro-power or water power is power derived from the energy of falling water and running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Kinetic energy of flowing water (when it moves from higher potential to lower potential) rotates the blades/propellers of turbine, which rotates the axle. The axle has a coil which is placed between the magnets. When the coils rotate in magnetic field it induce them in the coil due to change in flux. Hence, kinetic energy of flowing water is converted to electrical energy.
  3. 3. HYDRO POwER  Since ancient times, hydro-power has been used for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as watermills, sawmills, textile mills, dock cranes, domestic lifts, power houses and paint making.  Since the early 20th century, the term has been used almost exclusively in conjunction with the modern development of hydroelectric power, which allowed use of distant energy sources. Another method used to transmit energy used a trompe, which produces compressed air from falling water. Compressed air could then be piped to power other machinery at a distance from the waterfall. Hydro power is a renewable energy source.  Water's power is manifested in hydrology, by the forces of water on the riverbed and banks of a river. When a river is in flood, it is at its most powerful, and moves the greatest amount of sediment. This higher force results in the removal of sediment and other material from the riverbed and banks of the river, locally causing erosion, transport and, with lower flow, sedimentation downstream.
  4. 4. USES Of HYDRO POwER •A primary use of hydropower energy is to produce electricity. The main ingredients of hydroelectric power plants are dams, rivers and turbines. Plants use dams to create reservoirs where the water is stored. This water is then released through turbines and spun to activate generators and create electricity. The first hydropower electrical systems were developed in the 19th century and used direct current technology to light Michigan theaters and shops. America also spearheaded the use of alternating current technology in the world's first hydroelectric plant in Wisconsin in 1882. One of the major advantages of hydropower plants to the wider community is that by law the facilities must be open to the public, and many plants offer a wide range of recreations including swimming, fishing and boating. The largest American operator of hydroelectric power plants is the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The Corps's 75 bases have an installed capacity of 23,764 megawatts -- that's 24 percent of the nation's electricity output. The Corps is also the biggest federal operator of outdoor leisure activities in the country, providing 33 percent of all freshwater fishing opportunities and 15 percent of boating facilities. There are thousands of boat launch ramps and 20 annual fishing tournaments at their largest parks and lakes. The Army Corps is also committed to preserving a healthy stock of fish.
  5. 5. ImPORTANT HYDRO POwER STATIONS IN INDIA Narora Atomic Power Station Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Tarapur Atomic Power Station Kakrapar Atomic Power Station Madras Atomic Power Station Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant Madras Atomic Power Station
  6. 6. Water recycling is a generic term for water reclamation and reuse, where the resulting water is referred to as recycled water. This term will be used throughout this document, but you might also  find a number of other terms used in the water industry. These include: • Water reclamation • Water recycling • Water reuse • Wastewater • Sewage effluent • Reclaimed water • Grey water
  7. 7. . Physical processes are the first step in the water recycling process.  Raw sewage passes through bar screens which are simply metal rods immersed in the influent flow to separate large objects such as sticks and rags from the water.  They are used to protect pumps and other rotating mechanisms further in the treatment process.  After the water passes through bar screens, it enters a grit chamber.  Here the influent flow is slowed so that sand and gravel simply fall to the bottom of the chamber.  Primary clarifiers allow further slowing of the wastewater so that settle able organics precipitate to the bottom while fats, oils, and greases float to the top.  These physical processes remove approximately half of the contaminants in wastewater
  8. 8. The cost of reclaimed water exceeds that of potable water in many regions of the world, where a fresh water supply is plentiful. However, reclaimed water is usually sold to citizens at a cheaper rate to encourage its use. As fresh water supplies become limited from distribution costs, increased population demands, or climate change reducing sources, the cost ratios will evolve also. Using reclaimed water for non-potable uses saves potable water for drinking, since less potable water will be used for non-potable uses. It sometimes contains higher levels of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen which may somewhat help fertilize garden and agricultural plants when used for irrigation. The usage of water reclamation decreases the pollution sent to sensitive environments. It can also enhance wetlands, which benefits the wildlife depending on that eco-system. 
