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LEARNING

LEARNING

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  • 1. LEARNING Prof. James Grasparil
  • 2. WHAT IS LEARNING?
  • 3. LEARNING- A RELATIVELY PERMANENTCHANGE IN THE BEHAVIOR THATOCCURS AS A RESULT OFPRACTICE OR EXPERIENCE.
  • 4. ESSENTIAL ASPECT OF THISDEFINITION•The term learning does not apply to temporarychange in the behavior.•It does not refer to changes resulting frommaturation or biological influence.•Can result from vicarious as well as from directexperience.•Changes produce by learning is not alwayspositive
  • 5. NATURE OF LEARNING•Essential for survival ( Non Scholae Sed Vitae )•Learning takes place without realizing that weare learning.
  • 6. ESSENTIAL ASPECT OF THELEARNING PROCESS1. Motivation2. Goal3. Readiness4. Obstacle5. Responses
  • 7. THE EARLIEST THEORY OF LEARNINGPlato and Aristotle were called rationalistbecause they emphasized the role of the mind inacquiring knowledge.Plato- believed in nativism that the knowledge isinherited and is therefore natural or an innatecomponent of the human mind.Aristotle-was called empiricist, since he focusedon sensory information as the basis ofknowledge.
  • 8. LAW OF ASSOCIATION BY ARISTOTLELAW OF SIMILARITY-RECALL OF SIMILAROBJECT.LAW OF CONTRAST-RECALL OF OPPOSITEOBJECT.LAW OF CONTIGUITY- RECALL OF ANACTIVITY WHICH IS FREQUENTLY RELATEDWITH THE PREVIOUS ONE.
  • 9. ASSOCIATION THEORY-AROSE FROM ARISTOTELIAN POINT OF VIEW-EDWARD LEE THORNDIKE,FORMULATED THEBASIC CONCEPT OF THE MODERN ASSOCIATIONTHEORY SHORTLY THE 1900,HIS THEORY ISKNOWN AS CONNECTIONISM THEORY ORSTIMULUS RESPONSE THEORY.WHY S-R THEORY?-ACCORDING TO THORNDIKE HUMAN ACTIVITYIS BASED ON ASSOCIATION BETWEENSTIMULUS AND RESPONSE.
  • 10. PRINCIPLES OF CONNECTIONISMLAW OF READINESS-STATES THAT WHEN A PERSON IS PREPARED TORESPOND,GIVING THE RESPONSE IS SATISFYING ANDBEING PREVENTED FROM DOING SO IS ANNOYING.LAW OF EXERCISE-STATES THAT CONSTANT REPETITION OF RESPONSESTRENGTHENS ITS CONNECTTION WITH THE STIMULUSAND DISUSE OF RESPONSE WEAKENS IT.LAW OF EFFECT-STATES THAT LEARNING IS STRENGHTEN IF THE RESULTLEADS TO SATISFACTION,BUT WEAKENS IF LEAD TOANNOYANCE.
  • 11. CONDITIONING THEORYWHAT IS CONDITIONING?
  • 12. CONDITIONING-THE TYPE OF LEARNING INVOLVINGSTIMULUS-RESPONSE CONNECTIONS,INWHICH THE RESPONSE IS CONDITIONALON THE STIMULUS.
  • 13. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING ORRESPONDENT CONDITIONINGPROPONENT: IVAN PETROVICHPAVLOV (1849-1936)WHAT IS CLASSICAL CONDITIONING?LEARNING A RESPONSE TO ANEUTRAL STIMULUS WHEN THATNEUTRAL STIMULUS IS PAIRED WITH ASTIMULUS THAT CAUSES A REFLEXRESPONSE.
  • 14. VARIABLES OF CALSSICALCONDITIONING1.NEUTRAL STIMULUS-AN EXTERNALSTIMULUS THAT DOES NOT ORDINARILYCAUSES A REFLEX RESPOONSE OR ANEMOTIONAL RESPONSE.2.UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS-ANY STIMULUS THAT CAUSES A REFLEXRESPONSE OR EMOTIONAL RESPONSEWITHOUT THE NECESSITY OF LAERNINGAND CONDITIONING.