  9. 9. VIDHI KANDOI X-D B114084140225
  10. 10. Water Conservation  Water can be conserved mainly in two ways  Rainwater Harvesting  Watershed Management System
  11. 11.  Rainwater harvesting   Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. Uses include water for garden, water for livestock, water for irrigation, and indoor heating for houses etc.. In many places the water collected is just redirected to a deep pit with percolation. The harvested water can be used as drinking water as well as for storage and other purpose like irrigation.  Advantages Rainwater harvesting provides an independent water supply during regional water restrictions and in developed countries is often used to supplement the main supply. It provides water when there is a drought, prevents flooding of low-lying areas, replenishes the ground water level, and enables dug wells and bore wells to yield in a sustained manner. It also helps in the availability of clean water by reducing the salinity and the presence of iron salts. Makes use of a natural resource and reduces flooding, storm water , erosion, and contamination of surface water with pesticides, sediment, metals, and fertilizers.
  12. 12. In the state of Tamil Nadu, rainwater harvesting was made compulsory for every building to avoid ground water depletion. It proved excellent results within five years, and every other state took it as role model. Since its implementation, Chennai saw a 50 percent rise in water level in five years and the water quality significantly improved. In Rajasthan, rainwater harvesting has traditionally been practiced by the people of the Thar Desert. There are many ancient water harvesting systems in Rajasthan, which have now been revived Water harvesting systems are widely used in other areas of Rajasthan as well, for example the chauka system from the Jaipur district. At present, in Pune(in Maharashtra), rainwater harvesting is compulsory for any new society to be registered. An attempt has been made at Dept. of Chemical Engineering, IISc, Bangalore  to harvest rainwater using upper surface of a solar still, which was used for water distillation
  13. 13. Watershed management Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within a watershed boundary .Features of a watershed that agencies seek to manage include water supply, water quality, drainage, storm water runoff, water right, and the overall planning and utilization of watersheds. Landowners, land use agencies , storm water management experts, environmental specialists, water use surveyors and communities all play an integral part in the management of a watershed.
  14. 14. VIDHI KANDOI XD  B114084140225  EcONOmIc DEVElOpmENt prOjEct
  15. 15.     Sustainable development Sustainable development  is an organising principle for human life on a finite planet. It posits a desirable future state for human societies in which living conditions and resource-use meet human needs without undermining the sustainability of natural systems and the environment, so that future generations may also meet their needs. Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social and economic challenges faced by humanity. As early as the 1970s, 'sustainability' was employed to describe an economy "in equilibrium with basic ecological support systems."Scientists in many fields have highlighted  The Limits to Growth and economists have presented alternatives, for example a 'steady state economy  to address concerns over the impacts of expanding human development on the planet. The term 'sustainable development' rose to significance after it was used by the Brundtland Commission in its 1987 report Our Common Future. In the report, the commission coined what has become the most oftenquoted definition of sustainable development: "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." The concept of sustainable development has in the past most often been broken out into three constituent domains: environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and social sustainability. However, many other possible ways to delineate the concept have been suggested. For example, distinguishing the four domains of economic, ecological, political and cultural sustainability.[Other important sources refer to the fourth domain as 'institutional'  or as 'good governance.' 
  16. 16. SuStAINABIlIty Of GrOuNDwAtEr      Groundwater provides a significant proportion of rural dwellers in the developing countries with access to safe drinking water and will continue to do so in the future. Groundwater is fairly ubiquitous, but its conditions vary enormously and exploitation is often undertaken with limited understanding of hydrogeology and without sufficient evaluation of the resource. In some places, heavy water use for agriculture has led to over-abstraction and placed groundwater out of the reach of domestic users as water tables have fallen. There are also regions where groundwater quality is not fit for human consumption (e.g. due to a high level of arsenic, fluoride, iron or nitrates, or contamination from human impacts such as poor sanitation, oil spills or chemicals). The objective of the Sustainable Groundwater Development theme is: Groundwater resources are properly considered and sustainably used for developing drinking water supply sources. The theme has three sub-topics: Hand pump Technology Cost Effective Boreholes (includes machine drilling and manual drilling) Cost Effective Water Resource Management
  17. 17. Political Development Project on Popular Struggle related to H2O Resources By Vidhi kandoi XD B114084140225
  18. 18. Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting of adivasis, farmers environmentalists, and human rights activists against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada river. The river flows through the states of Gujarat, , and Madhya Pradesh in India. Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat is one of the biggest dams on the river and was one of the first focal points of the movement. Friends of River Narmada is the unofficial website of the NBA. Their mode of campaign includes hunger strikes and garnering support from film and art personalities (notably Bollywood actor Aamir Khan). Narmada Bachao Andolan, with its leading spokespersons Medha Patkar and Baba Amte, received
  19. 19. Through Patkar's channel of communication between the government and the residents, she provided critiques to the project authorities and the governments involved. At the same time, her group realized that all those displaced were only given compensation for the immediate standing crop and not for displacement and rehabilitation. As Patkar remained immersed in the Narmada struggle, she chose to quit her Ph.D. studies and focus entirely on the Narmada activity. Thereafter, she organized a 36-day solidarity march among the neigh boring states of the Narmada valley from Madhya Pradesh to the Sardar Sarovar dam site. She said that the march was "a path symbolizing the long path of struggle (both immediate and long-term) that [they] really had". The march was resisted by the police, who according to Patkar were "caning the marchers and arresting them and tearing the clothes off women activists". There were groups such as Gujarat-based Arch-Vahini (Action Research in Community Health and Development) and Narmada Asargrastha Samiti (Committee for people affected by the Narmada dam), Madhya Pradesh-based Narmada Ghati Nav Nirman Samiti (Committee for a new life in the Narmada Valley) and Maharashtra-based Narmada Dharangrastha Samiti (Committee for Narmada dam-affected people) who either believed in the need for fair rehabilitation plans for the people or who vehemently opposed dam construction despite a resettlement policy. While Medha Patkar established Narmada Bachao Andolan in 1989, all these groups joined this national coalition of environmental and human rights activists, scientists, academics and project-affected people with a non-violent approach.
  20. 20. OUTCOME OFTHE ANDOLAN The Supre me Co urt's de cisio n is still pe nding , se e king sto ppag e o f co nstructio n o f the Sardar Saro var dam. The co urt initially rule d the de cisio n in the A lan's favo r, the re by e ffe cting an imme diate sto ppag e o f wo rk ndo at the dam and dire cting the co nce rne d state s to first co mple te the re habilitatio n and re place me nt pro ce ss. The Co urt de libe rate d o n this issue furthe r fo r se ve ral ye ars but finally uphe ld the Tribunal A ward and allo we d the co nstructio n to pro ce e d, subje ct to co nditio ns. The co urt intro duce d a me chanism to mo nito r the pro g re ss o f re se ttle me nt pari pass with the raising o f the he ig ht o f the dam thro ug h the Grie vance Re dre ssal A ritie s (GRA in e ach o f the party state s. The co urt’ s de cisio n re fe rre d in this do cume nt, g ive n in the ye ar utho ) 20 0 0 afte r se ve n ye ars o f de libe ratio ns, has pave d the way fo r co mple ting the pro je ct to attain full e nvisag e d be ne fits. The co urt's final line o f the o rde r state s, " Eve ry e nde avo ur shall be made to se e that the pro je ct is co mple te d as e xpe ditio usly as po ssible " . [1 3] Subse q ue nt to the co urt’ s ve rdict, Pre ss I rmatio n B au (PI ) fe ature d an article which state s that: nfo ure B " The N armada B achao A lan has re nde re d a ye o man's se rvice to the co untry by cre ating a hig h-le ve l o f ndo aware ne ss abo ut the e nviro nme ntal and re habilitatio n and re lie f aspe cts o f Sardar Saro var and o the r pro je cts o n the N armada. B afte r the co urt ve rdict it is incumbe nt o n it to ado pt a ne w ro le . I ad o f ut, nste 'damning the dam' any lo ng e r, it co uld assume the ro le o f vig ilant o bse rve r to se e that the re se ttle me nt wo rk is as humane and painle ss as po ssible and that the e nviro nme ntal aspe cts are take n due care o f. "
  21. 21. VIDHI KANDOI X-D B114084140225
  22. 22. Hardwater Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water"). Hard drinking water is generally not harmful to one's health, but can pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that handles water. In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack of suds formation when soap is agitated in water, and by the formation of lime scale in kettles and water heaters. Wherever water hardness is a concern, water softening is commonly used to reduce hard water's adverse effects.