  • 15. 3.UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE-THE REFLEX RESPONSE EVOKE BYSTIMULUS WITHOUT THE NECESSITY OFLEARNING.4.CONDITIONED STIMULUS-A PREVIOUSLY NEUTRAL STIMULUS THATTHROUGH CONDITIONING NOW CAUSES ACLASSICALLY CONDITIONED RESPONSE.5.CONDITIONED RESPONSE-A LEARENED RESPONSE TO A PREVIOUSLYNEUTRAL STIMULUS THAT HAS BEENASSOCIATED WITH THE STIMULUSTHROUGH REPEATED PAIRING.
  • 16. PRINCIPLES OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING1.STIMULUS GENERALIZATION-THIS PROCESSOCCURS WHEN THE CONDITIONED RESPONSEIS NOT ONLY ELICITED BY THE ORIGINALCONDITIONED STIMULUS,BY ANOTHERSTIMULUS SIMILAR TO CONDITIONED STIMULUS.2.DISCRIMUNATION-GIVING A LEARENEDRESPONSE ONLY TO A SINGLE SPECIFICOBJECT.3.EXTINCTION-ALSO KNOWN AS UNLEARNING4.SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY-THE RESPONSETHAT HAD BEEN LEARNED AND THENEXTINGUISH AND RE APPEARED WITHOUTLEARNING.
  • 17. OPERANT CONDITIONING-IS A TYPE OF LEARNING FOR WHICHTHE CONSEQUENCE THAT FOLLOW THEBEHAVIOR IS STRENGHTENED ORWEAKENED THROUGHREINFORCEMENT. NO REINFORCEMENTWILL OCCUR UNTIL THE SUBJECTMAKES THE REQUIRED RESPONSE OROPERATES ON THE ENVIRONMENT.HENCE, THE ORGANISM PLAYS ANACTIVE ROLE IN THE LEARNINGPROCESS.
  • 18. REINFORCERMENT-ANY ACTION OR EVENTTHAT INCREASES THE PROBABILITY THAT ARESPONSE WILL BE REPEATED.TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT1. PRIMARY REINFORCEMENT-STIMULI THATINCREASE THE PROBABILITY OF A RESPONSEAND WHOSE VALUE DOES NOT NEED TO BELEARNED, SUCH AS FOOD,WATER,SEX.- IT IS INNATELY REINFORCING.2. SECONDARY REINFORCEMENT-STIMULI THATINCREASE THE PROBABILITY OF A RESPONSEAND WHOSE REINFORCING PROPERTIES ARELEARNED, SUCH AS MONEY AND MATERIALPOSSESSIONS.-NOT INNATELY REINFORCING.
  • 19. 3. POSITIVE REINFORCER-REINFORCEMENT IN WHICH A STIMULUSIS GIVEN OR ADDED THAT IS DESIRABLETO THE SUBJECT.4. NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT-REINFORCEMENT IN WHICH A PAINFULOR ANNOYING STIMULUS IS TAKEN AWAY.(IT IS CALLED REINFORCER IF ITCHANGES THE OPERANT RATE OF THEINDIVIDUAL;IF IT IS INEFFECTIVE,IT ISNON-REINFORCER)
  • 20. PUNISHMENT-ANY ACTION OR EVENTTHAT DECREASE THE LIKEHOOD OF ARESPONSE BEING REPEATED.TYPES OF PUNISHMENT1. POSITIVE PUNISHMENT-PUNISHMENTIN WHICH AS AVERSIVE OR UNDESIRABLESTIMULI IS APPLIED TO DECREASE ARESPONSE.2. NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT-PUNISHMENTIN WHICH A DESIRED STIMULUS ISREMOVED TO DECREASE A RESPONSE.
  • 21. SIDE EFFECTS OF PUNISHMENT-PUNISHMENT CAN HELP DECREASEUNWANTED BEHAVIOR, BUT IT ALSO HASSERIOUS SIDE EFFECTS AND SHOULDTHEREFORE BE AVOIDED IF POSSIBLE.-MAJOR SIDE EFFECT OF PUNISHMENT ISITS TENDENCY TO LEAD TOFRUSTRATION IN THE PERSON ORANIMAL BEING PUNISHED,WHICH CANLEAD TO ANGER AND EVENTUALLYAGGRESSION.