  23. 23. Soft water  Water softening is the removal of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations in hard water. The resulting soft water is more compatible with soap and extends the lifetime of plumbing. Water softening is usually achieved using lime softening or ion-exchange resins.  The presence of certain metal ions in water causes a variety of problems. These ions interfere with the action of soaps. They also lead to build up of lime scale, which can foul plumbing, and promote galvanic corrosion . In industrial scale water softening plants, the effluent flow from the re-generation process can precipitate scale that can interfere with sewage systems.
  24. 24. Types Of Hardness  Temporary Hardness  Temporary hardness is a type of water hardness caused by the presence of dissolved bicarbonate minerals (calcium bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate). When dissolved these minerals yield calcium and magnesium cations (Ca2+, Mg2+) and carbonate and bicarbonate anions (CO32-, HCO3-). The presence of the metal cations makes the water hard. However, unlike the permanent hardness caused by sulphate and chloride compounds, this "temporary" hardness can be reduced either by boiling the water, or by the addition of lime (calcium hydroxide) through the softening process of lime softening  Permanent Hardness Permanent hardness is hardness (mineral content) that cannot be removed by boiling. When this is the case, it is usually caused by the presence of calcium sulphate and/or magnesium sulphates in the water, which do not precipitate out as the temperature increases. Ions causing permanent hardness of water can be removed using a water softener or ion exchange column . Total Permanent Hardness = Calcium Hardness + Magnesium Hardness The calcium and magnesium hardness is the concentration of calcium and magnesium ions expressed as equivalent of calcium carbonate . Total permanent water hardness expressed as equivalent of CaCO3 can be calculated with the following formula: Total Permanent Hardness (CaCO 3) = 2.5(Ca2+) + 4.1(Mg2+)
  25. 25. Effects of hard water   Hard water also forms deposits that clog plumbing. These deposits, called "scale", are composed mainly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2), and calcium sulphate (CaSO 4). Calcium and magnesium carbonates tend to be deposited as off-white solids on the inside surfaces of pipes and heat exchangers. This precipitation (formation of an insoluble solid) is principally caused by thermal decomposition of bicarbonate ions but also happens to some extent even without such ions. The resulting build-up of scale restricts the flow of water in pipes. In boilers, the deposits impair the flow of heat into water, reducing the heating efficiency and allowing the metal boiler components to overheat. In a pressurized system, this overheating can lead to failure of the boiler.[ The damage caused by calcium carbonate deposits varies on the crystalline form, for example, calcite or aragonite. The presence of ions in an electrolyte, in this case, hard water, can also lead to galvanic corrosion, in which one metal will preferentially corrode when in contact with another type of metal, when both are in contact with an electrolyte. The softening of hard water by ion exchange does not increase its corrosivity  per se. Similarly, where lead plumbing is in use, softened water does not substantially increase plumbo-solvency.
  26. 26. S NK R FO HA T UR E YO IM T